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Такая хуйняБ братишки: 33 левел, упарывал как хотел и что хотел,НО держался в рамках социума. Жена, ребенок, хард в прошлом, так дудон по-выходным. А потом пришла легалка и порушила меня к ебеням, ну немогу не курнуть!Всё похуй срусь с супругой почти каждый день, регулярность употребления достигла каждодневности. Отхаркиваю чёрную хуйню, организм измотан - постоянное чувство недосыпа, хотя под спайсом полудремлю. Не могу бросить, старался завязать, но допустим неделя проходит и опять марафон. Что делать ночной, подскажи. Измотан как сука.
иди лечись или пиздец тебе
Я думал об этом, куда идти-то?
к наркологу конечно, можно анонимно
Эта проблема решается очень просто - тебе нужно отдавать кому-нибудь, например мне, все свои деньги. Нет денег - нет спайса - нет зависимости! Профит!
А КАК Ж ЛОМКА!?!?
Не хочу на учёт, да и релашку не хочу. У нас очень сурово лечат
Блять, а как ты заставляешь себя пойти курить?
Я вот во вторник долбанул, в пятницу долбанул, больше нету, можно попросить у добрых людей, они дадут, но я не иду и не прошу, хотя мог бы. ЧЯДНТ?
Заебись, что посмешил и тебя с наступающим! Вот жаль, что это правда
Ломка, хуёмка, какая разница. Денег-то нет! Захочешь употребить, а нечего.
Я хорошо зарабатываю, хватило бы на всех
Надо чтонибудь из дома продать
>>40644276>Такая хуйняБ братишки: 33 левел
Какие ж мы тебе братишки, батя. Мы тебе сынишки. Чего ты тут забыл-то в таком почтенном возрасте.
А я просто как-то делю бюджет, ставлю цели какие-то, стараюсь не срываться на спайсы, поэтому обычно меня угощают. Это даже не спайс, скорее спайсовый гашиш, или как-то так.
Есть у меня деньги и продается это дерьмо в дс на каждом шагу, мне смс штук по десять в день сыпится с ВЫГОДНЫМИ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯМИ
Ну так я и говорю, что нужно просто деньги мне отдать.
Всегда был на бордах, где ещё спросить? Не шучу
Как можно курить это говно, считаю оно только школьникам может нравится самому нравилось в лет 17-18 лол
Начни упарывать натур.продукт, потом слезешь.
Есть ещё что-нибудь в репертуаре? Я,бля не знаю что делать, иногда получается пивком снятся, но это максимум на 3-4 дня помогает
Блять, ну кому-то синячить нравится, кому-то натуральная трава, а кому-то ПРЕХОДИТСЯ
курить спайсы, я живу в пиздец мухосранске на натуралку не выйти никак, а спайсы будто самосвалами возят, но курю редко
Ты шутишь, хуйню попробывал ну где-то 1,5 года назад и последний год она меня полностью захватила
Ну а что тебе еще сказать-то, отец? Переламывай себя, будь мужиком. Нет такого волшебного способа, чтобы раз - и снялся.
Хуй, я всегда курил отличнийший гидрач, после гадости не вставляет даже
Назови город, вдруг мы из одного, я бы тебе продал.
33 левел, а ума нет. Легалка же для обоссаных школьников.
Ок, поясню масштабы бедствия. Я не покупаю больше 0,5 рассыпухи, поскольку будет больше-скурю больше
А я вот попробовал один раз гидру, а мои полуёбки друзья бегали рядом и смеялись ХА, У НЕГО ПЕРЕДОЗ
, СМОТРИТЕ, ЮЗЕРНЕЙМУ ПИЗДЕЦ
, СДЕЛАЙ СЕРЬЁЗНОЕ ЛИЦО
, а я вообще нихуя не понимал и просил отъебаться
Ну, ДС же я же писал
Ололо, не туда ответил, Отец
Ебать ты умный, сам-то небось профессор-профессорсен
Жри глицин, снимайся с кумаров. 5 лет на китайских канабиоидах
Братюнь у меня в 20 лет были качели 100 грибов на 20 трамала, я если гидру курю, по мне хуй скажешь
Блять, бросаю срочно легалку и прочий говёный стафф, вдруг такую же хуйню нести буду. Спасибо тебе, анон, ты избавил меня от зависимости.
Я с кумаров и пивом могу сняться, но потом опять, сука, несёт
А ты думал, как оно? Стал бы я флудить. Сижу у компа и заснуть не могу (типа держусь)
Я как ебанул его один раз, так и забил хуй. Слишком уж он выносит. По мне, так лучше доброй шулвухи взять, да и покурить, хоть в компании, хоть в одну харю
Да просто выгони её из дома, вместе с ребенком.
Тоже мне, проблема.
cipralex 10 mg 5 с утра 5 вечером
fluanxol 0,5 с утра
30левел кун, тоже долбил ДЖАВАШ больше нода, потом как то слез и всё, не было ни ломок ничего подобного, просто не покупай же и всё.
Спайсогаш доставялет больше, не убивает в говно и прёт всего от 40 минут до часа
19лвл, не мог пробить травы, и купил эту хуйню, уже две недели марафон сука, под новый год запасся ещё я пидорас, я уже свою печень чувствую. вот траву курнул и зависаешь, всё, а эта хуйня постоянно догнаться просит. мне хуево от мысли, что я точно не знаю, что там и как влияет на организм, может у меня завтра член отвалится. пишу вот упоротым.
Два чаю адеквату.
ОП придумал зависимость на ровном месте.
Какую вы блядь гидру всё пробуете уёбки? Гидра это не сорт блядь и она ни чем не отличается по воздействию от не гидры
От настоящей? Я не знал, братишка, я просто на спайсах сижу, ага.
Это да, быстро так, минут 30-40 всего прёт то.
А потом сразу отпускать начинает, ну я когда крил просто...
Как ты подсел-то, лолка? Это же хуйня полная. Короче, слушай сюда.
Тебе необходимо выращивать дома нормальную шмаль. Благодаря её ты быстренько соскочишь с этого говна.
И я о том же, постоянное чувство, что нужно догнаться
пива попей и пиздуй к наркологу - таблеток выпишет какихнить, будешь дальше торчать
Красиво выебнулся, трава на гидропонической почве содержит больше активного вещества. Устраивает?
На хуевном, ты думаешь я глумлюсь что-ли?
Гидропоника это способ выращивания растений без земли, на воде. Я сам два года на химии сидел курил по 10 и более раз в сутки
Ну, спайсового гашиша загнали в бутылку, блядь Ну, в бутылку С одним одноклассником Ну, а потом пошаталися! Быстро так, мы десять минут всего шатались-то А у меня потом, блядь, сушняк сразу начался хороший сушняк был, я, ну, когда шатался просто
Только в твоих фантазиях
Антидепресант и успокаивающее? Is it real? Откуда инфа?
Нет, но ты просто параноик, или хуже!
Вы хоть читаете прежде чем писать? После химии не прет ваще епт! Уж не знаю как сказать. Или вас с пятки выносит?
Их выносит, меня нет, а вот с химии слезть легко, но на другое не перейдёшь уже, скорее всего, может только через пару лет.
А теперь расскажи мне как в земле добится такого-же уровня THC
Быдло, упарывающее протухшим калом должно страдать. То ли дело кокаин.
Да какой тебе в роиссе кокаин, небось говна насыплют и радуешься, объебосина?
Он от сорта зависит, ебанько
Устрой себе подводную лодку. Ключи отдай товарищам, набери еды, бухла, обычного гарика, натурпродуктовского и недели на три зависни, если время есть. Поначалу будешь хуярить, потом спать много. После всего этого на восстановление.
Без напрягов, без стрессов, вечером прогулки в парке, ложись в 11 вечера, вставай в 7. Еда сбалансирована, через пару месяцев иди на плавание, через полгода упарывай легкий бег. Пива немного и дунуть натура - раз в месяц, не чаще. Спайс не бери, пропадешь.
Я и создавал тред в надежде на адекватный ответ, НУ А ЧЁ ТАМ СЛЕЗАТЬ-ТО- это не то что я хотел прочитать
Ты знаешь, то что в дс в кокаин добавляется конская сперма?
Как хорошо что я в ДС2.
Ну попизди, потешь себя. Тот же сорт, разные способы=разное кол-во THC
А хули ты думал? Поэтому бизнес спайса и течет столь успешно.
Это еще что, я сам чуть передоза не хапанул, схавав эссенции спайса. думал, уж и кони двину, но нет, вроде норм, живой еще. Правда флешбеки замучали.
А своего сына к эссенции на пушечный выстрел не подпущу.
Так ведь НУ А ЧЁ ТАМ СЛЕЗАТЬ-ТО
, я могу взять сколько угодно, у меня есть деньги, могу взять бесплатно, но что-то как-то нихуя не иду и не беру.
Жаль, очень жаль
Ловко конечно, а работу я типо просто сливаю?
Сделай фото глаз.
С глазами необратимый пиздец выявили при постоянном употреблении спайсов. Нужно узнать, прошел ли ты черту невозврата или нет.
Да не думал я ни хуя. Пробывал до этого практически всё, я же писал, но вот конкретно эта дрянь меня захватила
Значит хуёво на земле выращиваешь так как на гидре легче. И вообще речь шла о том что неправильно говорить "курнул гидры" так как это не сорт травы
Ну напиши ещё как ты отжимаешься.
Какая ломка, лолка? Ломка - это от опиатов, когда зубами готов прогрызть цементобетонную стену от боли, а от каннабиоидов лишь так, привычка. Причём, гораздо легче, чем к сигаретам и онанизму.
Хорошо, что мне такая хуйня не грозит, ибо я мнительный дохуя и на измену с обычной травы выхожу.
А ОПу посоветую обратиться в частную клинику, где все анонимно и никакого учета. Просто нужно признаться себе, что сам ты завязать не в состоянии или в состоянии?
и довериться профессионалам.
Подробнее, плз. Я обычно капли юзал
Я раньше когда курил ещё нормально, я каждый день 20 раз отжимался до обеда, двадцать раз отжимался
Ладно буду подписываться. У меня психологическая зависимость, понимаешь, причем жуткая. ОП
А как надо говорить, гидранул немножечко поники?
, или как? Блять, ну дебил, сука.
Какие, нахуй, выгодные предложения. Это говно от силы 0.5% стоит от его стоимости. Его продают раз в 200 дороже, чем оно обходится в производстве. Хочешь дешевле - покупай дживиаш у китайцев, можешь через "Шёлковый путь". А шанс попасться на контрабанде заставит тебя задуматься о целесообразности этого поступка.
Приятно тебе походу жить в мире где в частной клинике охуенно лечат, завидую. ОП
В зависимости от того что ты куришь, уебан тупой. Например "покурил шишек".
Гениально блять. Как это я сам не додумался?
Бро, может ты и с головой, но мне ты посоветовал вместо пива спирт покупать, в чём прикол? ОП
Химик, вернись! Ты правда считаешь, что это поможет? ОП
Оп - тупорылый школьник, который просадил все карманные деньги на говнолегалку и боится, что его запалят, но бросить не может.Мимо олдфаг из /bb/
Потому что ты тупой, это же очевидно. Ведь это всё равно что взять помидоры выращенные гидропонным способом и говорить "я вчера салат с гидрой схавал, охуенно!".
Красава, потешил себя? ОП
Жуткая бывает именно от того, о чём я писал выше. А от сахара и алкоголя в 10 раз страшнее, так как от последних двух люди умирают при отказе от вещества.
А ты просто бездельник, которому занять себя нечем. Запишись в качалку, сходи с семьёй в поход на лыжах, съезди в Тайланд, там сейчас как раз самый сезон отдыха, а намутить за рубежом негде и с собой не повезёшь Да мало ли что..
Кстати, как лёгкие и сердце? Не возражают? А это уже повод отказаться.
Ну, о чём вы у нас и гидрой и даже щуксом обзывали хорошие бессемянные бошки, какая разница? ОП
Да ну блять, ты если в кругу таких же уебков говоришь, что ты поники покурил - все тебя понимают, а другим это просто не обязательно рассказывать, можно вообще говорить Я ВЧЕРА ТРАВЫ ПОКУРИЛ
, вот им не похуй, прикинь?
Я упарывал амфетос по вене, мне похуй на сердце и на организм в целом. Ещё раз напишу: у меня не было марафонов никогда. НИКОГДА. А эту хуйню я победить не могу, постоянно хочется, сука
Никакой, это и есть обычные бошки. Просто дегенераты считаю что гидра круче
Я не понял суть твоего поста
т.е. ты когда то хватил лишка этого говна, а флэшбэки до сих пор? напиши пример. опиши эффекты, которые испытывал от передоза. они у всех конечно одинаковые, я думаю, но все же интересно услышать, если у тебя затяжные флешбэки такие
Разрывы сетчатки были? У меня от спайсов сердце хуярит сильно, наверное же и внутриглазное повышается.
ОП, торчал на этой химке 4 года. не курю больше 3х месяцев и есть желание упороть
А мне постоянно трахаться хочется, но никто не даёт. :(
Так и живу в состоянии перманентной ломки. Нахуй так жить, котаны.
А я ведь и впрямь просил совета Антоний. А получил бла-бла тред. Химик испарился, а все остальные, кто поумничал, ну а кто как обычно.. Суть до безобразия проста-я сел на это гавно и не знаю что делать. Да, при этом я упарывал разное, но не системно, а тут пиздец, даже со сном проблемы начались
Вопрос ДРОЧИШЬ НЕБОСЬ
Niky Wardley is an English actress. She trained at the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art.
One of her best known parts was in The Catherine Tate Show as Lauren Cooper&#39;s best friend Lisa Jackson, as well as other parts during the series.
1 Selected credits
2 External links
At The National Theatre: Much Ado About Nothing
For the Royal Shakespeare Company: A Servant to Two Masters
The Three Sisters
Our Countrys Good
At West Yorkshire Playhouse:Bedroom Farce
Doctor Who: playing Tamsin Drew, companion to the Eighth Doctor in audio dramas from Big Finish Productions
The Life of Riley
The Catherine Tate Show
The Complete Guide to Parenting
Royal Variety Show
The Family Man
Rosemary & Thyme
The History of the Novel
The Hidden City
How Not to Live Your Life
Parents of the Band
All The Small Things
In with the Flynns
The Affair of the Necklace
Niky Wardley at the Internet Movie Database
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Ну и как соскочил? Только не говори, что деньги кончились. В моем случае этого не произойдет. ОП
U Minh is a rural district (huyn) of Cђ Mau Province in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. As of 2003, the district had a population of 91,438. The district covers an area of 764 kmb. The district capital lies at U Minh.
U Minh is famous for its salty mangroves. It is the site of a large gas and electricity facility for the region in Kh‘nh An commune. Transport in the district is mainly through waterways, as it is in a river delta region, and roads are poorly developed. A 14-km-long, 2-lane paved road connects U Minh district with Cђ Mau City. Along with nearby U Minh Th`ng, U Minh is known for its forests.
It is located on Vietnam&#39;s western coast on the Cђ Mau Peninsula, abutting the Gulf of Thailand. It is bordered by U Minh Th`ng District to the north in Kiљn Giang Province, and the districts of Trn Vіn Thi to the south and Thi Bњnh to the east.
The terrain is mostly flat floodplains, and is salty.
The district is divided into communes:
U Minh, Nguyn Phќch, Kh‘nh Hi, Kh‘nh Hўa, Kh‘nh Tin, Kh‘nh L’m, Kh‘nh An.
^ a b "Districts of Vietnam". Statoids. Retrieved March 13, 2009.
Coordinates: 9.417`N 104.917`E
Flag of Vietnam Districts of the Mekong Delta Region
An Giang Province
Bac Lieu Province
Ben Tre Province
Mo Cay Bac
Mo Cay Nam
Ca Mau Province
Tran Van Thoi
Dong Thap Province
Hong Ngu Town
Hong Ngu District
Hau Giang Province
Chau Thanh A
Kien Giang Province
U Minh Thuong
Long An Province
Soc Trang Province
Cu Lao Dung
Tien Giang Province
Go Cong Dong
Go Cong Tay
Tan Phu Dong
Tra Vinh Province
Vinh Long Province
Stub icon This article about a location in Cђ Mau Province, Vietnam is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Roman Serhiyovich Talan (Ukrainian: Роман Сергiйович Талан; born February 4, 1988 in Dnipropetrovsk) is a Ukrainian pair skater. With partner Ekaterina Kostenko, he is the 2009 Ukrainian national champion and 2008 & 2010 bronze medalist. They represented Ukraine at the 2010 Winter Olympics. They teamed up when she was 21 years old and he 17.
Before teaming up with Kostenko, Talan competed with Julia Goreeva. They were the 2005 Ukrainian junior silver medalists.
2 Competitive highlights
2.1 With Kostenko
2.2 With Goreeva
4 External links
Season Short program Free skating
by Georges Bizet Moonlight Sonata
by Ludwig van Beethoven
20082009 Music selection
by Yanni Gypsy music medley
20072008 Music selection
by Yanni Gypsy music medley
Season Short program Free skating
2005-2006 Story About Actor Chicago (soundtrack)
by John Kander and Fred Ebb
2004-2005 Circus Dance Polka Chicago (soundtrack)
by John Kander and Fred Ebb
Event 20072008 20082009 20092010 20102011
Winter Olympics 20th
World Championships 22nd
European Championships 13th 18th
Ukrainian Championships 2nd 1st 2nd WD
NRW Trophy 5th
Coupe de Nice 3rd 6th
Winter Universiade 7th
Golden Spin of Zagreb 3rd
WD = Withdrew
Event 20042005 20052006
World Junior Championships 14th 11th
Ukrainian Championships 2nd J.
Junior Grand Prix, Estonia 4th
Junior Grand Prix, Ukraine 7th
J. = Junior level
^ Nikolayenko, Olga (October 4, 2010). "Костенко и Талан: "Сначала тренеры стыдились с нами работать" [Kostenko and Talan: "At first, coaches were embarrassed to work with us"]" (in Russian). iSport.ua.
^ "Ekaterina KOSTENKO / Roman TALAN: 2009/2010". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on July 11, 2010.
^ "Ekaterina KOSTENKO / Roman TALAN: 2008/2009". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009.
^ "Julia GOREEVA / Roman TALAN: 2005/2006". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Roman Talan
Ekaterina Kostenko / Roman Talan at the International Skating Union
Julia Goreeva / Roman Talan at the International Skating Union
Stub icon This article about a Ukrainian figure skater is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
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George Abercromby, 2nd Baron Abercromby (14 October 1770 15 February 1843) was a Scottish lawyer, politician and peer. The eldest son of Lt.-Gen. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Mary Abercromby, 1st Baroness Abercromby, he became, like his grandfather, a lawyer, and was called to the Bar in 1794. On his death in 1843 he was succeeded in the barony by his son.
4 External links
He was a Whig Member of Parliament for Edinburgh, 18051806; and for Clackmannanshire, 18061807 and 18121815. On the death of his mother on 11 February 1821 he succeeded to the title of 2nd Baron Abercromby. He also inherited the estate of Airthrey from his uncle, Robert Abercromby of Airthrey, in 1827. He was Lord Lieutenant of Stirlingshire, 18371843 and, despite his age and illness, greeted Queen Victoria on her progress through Scotland in 1842. Upon his death, he was buried at Tullibody.
He married Hon. Montague Dundas, daughter of Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville and Elizabeth Rennie, in Edinburgh on 25 January 1799 and had issue:
George Ralph Campbell Abercromby, 3rd Baron Abercromby (18001852)
Hon. Montague Abercromby (18071853), married Fox Maule-Ramsay, 11th Earl of Dalhousie (1831)
Hon. Mary Ann Abercromby (18111898), married Col. N.R. Brown (1857)
Gazetteer for Scotland
Hansard 18032005: contributions in Parliament by George Abercromby
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Charles Hope Member of Parliament for Edinburgh
18051806 Succeeded by
Sir Patrick Murray
David Clephane Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire
18061807 Succeeded by
Thomas Graham Member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire and Kinross-shire
18121815 Succeeded by
Sir John Abercromby
The Duke of Montrose Lord Lieutenant of Stirlingshire
18371843 Succeeded by
The Duke of Montrose
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Mary Anne Abercromby Baron Abercromby
18211843 Succeeded by
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Barons in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
Members of the United Kingdom Parliament for Scottish constituencies
UK MPs 18021806
UK MPs 18061807
UK MPs 18121818
Lord-Lieutenants of Stirlingshire
Whig (British political party) MPs
Peerage of the United Kingdom baron stubs
Догадайся с трёх раз. И да, эта зависимость в 100500 раз сильнее, чем от самой гидропонной конопли в квадрате, а "норкотег" доступен в интернете совершенно бесплатно.
Argentina was one of the twelve original signatories of the Antarctic Treaty which was signed in December 1, 1959 and came in force on 21 June 1961.
Argentinas scientific activities started at the beginning of the twentieth century when an Argentine named Josed Marбda Sobral joined the Swedish South Polar Expedition (19011904) commanded by Otto Nordenskjold, which wintered two years in Antarctica. In 1904, W. S. Bruce, leader of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, turned over to Argentina the meteorological and geomagnetic observatory on Laurie Island, South Orkney Island which had been established in the previous year. Since then the observatory has been run by Argentina and is the location of the Orcadas Station. It claims to be the first permanent facility south of 60` Southern latitude.
The Argentine Antarctic Program is composed of several organizations forming the highest levels of the National Government. Logistics are provided by the Argentine Army, under the Defense Ministry, whereas all other activities are ruled by the Direccion Nacional del Antartico Instituto Antadrtico Argentino of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Instituto Antartico Argentino (IAA) was created under the Decree Nj 7338 on April the 17th 1951 and is the first organization in the world to be exclusively devoted to Antarctic research.
Mission, Research and Logistics
The icebreaker Almirante Irizar, the principal supply line for Argentine bases in Antarctica since 1978
The purpose of the Argentine Antarctic Program is to support, strengthen, and increase the Argentine sovereign claims over the portion of the Antarctic continent and surrounding seas from 25W to 74 W and from 60S to the Pole.
The science program is run by the Instituto Antartico Argentino (IAA). The scientific priorities were set according to the National Antarctic Policy to investigate, understand, and preserve natural resources, to protect the environment, and to maintain the historical monuments. IAA is divided into scientific departments grouped into three major areas: Life sciences, Earth sciences, and Ocean and Atmospheric sciences.
The Argentine Navy operates a large icebreaker named Almirante Irizar, an oceanographic vessel (Puerto Deseado) and several smaller patrol vessels. Air operations from South America and within Antarctica is provided by the Argentine Air Force through several C-130 Hercules planes, a small DHC-6 Twin Otter plane year round based on Marambio Station, and Bell 212 helicopters deployed in Marambio Station during the summer.
Argentina is the closest country to Antarctica and runs six permanent scientific stations, the most of any country. They are:
Map depicting Argentine bases in Antarctica (permanent in red)
Orcadas Base (60_44 S, 44_44 W). Located on Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands. Operational on February 22, 1904.
Jubany (62_14 S 58_40 W). Located on King George (25 de Mayo) Island, South Shetland Islands. Operational on December 17, 1952.
Esperanza (63_24 S, 56_59 W). Located on Hope Bay, northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Operational in December 17, 1952.
Marambio Base(64_14 S, 56_38 W. Located on Seymour (Marambio) Island, northwestern Weddell Sea. Operational on October 29, 1969.
San Martќn Base (68_08 S,67_06 W). Located on Barry Island, Margarite Bay. Operational : March 21, 1951
Belgrano II Base (77_52 S, 34_37 W). Located on Coats Land, Bertrab Nunatak, southeastern Weddell Sea. Operational : February 5, 1979
Orcadas Station is the oldest Argentine station in the Antarctic, and Marambio the newest.
Additionally, Argentina maintains seven seasonal (nonpermanent) stations:
Almirante Brown Base (64_52 S,62_54 W), Paradise Cove Operational : April 6, 1951
Primavera (64_09 S, 60_58W), Danco Coast. Gerlache Strait. Operational : March 8, 1977
Decepciodn (62_59 S, 60_41 W), 1_ deMayo Bay,Port Foster, Deception Island, South Shetland Islands. Operational : January 25, 1948
Melchior (64_20 S, 62_59 W), Observatory Island, Melchior Archipelago. Operational : March 31, 1947.
Matienzo (64_58 S, 60_08 W), Larsen Nunatak, Larsen Ice Shelf, Weddell Sea. Operational : March 15, 1961.
Camara (62_36 S, 59_54 W), Half Moon Island, MacFarlane Strait, South Shetland Islands. Operational : April 1, 1953.
Petrel (63_28 S, 56_12 W), Dundee Island, Welchness Cape, Antarctic Strait. Operational : December 1952.
^ Website of the IAA: http://www.dna.gov.ar/
^ Marenssi, Sergio (2007). "Argentina Antarctic Program". In Riffenburgh, Beau. Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 9192. ISBN 041597024
Lieutenant-Colonel David Paton (19122008) was medical officer and the last surviving member of the St Nazaire raid of World War II, sometimes called The Greatest Raid of All.
1 Early life and education
2 The War Years
Early life and education
David Paton was born at Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, on 30 July 1912 and was educated at the Hamilton Academy, a prestigious Scottish school that featured in the Scottish Secondary Teachers Association 1950 magazine article series Famous Scottish Schools. From Hamilton Academy Paton entered the University of Glasgow reading Medicine; at university joining the Officer Training Corps.
The War Years
On graduation Paton worked at the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, before being called-up to the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1939. After serving at the War Office and several army camps in southern England, he was appointed medical officer to the garrison at Catterick, Yorkshire, England, and just prior to Christmas 1941 was transferred to the Orkney Isles and from there to Ayr where he was seconded to the Commandos.
The wreck of HMS Campbeltown used in the St Nazaire raid
As medical officer with the Royal Navy and Army Commando unit, under the command of Lord Louis Mountbatten, British Chief of Combined Operations, Paton was part of the daring raid on the dry dock at the occupied French port of St. Nazaire (Operation Chariot) on 28 March 1942. This attack on the dry dock behind enemy lines was an attempt to neutralise the ability of the German battleship Tirpitz to attack Atlantic supply lines to Britain as the dry dock at St. Nazaire was the only dock on the Atlantic coast of occupied France large enough to accommodate the Tirptiz and, as base, would allow the German battleship to attack British shipping supply lines. The 1952 film The Gift Horse starring Trevor Howard was based on the true story of the raid on St. Nazaire.
1st Special Service Brigade Commandos, Combined Operations shoulder patch
David Paton was to see action again when on D-Day, 6 June 1944, he landed at Sword Beach, Normandy, as second-in-command of 223 Field Ambulance with the Commandos of the 1st Special Service Brigade, under the command of Brigadier Lord Lovat.
Landing, Sword Beach area, D-Day 6 June 1944. Brigadier Lord Lovat in the sea on right of the column, his piper, Bill Millin in foreground
Retiring from the Army as a Lieutenant-Colonel, in later years he provided first-hand background information to the Channel 4 2002 television series on the history of the Commandos.
On his retirement from General Practice in Buckinghamshire, England, in 1972, Paton was appointed a police surgeon for the Thames Valley Police Force and was also president of the Windsor Medical Society and secretary of the Thames Valley division of the British Medical Association, of which he was elected an Honorary Member.
Lieutenant-Colonel Dr. David Paton died aged 95 at Slough, Berkshire, England, on 10 July 2008. 
^ Scottish Secondary Teachers&#39; Association Magazine, February 1950, feature on Hamilton Academy in the article series &#39;Famous Scottish Schools&#39;
^ The Independent - Obituary 30 September 2008 Retrieved 5 November 2010
^ Hamilton Advertiser- Obituary 7 August 2008 Retrieved 5 November 2010
^ The Independent - Obituary 30 September 2008 Retrieved 5 November 2010
^ BBC - Peoples War David Paton article Part I 27 February 2005 Retrieved 5 November 2010
^ BBC Peoples War David Paton article Part II 27 February 2005 Retrieved 5 November 2010
^ The Herald - Obituary 6 August 2008 Retrieved 5 November 2010
^ The Telegraph Obituary 2 August 2008 Retrieved 5 November 2010
Пиздуй в понитред, мудило, хули к торчкам пристал?
Oak RidgesMarkham is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 2004. Its population in 2006 was 169,645., with 136,755 electors, the highest of any riding in Canada. By 2011, the riding&#39;s population had risen to 228,997, the largest population of all ridings in Canada.
The district covers part of the suburbs north of Toronto. It includes the town of WhitchurchStouffville, most of the township of King (excepting extreme northeast) the northern portions of the town of Richmond Hill (including all of Oak Ridges), and the northern and eastern portions of the city of Markham.
The electoral district was created in 2004 52.5% from Oak Ridges, 30% from Markham, 13% from VaughanKingAurora, and 4.5% from York North riding.
3 Members of Parliament
4 Election results
Communities in Oak RidgesMarkham are the destination for many immigrants to Canada, composing about 41.6% of the population, or about 70,000 of its residents. For 72,440 residents, neither English nor French, the official languages of Canada, is their mother tongue, though most have knowledge of English (148,975), French (160), or both (12,885). Most immigrants become citizens, as 11,155 immigrants were not Canadian citizens as of the Canada 2006 Census.
The primarily urban district has a low proportion of Aboriginal residents compared to other parts of Canada, with just 625 people identifying themselves of such descent. It is also home to 70,070 residents who identify themselves as visible minorities, more than half of which are Chinese Canadians and about 20% are Black Canadians.
At the 2006 census, the participation rate of residents in the work force was 71.3%, and the electoral district unemployment rate was 5%, below the national average of 6.3%.
The district is the second-largest electoral district in Canada by population, next to Brampton West which had 170,422 residents at the 2006 census. It was the 64th largest in 2001, with a population of 111,276, but had the greatest population growth from 2001 to 2006, about 52.5%.
According to Elections Canada, Oak RidgesMarkham consists of that part of the Regional Municipality of York composed of:
(a) the Town of WhitchurchStouffville;
(b) the part of the Township of King south of Highway No. 9;
Y the part of the Town of Richmond Hill lying north and east of a line drawn from the western town limit east along Gamble Road, south along Yonge Street and east along Elgin Mills Road East to the eastern town limit; and
(d) the part of the City of Markham lying north and east of a line drawn from the western town limit east along 16th Avenue, south along McCowan Road, east along Highway No. 7, and south along 9th Line to the southern town limit.
Members of Parliament
This riding has elected the following member of the Canadian House of Commons:
Parliament Years Member Party
Oak Ridges, Markham, VaughanKingAurora, York North prior to 2003
38th 20042006 Lui Temelkovski Liberal
40th 20082011 Paul Calandra Conservative
[hide]Canadian federal election, 2011
Party Candidate Votes % app Expenditures
Conservative Paul Calandra 46,241 51.12 +8.88 $133,192
Liberal Lui Temelkovski 25,561 28.26 -13.26 $108,951
New Democratic Janice Hagan 15,229 16.84 +7.45 $4,650
Green Trifon Haitas 2,349 2.60 -4.23 $0.00
Progressive Canadian John Sicilano 1,080 1.19 $564
Total valid votes/Expense limit 90,460 100.00 $134,351
Total rejected ballots 430 0.47
Turnout 90,890 59.96 +4.30
Eligible voters 151,584
[hide]Canadian federal election, 2008
Party Candidate Votes % app Expenditures
Conservative Paul Calandra 32,028 42.24 +3.77 $112,693
Liberal Lui Temelkovski 31,483 41.52 -5.53 $68,266
New Democratic Andy Arifin 7,126 9.39 -0.49 $2,020
Green Richard Taylor 5,184 6.83 +2.24 $8,063
Total valid votes/Expense limit 75,821 100.00 $120,647
Turnout 76,111 55.66 -11.23
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +4.65
[hide]Canadian federal election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % app Expenditures
Liberal Lui Temelkovski 35,048 47.05 -4.68 $55,610
Conservative Bob Callow 28,695 38.47 +4.96 $92,644
New Democratic Pamela Courtot 7,369 9.88 +1.10 $8,822
Green Steve Armes 3,431 4.59 +0.70 $1,852
Total valid votes/Expense limit 74,543 100.00 $98,012
Turnout 74,834 66.89 +3.51
Liberal hold Swing -4.82
[hide]Canadian federal election, 2004
Party Candidate Votes % app
Liberal Lui Temelkovski 31,964 51.73 -1.34
Conservative Bob Callow 20,712 33.51 -9.10
New Democratic Pamela Courtot 5,430 8.78 +5.94
Green Bernadette Manning 2,406 3.89
Progressive Canadian Jim Conrad 820 1.32
Christian Heritage Maurice Whittle 458 0.74
Total valid votes 61,790 100.00
Turnout 62,145 63.38
Liberal hold Swing +3.88
2004 change is based on redistributed results. Conservative change is compared to a combination of Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative votes.
As per the seat rearrangement that takes place every 10 years along with the bill to add 30 more seats there is going to be a change for the next election. Due to Oak-Ridges Markham having a population of 115.60% over the Ontario quota (Canada&#39;s most populous riding) it is going under substantial change. The current riding will be renamed Oak Ridges and will just be the Township of King south of Highway 9 along with the part of the City of Vaughan north of Major Mackenzie Drive west of Highway 400 and north of Rutherford Road east of Hwy 400.
The part that is the town of WhitchurchStouffville and in the City of Markham east of Ontario Highway 48 / Main Street Markham/ York Regional Road 68 will be incorporated into the new MarkhamStouffville riding. The part in the town of Richmond Hill will be part of the new AuroraRichmond Hill riding. Finally, the part in the city of Markham west of the above mentioned roads will be part of the new MarkhamUnionville riding, which will be different from the existing riding with the same name.
>>40648209>но никто не даёт.
Вайпер - школьник и омежка, который не может достать хоть каких-то веществ.
George A. Birmingham was the pen name of James Owen Hannay (16 July 1865 - 2 February 1950), Irish clergyman and prolific novelist.
1 Life and career
2.1 Other works
4 External links
Life and career
He was born in Belfast, ordained in 1889, as a Church of Ireland (Anglican) minister and served as rector of Holy Trinity Church, Westport in County Mayo. His early writings raised the ire of nationalist Catholics, and he withdrew from the Gaelic League in the wake of ongoing protests about the tour of his successful play General John Regan. He became rector of Kildare parish from 1918 to 1920, and after serving as chaplain to the Viceroy, he joined the British ambassadorial team in Budapest in 1922. He returned to officiate at Mells, Somerset from 1924 to 1934, after which he was appointed vicar of Holy Trinity Church in the London suburb of Kensington where he served from 1934 to his death in 1950.
The Seething Pot (1905)
Benedict Kavanagh (1907)
The Northern Iron (1907)
The Bad Times (1908)
Spanish Gold (1908)
The Search Party (1909)
Lalage&#39;s Lovers (1911)
The Major&#39;s Niece (1911)
The Simpkins Plot (1911)
The Inviolable Sanctuary (1911)
Priscilla&#39;s Spies; The Red Hand of Ulster (1912)
General John Regan: A Play in Three Acts (1913)
The Adventures of Dr. Whitty (1913)
Connaught to Chicago (1914) [also printed as From Dublin to Chicago]
The Lost Tribes (1914)
Minnie&#39;s Bishop and Other Stories (1915)
The Island Mystery (1918)
Our Casualty (1919)
Up the Rebels! (1919)
Good Conduct (1920)
Lady Bountiful (1921)
The Lost Lawyer (1921)
The Great-Grandmother (1922)
A Public Scandal (1922)
Fed Up (1923)
Found Money (1923)
King Tommy (1923)
Send for Dr Grady (1923)
The Grand Duchess (1924)
Bindon Parva (1925)
The Gun-Runners (1925)
Goodly Pearls (1926)
The Smuggler&#39;s Cave (1926)
Lady of the Abbey (1926)
Now You Tell One: Stories of Irish Wit & Humour (1927)
Ships and Sealing Wax (1927)
Elizabeth and the Archdeacon (1928)
The Runaways (1928)
The Major&#39;s Candlesticks (1929)
Murder Most Foul! (1929)
The Hymn Tune Mystery (1930)
Wild Justice (1930)
The Silver-Gilt Standard (1932)
Angel&#39;s Adventure (1933)
Two Fools (1934)
Love or Money (1935)
Millicent&#39;s Corner (1935)
Daphne&#39;s Fishing (1937)
Mrs. Miller&#39;s Aunt (1937)
Magilligan Strand (1938)
Miss Maitland&#39;s Spy (1940)
The Search for Susie (1941)
Over the Border (1942)
Poor Sir Edward (1943)
Lieutenant Commander (1944)
Good Intentions (1945)
The Piccadilly Lady (1946)
Golden Apple (1947)
A Sea Battle (1948)
Laura&#39;s Bishop (1949)
Two Scamps (1950)
The Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism (1903) from his Donnellan Lectures
The Wisdom of the Desert (1904)
Irishmen All (1913)
The Lighter Side of Irish Life (1914)
Golden Sayings from George A. Birmingham (1915)
Recollections of Sir Jonah Barrington (1918)
A Padre in France (1918)
An Irishman Looks at His World (1918)
A Wayfarer in Hungary (1925)
Spillikins: Essays (1926)
Can You Answer This? A Question Book (1927)
Do you Know Your History? A History Questions Book (1928)
Pleasant Places (1934)
^ Taylor, Brian (1995). The Life and Writings of James Owen Hannay (George Birmingham) 1865-1950. (Studies in British Literature). Edwin Mellen Press, ISBN 978-0-7734-9123-6.
не покурил неделю на следующей неделе не курить легче
Not to be confused with Parthenon.
Look up pantheon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Pantheon may refer to:
Pantheon (gods), the set of gods belonging to a particular mythology
Pantheon (mythical creature)
Pantheon, Rome, now a Catholic church, once a temple to the gods of ancient Rome
Any temple dedicated to an entire pantheon
Panth™on, Paris, a church and burial place
Place du Panth™on in Paris, home of the Paris Law Faculty and now used in the names of two of the thirteen successor universities to the University of Paris - Pantheon-Sorbonne and Pantheon-Assas
Pantheon, London, an 18th-century place of entertainment
Pantheon of National Revival Heroes, a Bulgarian national monument and ossuary
Pantheon, Moscow, a planned but uncompleted memorial tomb
Pantheon Theatre, in Vincennes, Indiana
National Pantheon, Portugal, a burial place
National Pantheon of Venezuela, a burial place and former church
National Pantheon of the Heroes, a Paraguayan national monument
Mtatsminda Pantheon, a necropolis in Tbilisi, Georgia
Didube Pantheon, a necropolis in Tbilisi, Georgia
Saburtalo Pantheon, a necropolis in Tbilisi, Georgia
PanteЈn Nacional Rom‘n Baldorioty de Castro, a burial place in Ponce, Puerto Rico
National Pantheon of the Dominican Republic, a former church and burial place
Pantheon (Marvel Comics), a fictional organization
Pantheon (Lone Star Press), a comic book series
Pantheon (role-playing game), by Hogshead Publishing
Pantheon Books, a publishing imprint
Pantheon, a book by Godfrey of Viterbo
Pantheon, a book by Gary Devore
Pantheon, an unreleased computer game by Frog City Software
Pantheon, a group of robots in the Mega Man Zero series
The Pantheon, a collection of written pieces compiled by Nikolay Karamzin
Pantheon, an artisan of war in the game, League of Legends
Pantheon, the home-town of the Nova race in the MMO MapleStory
Я использую окуметил, давление сразу падает, с сетчаткой всё норм. ОП
Я бы тебе дал, няша, я немного траповат, если тебе интересно.
забыл поставить запятуюы
In the 1735 English cricket season, the county teams of which records exist were Kent, Surrey and Sussex while London and Croydon remained the predominant town clubs.
2 Other events
4 External sources
5 Further reading
Date Match Title Venue Result
27 May (Tu) Croydon v London  Duppas Hill, Croydon London won
Mr G. B. Buckley found four different notices of this match in the Whitehall Evening Post, the London Evening Post, the Weekly Register and the Grub Street Journal. The WEP called the game "Surrey v London" but the others all agreed it was "Croydon v London". The Weekly Register (Sat 31 May) reported that "London beat Croydon with very great ease". The date was Whit Tuesday.
7 June (S) Surrey v London  Moulsey Hurst London by 9 wkts
Scores are known: Surrey 54 & 44; London 61 & 38-1. Also known are some of the players: Cook, Ellis, Dunn and Wheatley of London; and at least two players called Wood played for Surrey. Mr Ellis could not play because of an injured finger and he was Londons "best bowler". Cook of Brentford ("reckoned one of the best bowlers in England") was brought in to bowl instead of him. The Surrey players called Wood evidently came from Woodcot; one of them was injured during the game. After London lost one wicket in their second innings, the target was reached by Mr Wheatley, the distiller, and Mr Dunn. Never before have so many players names been given in a match report.
See also the mention of this match in the following entry (re the "Surrey bunglers"!).
18 June (W) Surrey v London  Kennington Common and Artillery Ground drawn
Originally arranged to be played on Kennington Common, as reported by the General Evening Post on Thu 12 June, the venue was altered to the Artillery Ground as reported in the London Daily Post on Sat 14 June. The GEP report says that Mr Jervoise of Croydon selected "11 men out of Croydon and that neighbourhood in Surrey". It goes on to report that "the three or four bunglers who played on the Surrey side at Moulsey Hurst last Saturday (7th inst.) do not play."
Scores are known: London 67 & 72; Surrey 97 & 33-7. It is also known that London lost their first wicket at 22-1.
Mr Waghorn says the reports use of the word "innings" was the earliest he had noticed.
c.25 June (W) Surrey v London  Moulsey Hurst London by 1 wkt
Surrey was backed by the Prince of Wales and London by Edward Stead. One of Surreys best players broke a finger when catching the ball and this was said to be the reason for their defeat.
12 July (S) London & Middlesex v Kent  Moulsey Hurst Kent by 4 wkts
This is also reported in Fresh Light. The scores are in Waghorn: London 95 & 41; Kent 80 & 57-6.
The London & Middlesex team consisted of 8 from London and 3 from Middlesex, including Cook of Brentford who was reckoned to be "one of the best bowlers in England". Curiously, Kents patron was the Earl of Middlesex, who was the eldest son of the Duke of Dorset. Their opponents were backed by the Prince of Wales. The match was staged for S1000 a side.
The report confirmed that a second match would played in two weeks on Bromley Common (see below). Interestingly, the General Evening Post reported that the London team was imbalanced by inclusion of the three Middlesex men and lost the match for that reason. The Prince of Wales was reported as saying that his team in the return match would therefore by an all London XI. As Mr Buckley says, this was an early appreciation of teamwork.
18 July (F) London v Surrey  Kennington Common London won
The London Daily Post on Sat 19 July reported that London beat Surrey "with ease".
30 July (W) Kent v London  Bromley Common Kent by 10 wkts
Scores were recorded as: London 73 & 32; Kent 97 & 9-0.
The report states that a large crowd attended and "a great deal of mischief was done". It seems that horses panicked and riders were thrown while some members of the crowd were "rode over". One man was "carried off for dead" as "HRH" passed by at the entrance to the Common.
13 August (W) Sussex v Kent  Lewes Sussex won
The source for this match is a letter from John Whaley to Horace Walpole dated Wed 13 August. He says the Sussex team "seem as much pleased as if they had got an Election". He also reported that "we have been at supper with them all" until one oclock in the morning.
c.20 August (W) Kent v Sussex  Sevenoaks Vine Kent won
The London Evening Post speculated that "the Conqueror" (i.e., a decider) between the Kent and Sussex teams, led by Lord John Philip Sackville and Sir William Gage respectively, would be played in a few days but there is no record of a further match.
Mon 11 August. The General Evening Post on Thu 7 August announced a single wicket match the following Monday on Kennington Common involving seven players of the London Club. The game would be three against four with Mr Wakeland, Mr Dunn and Mr Pool against Mr Marshall, Mr Ellis and two others. Dunn and Ellis have been mentioned previously.
Thu 28 August. Death of Edward (aka Edwin) Stead reported in the Grub Street Journal dated Thu 4 September. Mr Stead was a noted patron of the game from the mid-1720s and may have been a good player too. He was a Maidstone man who undoubtedly did much to promote the game in Kent. A compulsive gambler, it seems he died in reduced circumstances. One account stated that he died "near Charing Cross" and another that he died "in Scotland Yard".
^ a b c d e f G B Buckley, Fresh Light on 18th Century Cricket, Cotterell, 1935
^ a b c d e H T Waghorn, Cricket Scores, Notes, etc. (1730-1773), Blackwood, 1899
^ a b Timothy J McCann, Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century, Sussex Record Society, 2004
CricketArchive match lists
From Lads to Lord&#39;s; The History of Cricket: 1300 1787
H S Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1 (to 1914), George Allen & Unwin, 1962
Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999
Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970
David Underdown, Start of Play, Allen Lane, 2000
Shamshad Begum (born April 14, 1919) is an Indian singer who was one of the first playback singers in the Hindi film industry.
Begum was born in Amritsar, Punjab. She was a big fan of K.L. Saigal and watched Devdas 14 times. She earned 15 rupees per song and was awarded 5,000 on the completion of the contract on Xenophone, a renowned music recording company.
Sometime back, a controversy erupted in the media, when several publications gave the false news of her death, before it was clarified that the Shamshad Begum who died in 1998 was Saira Banu&#39;s (Dilip Kumar&#39;s wife) grandmother with the same name. The singer has been living with her daughter Usha Ratra and son-in-law in Mumbai, ever since her husband Ganpat Lal Batto died in 1955. Recently, she celebrated her 89th birthday at her elder sister&#39;s house and now she stays at - Hiranandani Gardens, Powai, Mumbai  She was conferred the Padma Bhushan in 2009.
4 External links
Begum made her debut on radio on Peshawar Radio in Lahore on December 16, 1947, captivating the hearts of her listeners with the enchanting depth of her voice. Shamshad was very much conscious of her not so beautiful face and she never posed for any pictures and not many people saw her pictures anywhere. Until the end of the 1970s, nobody knew her face at all, though everybody could recognise her melodious voice as it was used by the great maestros like Naushad Ali and O. P. Nayyar. Even today, her songs from the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s are popular and continue to be remixed by music directors.
Begum sang for the All India Radio (AIR) through her musical group &#39;The Crown Imperial Theatrical Company of Performing Arts&#39;, set up in Delhi. The then AIR Lahore helped her entering the world of movies as they frequently broadcast her songs, which induced music directors to use her voice for their films. Shamshad also recorded naats and devotional music for a couple of gramophone recording companies.
Her crystal-clear voice caught the attention of sarangi maestro Ustad Hussain Bakshwale Saheb, who took her as his disciple. Lahore-based composer Ghulam Haider used her voice skillfully in some of his earlier films like Khazanchi (1941) and Khandaan (1942). When he moved to Bombay in 1944, Shamshad went with him as a member of his team, leaving behind her family and staying with her Chacha (paternal uncle). She is credited with singing one of the first Westernised songs, Meri jaan...Sunday ke Sunday by C. Ramchandra. O.P. Nayyar describes her voice as that of a "temple bell" for its clarity of tone. Begum became a national rage between the 1940s and the late 1950s, having a voice different from her peers like Lata Mangeshkar, Asha Bhonsle, Geeta Dutt and Amirbai Karnataki. In 2009, she was conferred with the prestigious O P Nayyar award for her contribution to Hindi film music.
Leke pehla pehla pyar, (CID 1956), (music: O.P. Nayyar)
Milte hi aankhen dil hua, (Duet with Talat Mehmood), (Babul), (music: Naushad)
Chali chali kaisi yeh hawa yeh, (Duet with Usha Mangeshkar), (Bluffmaster 1965), (music: Kalyanji Anandji)
Kabhi aar kabhi paar zara dere chalo, (Aar Paar), (music: O.P. Nayyar)
O Gadiwale - Mother India - Naushad
Kahin pe nigahen kahin pe nishana - CID (1956) - music O.P. Nayyar
Boojh Mera Kya Naam Re - (1956) - music O.P.Nayyar
Mere piya gaye Rangoon - Patanga - music C.Ramchandra
Ek Tera Sahara Shama - music Master Ghulam Haider
Holi aayee re Kanhaai - Mother India (1957) - Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni, Music: Naushad
Naina Bhar aye neer - Humayun - music Master Ghulam Haider
Chod Babul Ka Ghar - Babul - music Naushad
Kajra Mohabbatwala Ankhiyon mein Aisa dala (Duet with Asha Bhosle) - Kismat (1968) - Music: O.P. Nayyar
Meri neendon main tum, meri khwabon mein tum (Duet with Kishore Kumar) - Naya Andaz - Music: O.P.Nayyar
Teri Mehfil Mein Qismat (Duet with Lata Mangeshkar) - Mughal-E-Azam
Saiyan Dil mein aana re - Bahar
^ India Post, South Asia Bureau, August 1998 Available online
^ Newsmakers - Shamshad Begummilligazette.com, 1-15 Nov, 2004.
^ Shamshad Begum Profile - Interview planetpowai.com.
^ Yesteryears&#39; playback singer Shamshad Begum named for Padma Bhushan
^ "O P Nayyar award for Shamshad Begum". Retrieved 25 January 2009.
Legends - Shamshad Begum: Her profile, Interview, complete list of her songs and her work with Music Directors and Co-Singers
Shamshad Begum at the Internet Movie Database
Indianetzone - Shamshad Begum
PLANET POWAI - Shamshad Begum
IndianMelody.com - Shamshad Begum, The Legendary Singer This link refers to the wrong Shamshad Begum, which says she has died.
PRO BOLLYWOOD - Dharti Ko Aakash Pukare by Manohar Iyer
PRO BOLLYWOOD - Shamshad Begum&#39;s Photos at Dadasaheb Phalke Academy Awards
Dhool.com - Song of the Day # 691
Shamshad Begum -The Eternal Voice
Shamshad begum Film songs
The Alliance for Democracy is a political party in Malawi that marked its history as laying the foundation for multi party political rule in Malawi. It began as an underground political movement during the Kamuzu Banda era and later evolved to a political party during the multi-party era under the leadership of trade union activist, Chakufwa Chihana. Currently, AFORD is a stronghold in the northern region. The current president is Godfrey Shawa.
1.1 Internal Politics
4 Notable AFORD Members
AFORD began as an underground political movement under Banda&#39;s dictatorship under the leadership of trade unionist and political activistChakufwa Chihana. He led an underground political movement that aimed at democratic multi-party rule.He was the first person to openly challenge the system. Therefore he is known as the &#39;father of Malawian democracy&#39; for his role in ushering in multi-party rule in Malawi. He was arrested in 1992 when he returned to Malawi and his arrest heightened both domestic and international pressure.His arrest lead to increasing calls for multi-party rule both domestically and internationally. Chihana&#39;s freedom was supported by Amnesty International as well as the Robert F. Kennedy Association. Soon after the churches issued a pastoral letter in support of democracy and multi-party rule. Banda agreed to a referendum on multi-party rule and Malawians decided to vote for a multi-party system.When political parties became legal in 1993, Chihana officially registered AFORD as an opposition party. AFORD had now moved from an underground movement to a registered political party. AFORD ran for the country&#39;s first elections in 1994 and came in third. Its founder, Chihana was appointed as vice-president.
AFORD as a political party began to decline due to internal politics within the party. AFORD&#39;s influence slowly became increasingly isolated to the Northern Region.
At the last general elections, 20 May 2004, the party won 6 out of 194 seats.
Godfrey Shawa 2012present
Dindi Gowa Nyasulu x - 2012 (Retired)
Chakufwa Chihana 1992-
Notable AFORD Members
Political parties in Malawi Malawi
Alliance for Democracy
Democratic Progressive Party
Malawi Congress Party
Malawi Forum for Unity and Development
Mgwirizano Coalition (Malawi Democratic Party
Movement for Genuine Democratic Change
National Democratic Alliance
National Unity Party
Nyasaland African Congress
People&#39;s Progressive Movement
People&#39;s Transformation Party
United Democratic Front
List of political parties
Politics of Malawi
The Modern Records Centre (MRC) is the specialist archive service of the University of Warwick in Coventry, England, located adjacent to the Central Campus Library. It was established in October 1973 and holds the world&#39;s largest archive collection on British industrial relations, as well as archives relating to many other aspects of British social, political and economic history.
The BP corporate archive is located next to the MRC, but has separate staff and facilities.
1.1 Trade unions
1.2 Industrial relations
1.3 Employers&#39; and trade associations
1.4 Pressure and campaigning groups
1.6 Professional associations
1.10 Operational research
1.11 University of Warwick
2 External links
The Modern Records Centre holds by far the largest collection of archives of British trade unions in the country. The largest collection held in the centre is the archive of the Trades Union Congress (TUC).
Other significant collections of archives relating to British trade unions include:
Amalgamated Engineering Union/Amalgamated Society of Engineers
Amalgamated Slaters&#39; and Tilers&#39; Provident Society
Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners
Amalgamated Society of Lithographic Printers and Auxiliaries
Amalgamated Society of Woodworkers
Amalgamated Union of Building Trade Workers
Associated Blacksmiths&#39;, Forge and Smithy Workers&#39; Society/Associated Blacksmiths&#39; Society
Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen (ASLEF)
Association of Assistant Mistresses
Association of Building Technicians/Association of Architects, Surveyors and Technical Assistants
Association of Engineering and Shipbuilding Draughtsmen
Association of Executive Officers/Second Division Clerks&#39; Association
Association of Head Mistresses
Association of Professional, Executive, Clerical and Computer Staff (APEX)/Clerical and Administrative Workers&#39; Union/National Union of Clerks
Association of Scientific, Technical and Managerial Staffs (ASTMS)
Association of Scientific Workers
Association of Supervisory Staffs, Executives and Technicians (ASSET)/National Foremen&#39;s Association
Association of Teachers in Colleges and Departments of Education
Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions
Association of University Teachers
Barclays Bank Staff Association
British Airline Pilots&#39; Association
Civil and Public Services Association/Civil Service Clerical Association
Communication Managers&#39; Association/Post Office Management Staffs Association/Association of Post Office Controlling Officers
Community and Youth Workers&#39; Union
Confederation of Health Service Employees (COHSE)
Constructional Engineering Union
Electrical Trades Union
Fire Brigades Union
Friendly Society of Iron Founders
Friendly Society of Operative Stonemasons
General Union of Carpenters and Joiners
Guild of Insurance Officials
Headmasters&#39; Association/Incorporated Association of Headmasters
Inland Revenue Staff Federation
Iron and Steel Trades Confederation
London Society of Compositors
London Typographical Society
Manchester Unity of Operative Bricklayers&#39; Society
Mental Hospital and Institutional Workers&#39; Union/National Asylum Workers&#39; Union
Midland Bank Staff Association
Monotype Casters&#39; and Typefounders&#39; Society/Amalgamated Typefounders&#39; Trade Society
National Amalgamated Stevedores and Dockers
National and Local Government Officers&#39; Association (NALGO)
National Association of Operative Plasterers
National Association of Schoolmasters
National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education
National Graphical Association
National League of the Blind and Disabled/National League of the Blind
National Society of Metal Mechanics/National Society of Brass and Metal Mechanics/National Society of Amalgamated Brassworkers
National Society of Operative Printers and Assistants (Natsopa)
National Society of Painters/National Amalgamated Society of Operative House and Ship Painters and Decorators/National Amalgamated Society of Operative House Painters and Decorators
National Union of Bank Employees/Bank Officers&#39; Guild
National Union of Boot and Shoe Operatives
National Union of County Officers
National Union of Enginemen, Firemen, Mechanics and Electrical Workers/National Amalgamated Union of Enginemen
National Union of Foundry Workers/Amalgamated Union of Foundry Workers
National Union of General and Municipal Workers
National Union of Glovers and Leatherworkers
National Union of Hosiery and Knitwear Workers
National Union of Journalists
National Union of Printing, Bookbinding and Paper Workers
National Union of Public Employees (NUPE)/National Union of Corporation Workers
National Union of Railwaymen/Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants
National Union of Seamen
National Union of Sheet Metal Workers and Braziers
National Union of Sheet Metal Workers, Coppersmiths, Heating and Domestic Engineers
National Union of Teachers
National Union of Vehicle Builders/United Kingdom Society of Coachmakers
National Union of Wallcoverings, Decorative and Allied Trades/Wallpaper Workers&#39; Union
Operative Bricklayers&#39; Society
Plumbing Trades Union/United Operative Plumbers&#39; Association
Post Office Controlling Officers&#39; Association
Post Office Engineering Union
Printing Machine Managers&#39; Trade Society
Prudential Staff Union
Royal London Staff Association
Scottish Sheet-Metal Workers&#39; and Braziers&#39; Friendly and Protective Society
Sign and Display Trade Union/National Union of Sign, Glass and Ticket Writers and Kindred Trades
Society of Chiropodists
Society of Civil and Public Servants/Society of Civil Servants
Society of Graphical and Allied Trades (SOGAT)
Society of Lithographic Artists, Designers, Engravers and Process Workers (SLADE)
Society of Radiographers
Society of Telecommunication Engineers/Society of Post Office Engineering Inspectors
Steel Industry Management Association
Tobacco Workers&#39; Union
Training College Association
Transport and General Workers&#39; Union
Transport Salaried Staffs&#39; Association/Railway Clerks&#39; Association
Union of Bookmakers&#39; Employees
Union of Communication Workers/Union of Post Office Workers
United Commercial Travellers&#39; Association
United Kingdom Association of Professional Engineers
United Patternmakers&#39; Association
United Society of Boilermakers, Shipbuilders and Structural Workers/United Society of Boilermakers and Iron Shipbuilders
Wallpaper Trades Superannuation Society
Significant collections relating to trade union federations include the Confederation of Employee Organisations, the Confederation of Shipbuilding and Engineering Unions, the Council of Civil Service Unions, the Federation of Post Office Supervising Officers, the General Federation of Trade Unions, the National Federation of Construction Unions (formerly the National Federation of Building Trade Operatives), the National Federation of Professional Workers, the National Joint Committee of Postal and Telegraph Associations, the Post Office Engineering Federation, and the Printing and Kindred Trades Federation.
International trade union federations are represented by major collections of the International Transport Workers&#39; Federation and the World Federation of Scientific Workers.
Collections relating to joint trade union committees include those of the Alcan Foils Wembley Factory trade union committees, the British Leyland Trade Union Committee, Coventry Chain Shop Stewards&#39; Committee, Coventry Trades Council, the GCHQ Trade Union Campaign Committee, and the London Transport Aldenham Bus Overhaul Works trade union committees.
The Centre also holds significant collections relating to leaders of trade unions, including:
Ernest Bevin, general secretary of the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union, Minister of Labour and Foreign Secretary
Rodney Bickerstaffe, general secretary of NUPE and Unison
Frank Chapple, Baron Chapple of Hoxton, general secretary of the Electrical Trades Union and Electrical, Electronic, Telecommunication and Plumbing Union
Percy Collick, assistant general secretary of ASLEF and Labour MP
Frank Cousins, general secretary of the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union and Minister of Technology
Frank Crump, general secretary of the National Amalgamated Union of Life Assurance Workers
Brenda Dean, Baroness Dean of Thornton-le-Fylde, general secretary of SOGAT &#39;82
R. A. W. Emerick, general secretary of the Amalgamated Society of Lithographic Printers
Alan Fisher, general secretary of NUPE
Sir Joseph Hallsworth, general secretary of the Amalgamated Union of Co-operative Employees, National Union of Distributive and Allied Workers, and Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers
Clive Jenkins, general secretary of ASSET, ASTMS and the MSF
Jack Jones, general secretary of the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union
Bill Morris, Baron Morris of Handsworth, general secretary of the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union
Ron Todd, general secretary of the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union
Paul Tofahrn, assistant general secretary of the International Transport Workers&#39; Federation and general secretary of Public Services International
Bob Willis, general secretary of the London Society of Compositors, London Typographical Society, and National Graphical Association
George Woodcock, general secretary of the Trades Union Congress
Large collections of papers of more junior trade unionists include:
Jon Appleton, of NALGO and Unison
Alfred Best, of the National Amalgamated Union of Life Assurance Workers
Cyril Collard, of the Association of Teachers in Technical Institutions
John Dore, of the Association of Scientific Workers, ASTMS and the MSF
David and Tamar Edwards, of the Amalgamated Engineering Union and the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union respectively
Dick Etheridge, of the Amalgamated Engineering Union
R. Leonard Fagg, of the Post Office Engineering Union
Monty Hughes, of the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation
Norman Jacobs, of the Civil and Public Services Association
J. C. McLauchlan, of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants
David Michaelson, of the Amalgamated Engineering Union
Peter Morgan, of NALGO
Peter Nicholas, of the Amalgamated Engineering Union
Aaron Rapoport Rollin, of the National Union of Tailors and Garment Workers
William Henry Stokes, of the Amalgamated Engineering Union
Alan Thornett, of the Transport and General Workers&#39; Union
Arthur Willitt, of the Post Office Engineering Union, Society of Post Office Engineering Inspectors, Society of the Post-Office Engineering Inspectorate, Society of Telecommunication Engineers, Association of Post Office Executives, and Society of Post Office Executives
Amicia Young, of the Association of Scientific Workers
Как же я тебя понимаю! Все аналогично. Самого раздражает: лежу в постели, только что трахнул жену, поел, выпил коньяка - казалось бы что нормальному человеку нужно еще? Так нет, жду пока супруга заснет и пойду к барыге. Сука, ммне даже из теплой постели не в лом вставать.
Я другой анон но ты не бросишь пока тебе это нравится. Сам по химии жестоко угорал. Не знаю есть ли у вас мята но я её скурил просто огромное количество
The Modern Records Centre holds some collections of archives relating to joint employer/employee industrial relations negotiating committees. Significant among these are the Inland Revenue Departmental Whitley Council, the Joint Industry Board for the Electrical Contracting Industry, the Local Authorities&#39; Conditions of Service Advisory Board (LACSAB), the National Joint Council for the Engineering Construction Industry, the National Maritime Board, and the National Whitley Council for the Civil Service.
Papers of various academics and/or conciliators concerned with industrial relations include those of Sir George Bain, William Brown, Colleen Chesterman, Hugh Clegg, Bob Fryer, Geoffrey Goodman, Richard Hyman, Grigor McClelland, Arthur Marsh, Sir Jack Scamp, and Bert Turner.
Archives of the British Universities Industrial Relations Association, Incomes Data Services and Industrial Relations Research Unit are also held.
Employers&#39; and trade associations
The Modern Records Centre also collects archives of employers&#39; associations and trade associations. The largest of these are the archives of the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and its predecessor, the Federation of British Industries (FBI).
Other major association employers&#39; and trade association collections include:
Apparel and Fashion Industry Association
Association of Professional Recording Services
Biscuit, Cake, Chocolate and Confectionery Alliance
British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers&#39; Association
British Employers&#39; Confederation/National Confederation of Employers&#39; Organisations
British Independent Steel Producers&#39; Association
British Iron and Steel Consumers&#39; Council
British Iron and Steel Federation
Chamber of Shipping
Coventry and District Engineering Employers&#39; Association
Cycle and Motor Cycle Association/Cycle and Motor Cycle Manufacturers&#39; and Traders&#39; Union
Engineering Employers&#39; East Midlands Association
Engineering Employers&#39; Federation/Engineering and Allied Employers&#39; National Federation
Engineering Employers&#39; West Midlands Association
Iron and Steel Trades Employers&#39; Association
Knitting Industries&#39; Federation
National Association of British Manufacturers
National Engineering Construction Employers&#39; Association
National Federation of Building Trades Employers/Association of Master Builders
National Industrial Organisation
Oil and Chemical Plant Constructors&#39; Association
Refractory Users&#39; Federation
Road Haulage Association
Scottish Steel Makers&#39; Association
Shirt, Collar and Tie Manufacturers&#39; Federation
Society of British Gas Industries
Tea Council of Great Britain
UK Fashion and Textile Association
Wholesale Clothing Manufacturers&#39; Federation
Archives of related organisations include those of the Dollar Exports Council, India, Pakistan and Burma Association, Iron and Steel Board and Trade Board (Employers&#39;) Consultative Council, as well as those of Richard Wood, an official of the Construction Industry Training Board and the National Federation of Building Trades Employers.
Pressure and campaigning groups
A second part of the Modern Records Centre&#39;s collecting base is the archives of pressure and campaigning groups. Significant among these are the archives of the:
All Britain Anti-Poll Tax Federation
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND)
Campaign for the Advancement of State Education
Christian Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Council for Educational Advance
Family Service Units
Howard League for Penal Reform
Industrial Society/Industrial Welfare Society
Involvement and Participation Association/Industrial Co-partnership Association/Labour Co-partnership Association
Make Poverty History
National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (NACRO)/National Association of Discharged Prisoners&#39; Aid Societies
National Federation of the Blind of the United Kingdom
National Postgraduate Committee
National Union of Students
West Midlands Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
World University Service
Papers of individuals associated with campaigning and pressure groups include those of Marjory Allen, Lady Allen of Hurtwood, landscape architect, campaigner for pre-school education and child welfare, Sir Ernest Benn, publisher, libertarian and individualist, Mary Brennan, peace activist and prominent member of CND, William Driscoll, chief training officer of the Economic League, Sir Victor Gollancz, publisher and activist, Sir Leslie Scott, Conservative MP, judge and prominent member of the Council for the Preservation of Rural England, and Dame Eileen Younghusband, social worker.
The Modern Records Centre holds some archives relating to business, especially the motor industry.
Archives relating to the motor industry include Jensen Motors, the Rover Company, Rubery Owen, the Standard Motor Company, and the Triumph Engineering Company.
Archives relating to other firms include Birmingham Small Arms, the British Steel Corporation, Victor Gollancz Ltd, Wallpaper Manufacturers Ltd, and J. Parnell & Son Ltd, builders, of Rugby.
The Centre also holds the archives of the Transport Development Group and of Arthur Primrose Young, manager of the Rugby works of the British Thomson-Houston Company.
The Modern Records Centre holds a growing collection of the archives of professional associations, especially those associated with social work. Major collections in the latter area include the Association of Child Care Officers, the Association of Social Workers, the British Association of Social Workers, the Institute of Medical Social Workers, the National Association of Social Workers in Education, and the National Institute for Social Work.
Other professional associations with significant representation are the Association of Teachers of Domestic Science, the British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, the British Institute of Management, the Headmasters&#39; and Headmistresses&#39; Conference, the Institute of Administrative Management, the Institute of Management Services, and the Institute of Personnel Management.
One of the collecting specialities of the Modern Records Centre is Trotskyist politics. Significant collections of papers relating to Trotskyist organisations include Bookmarks Publications, the International Marxist Group, the International Socialism Group, the Militant Tendency, the Revolutionary Socialist League, the Socialist Party, Socialist Reproduction, the Socialist Vanguard Group, and the Spartacist League.
Papers of individuals associated with Trotskyist organisations include those of Chris Bambery, Colin Barker, Alan Clinton, Jimmy Deane, Reg Groves, Alistair Mutch, Geoff Pugh, Bob Purdie, Tony Whelan, and Harry Wicks.
The Centre also holds the papers of several Labour Members of Parliament: Richard Crossman, Maurice Edelman, Terry Fields, William Hamling, Pat Wall, and William Wilson.
Other political holdings include the papers of former general secretary of the Labour Party Jim Mortimer, Conservative MP Derek Coombs, National Front activist Wayne Ashcroft, and the Warwick and Leamington Constituency Labour Party.
A further specialisation of the Modern Records Centre is in archives concerned with education. As well as the archives of the teachers&#39; trade unions, the Centre holds significant archive collections of the Association of Technical Institutions, the Committee of Directors of Polytechnics, the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals, the Council for National Academic Awards, the Joint University Council for Social Studies, the National Council for Diplomas in Art and Design, the National Council for Technological Awards, REPLAN, the Society for Research into Higher Education, and the Universities Association for Lifelong Learning.
The Modern Records Centre holds the National Cycle Archive, the principal archive covering all aspects of cycling history in the United Kingdom. This includes the archives of the Auto-Cycle Union, the Cyclists&#39; Touring Club, and the National Cyclists&#39; Union, as well as archives of many other cycling organisations and clubs, manufacturers of bicycles and accessories, and individuals connected with cycling, such as Eric Claxton, Tony Hadland, Alex Josey, Derek Roberts and Frank Rowland Whitt.
A significant collection of material relating to operational research includes the archives of the Operational Research Branches of British Coal and the British Overseas Airways Corporation, the Department of Operational Research of the British Steel Corporation, the Institute for Operational Research, the International Federation of Operational Research Societies, the Local Government Operational Research Unit, and the Operational Research Society, as well as the papers of prominent operational researchers Ken Bowen and Stephen Cook.
University of Warwick
The Centre holds the organisational archives of the University of Warwick itself and also Coventry College of Education, which amalgamated with it in 1971. It also holds the papers of some individuals connected with the university, notably the sociologists Gillian Rose and Meg Stacey, and Sir Arthur Vick, who was the university&#39;s chairman of council and pro-chancellor.
Other significant collections include the Bristol Unity Players&#39; Club, the Certification Office for Trade Unions and Employers&#39; Associations, the Commercial Vehicle and Road Transport Club, the Low Pay Commission, the Royal Commission on Legal Services, the Royal Commission on the National Health Service, the Social Workers&#39; Benevolent Trust, the Social Workers&#39; Educational Trust, the Society for the Study of Labour History, and the Young Women&#39;s Christian Association. Papers of individuals include those of management consultant John Goddard, Catherine Hoskyns, an expert on gender politics and the European Union, and Sir George Pope, general manager of The Times.
The Secretary of Armed Forces was created on 16 August 1930 in the first mandate of the Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo.
List of Secretaries 
Brigadier Antonio Jorge: (1930-1931)
Mr. Jacinto P. Peynado: (1931-1932)
Mr. Plinio R. Pina Chevalier: (1933)
Mr. Francisco E. Penzo: (1933)
Colonel TeЈdulo Pina Chevalier: (1933-1934)
Major General Jos™ Garcќa: (1934-1942)
Generalissimo Hector E. Trujillo Molina: (1942-1952)
Lieutenant General Fausto E. CaamaЎo: (1952-1954)
Generalissimo Rafael L. Trujillo Molina: (1954-1955)
Lieutenant General Jos™ Garcќa Trujillo: (1955-1960)
Lieutenant General Jos™ R. Rom‘n Fern‘ndez: (1960-1961)
Major General Santo M™lido Marte Pichardo: (1961)
Major General Francisco Gonzalez Cruz: (1961)
Brigadier Pedro Rafael R. Rodriguez Echaverrќa: (1961-1962)
Major General Victor Elby ViЎas Rom‘n: (1962-1965)
Viceadmiral Francisco Javier Rivera Caminero: (1965-1966)
Major General Enrique P™rez y P™rez: (1966-1970)
Major General Joaquќn M™ndez Lara: (1970-1971)
Vicealmiral RamЈon Emilio Jim™nez Hijo: (1971-1975)
Major General Juan Ren™ Beauchamp Javier: (1975-1978)
Major General Rafael A. Valdez Hilario: (1978-1980)
Lieutenant General Pilot Mario A. Imbert Mcgregor: (1980-1982)
Lieutenant General Ramiro Matos Gonzalez: (1982-1984)
Lieutenant General Manuel A. Cuervo GЈmez: (1984-1986)
Admiral Vќctor M. Barj‘n Muffdi: (1986)
Lieutenant General Antonio Imbert Barrera: (1986-1988) 
Lieutenant General Elќas Wessin y Wessin: (1988-1991)
Lieutenant General H™ctor Garcќa Tejada: (1991-1993)
Lieutenant General Constantino Matos Villanueva: (1993-1994)
Admiral Iv‘n A. Vargas C™spedes: (1994-1996)
Lieutenant General Iv‘n R. Hern‘ndez Oleaga: (1996)
Lieutenant General Pilot Juan Bautista Rojas Tabar: (1996)
Admiral Rub™n Paulino qlvarez: (1996-1998)
Lieutenant General Manuel de JesЄs Florentino y Florentino: (1998-2000)
Lieutenant General Jos™ Miguel Soto Jim™nez: (2000-2004)
Admiral Sigfrido Pared Per™z: (2004-2006)
Lieutenant General RamЈn Antonio Aquino Garcќa: (2006-2008)
Lieutenant General Pilot Pedro R. PeЎa Antonio: (2008-Actual)
^ Secretary of Armed Forces (Spanish)
Infestation is a comic book crossover published by IDW Publishing, and connecting various of its licensed and original series together.
The first crossover was published from January 2011 - April 2011. It consisted of two book-end one-shots, Infestation #12, set in the Zombies vs. Robots and CVO universes, and two-issue limited series from the G.I. Joe, Transformers, Ghostbusters, and Star Trek universes. Also, IDW published a digital-only Pocket God tie-in issue in May 2011 which was included in the hardcover book.
IDW then released a four-issue epilogue series titled Infestation: Outbreak from June 2011 September 2011. It picked up on the CVO after the events of Infestation and also introduced the events of the Groom Lake limited series into the same continuity of the CVO. IDW also published a four-issue follow-up series set in the Zombies vs. Robots universe after the events of Infestation, entitled Zombies vs. Robots: UnderCity.
The second crossover will be published from January 2012 April 2012. It will consist of two book-end one-shots, Infes2ation #12, and two-issue limited series from the G.I. Joe, Transformers: Heart of Steel, Dungeons & Dragons: Eberron, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. There will also be two one-shots published: Infes2ation: Team-Up, featuring Archie from Groom Lake and Bat Boy from Weekly World News, and Infes2ation: 30 Days of Night.
1 Original series
1.1 Infestation #1
1.2 Star Trek: Infestation #1-2
1.3 Transformers: Infestation #1-2
1.4 Ghostbusters: Infestation #1-2
1.5 G.I. Joe: Infestation #1-2
1.6 Infestation #2
1.7 Infestation: CVO 100-Page Spectacular
1.8 Pocket God: Infestation #1
2 Epilogue series
2.1 Zombies vs. Robots: UnderCity #1-4
2.2 Infestation: Outbreak #1-4
3 Second series
3.1 Infes2ation #1
3.2 Infes2ation: Transformers #1-2
3.3 Infes2ation: Dungeons & Dragons: Eberron #1-2
3.4 Infes2ation: Team-Up #1
3.5 Infes2ation: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles #1-2
3.6 Infes2ation: G.I. Joe #1-2
3.7 Infes2ation: 30 Days of Night #1
3.8 Infes2ation #2
4 Collected editions
4.2 Original series
4.3 Epilogue series
Published in January 2011. Written by Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning with art by David Messina.
Star Trek: Infestation #1-2
Published biweekly in February 2011. Written by Scott Tipton and David Tipton with art by Casey Maloney.
Transformers: Infestation #1-2
Published biweekly in February 2011. Written by Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning with art by Nick Roche.
Ghostbusters: Infestation #1-2
Published biweekly in March 2011. Written by Erik Burnham with art by Kyle Hotz.
G.I. Joe: Infestation #1-2
Published biweekly in March 2011. Written by Mike Raicht with art by Giovanni Timpano.
Published in April 2011. Written by Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning with art by David Messina.
Infestation: CVO 100-Page Spectacular
Published in April 2011. A repackaging of older CVO comics with some new stories.
Pocket God: Infestation #1
Published in digital format only in May 2011. First in print in the Infestation hardcover.
Zombies vs. Robots: UnderCity #1-4
Published monthly from April 2011 - July 2011. Written by Chris Ryall with art by Mark Torres.
Infestation: Outbreak #1-4
Published monthly from June 2011 - September 2011. Written by Chris Ryall and Tom Waltz with art by David Messina.
To be published in January 2012. Will be written by Duane Swierczynski with art by David Messina.
Infes2ation: Transformers #1-2
To be published biweekly in February 2012. Will be written by Chuck Dixon with art by Guidi Guidi. The series takes place in a different Transformers universe than Transformers: Infestaion.
Infes2ation: Dungeons & Dragons: Eberron #1-2
To be published biweekly in February 2012. Will be written by Paul Crilley with art by Valerio Schiti.
Infes2ation: Team-Up #1
To be published in February 2012. Will be written by Chris Ryall with art by Alan Robinson. It is a humorous take on the event and features Archie from Groom Lake and Bat Boy from Weekly World News.
Infes2ation: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles #1-2
To be published biweekly in March 2012. Will be written by Tristan Jones with art by Mark Torres.
Infes2ation: G.I. Joe #1-2
To be published biweekly in March 2012. Will be written by Mike Raicht with art by Valentine de Landro.
Infes2ation: 30 Days of Night #1
To be published in April 2012. Will be written by Duane Swierczynski with art by Stuart Sayger.
To be published in April 2012. Will be written by Duane Swierczynski with art by David Messina.
The series has been collected into a number of trade paperbacks:
CVO: Covert Vampirirc Operations (collects CVO: Covert Vampiric Operations #1 and CVO: Artifact #1-3, 116 pages, October 2004, ISBN 978-1-932382-40-2)
CVO: Rogue State (collects CVO: Rogue State #1-5, 120 pages, August 2005, ISBN 978-1-932382-93-8)
CVO: African Blood (collects CVO: African Blood #1-4, 108 pages, April 2008, ISBN 978-1-60010-210-3)
Complete Zombies vs. Robots (collects Zombies vs. Robots #1-2 and Zombies vs. Robots vs. Amazons #1-3, 160 pages, August 2008, ISBN 978-1-60010-328-5)
Groom Lake (collects Groom Lake #1-4, 124 pages, October 2009, ISBN 978-1-60010-536-4)
Zombies vs. Robots: Aventure (collects Zombies vs. Robots: Aventure #1-4, 104 pages, September 2010, ISBN 978-1-60010-717-6)
Infestation, Vol. 1 (collects Infestation #1, Transformers: Infestation #1-2, and G.I. Joe: Infestation #1-2, 132 pages, August 2011, ISBN 978-1-60010-977-5)
Infestation, Vol. 2 (collects Star Trek: Infestation #1-2, Ghostbusters: Infestation #1-2, and Infestation #2, 128 pages, August 2011, ISBN 978-1-61377-003-0)
Infestation (collects Infestation #1-2, Transformers: Infestation #1-2, G.I. Joe: Infestation #1-2, Star Trek: Infestation #1-2, Ghostbusters: Infestation #1-2, and Pocket God: Infestation #1, 260 pages, December 2011, ISBN 978-1-61377-106-8)
Zombies vs. Robots: UnderCity (collects Zombies vs. Robots: UnderCity #1-4, 104 pages, October 2011, ISBN 978-1-61377-073-3)
Infestation: Outbreak (collects Infestation: Outbreak #1-4, 104 pages, December 2011, ISBN 978-1-61377-107-5)
This article is about the instrumental soundtrack from the 2006 film. For the lyrical soundtrack, see Happy Feet (soundtrack).
Happy Feet: Original Score
Film score by John Powell
Released December 19, 2006
Genre Film Score
Label Warner Sunset, Atlantic
Producer John Powell, George Miller
Happy Feet soundtrack chronology
(2006) Happy Feet: Original Score
(2006) Happy Feet Two
Happy Feet: Original Score is the instrumental score soundtrack album composed and produced by John Powell for the 2006 animated film, Happy Feet. John Powell is a film musician who is popularly used for contemporary action and comedy films, like X-Men: The Last Stand and Robots. Powell&#39;s expansive original score, featuring snippets of other lyrical songs performed by film characters, was released on December 19, 2006. 
"The Eggs Hatch"
"Birth of Mumble"
"The Skua Birds"
"In My Room"
Written by Gary Usher & Brian Wilson; Performed by the Sydney Children&#39;s Choir
(Originally performed by The Beach Boys)
"If I Could Sing"
"Leader of the Pack"
Written by Jeff Barry, Ellie Greenwich & George Morton; Performed by Dan Navarro
(Originally performed by The Shangri-Las)
"Fun Food Storm"
"The Alien Ships"
"In the Zoo"
"Tap Versus Chant"
^ Amazon.com: Happy Feet: Music: John Powell
Happy Feet (2006)
Happy Feet Two (2011)
The Mighty Sven
Happy Feet Two: The Video Game
Happy Feet: Original Score
Happy Feet Two
"The Song of the Heart"
"Hit Me Up"
"Bridge of Light"
Ебать! Если не прогон, то ты это я. ОП
ince unification in 1910, South Africa has used a range of National Symbols to identify the country: coats of arms, official seals, flags, national anthems, and floral, bird, animal, and other emblems.
1 Coats of arms
3.2 Merchant ensign
3.3 Civil ensign
3.4 Head of state&#39;s flag
4 National Anthem
5 Other symbols
7 See also
8 External links
Coats of arms
Coat of arms 1910
1910 coat of arms - granted by King George V in 1910, and used until 2000.
2000 coat of arms - introduced by the Mbeki administration in 2000.
Great Seal of the Union - authorised by King George V in 1910, and used until 1937 on state documents signed by the governor-general.
Royal Great Seal of the Union - authorised by the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act 1934, and used until 1961 on state documents signed by the monarch on the advice of the South African government.
Royal Signet of the Union - authorised by the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act 1934, and used until 1961 on state documents signed by the monarch on the advice of the South African government.
Governor-General&#39;s Great Seal - authorised by King George VI in 1937, and used until 1961 on state documents signed by the governor-general.
Seal of the Republic - authorised by the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act 1961, and used on state documents signed by the (state) president. The use of the seal has not been a constitutional requirement since 1997, but its use continues nevertheless.
National Flag of the Union - authorised by the Union Flags and Nationality Act 1927, and introduced in 1928. Renamed the "National Flag of the Republic" in 1961, it was used until 1994.
National Flag - the current flag, introduced in 1994.
Red Ensign defaced with the shield of the coat of arms - authorised by the Admiralty in 1910, for use on South African-registered merchant ships, and also used as an unofficial "national flag". From 1912, the shield was placed on a white disc. The ensign was discontinued in 1960.
Since 1960, the national flag has been used as the merchant ensign.
Blue Ensign defaced with the shield of the coat of arms - authorised by the Admiralty in 1910, for use on South African government vessels. Superseded by the National Flag of the Union.
Head of state&#39;s flag
Union Jack defaced with the full coat of arms surrounded by acacia leaves and flowers - flown by the governor-general until 1931.
Governor-General&#39;s flag - blue, displaying the royal crest between two ribands bearing the name of the country. Used from 1931 to 1961.
State President&#39;s flag (1) - blue, displaying the national coat of arms below the letters SP. Used from 1961 to 1984.
State President&#39;s flag (2) - orange, white, and blue triangles, displaying the national coat of arms below the letters SP. Used from 1984 to 1994.
God Save the King (Queen) - used from 1910 to 1957.
Die Stem van Suid-Afrika - used from 1938 to 1957 as joint anthem with God Save the King (Queen); from 1957 to 1994 as the sole national anthem; and from 1994 to 1997 as joint anthem with Nkosi sikelel&#39; iAfrika.
Nkosi Sikelel&#39; iAfrika - used from 1994 to 1997 as joint anthem with Die Stem.
National Anthem of South Africa - shortened versions of Nkosi sikelel&#39; iAfrika and Die Stem, with altered words, combined into a single anthem, and used since 1997.
^ a b c d e f g h Brownell, F.G. (1993). National and Provincial Symbols
^ Government Gazette no 21131 (28 April 2000)
^ a b Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act 1934
^ Government Gazette no 2533 (6 June 1938)
^ Republic of South Africa Constitution Acts 1961, 1983, 1993
^ Republic of South Africa Constitution 1996
^ Republic of South Africa Constitution Act 1961
^ a b Merchant Shipping Act 1951 w.e.f. 1 January 1960
^ Government Gazette no 18341 (10 October 1997)
Brownell, F.G. (1993). National and Provincial Symbols.
Burgers, A.P. (2008). The South African Flag Book.
Pama, C. (1965). Lions and Virgins.
Coat of arms of South Africa
Flag of South Africa
List of South African flags
National anthem of South Africa
National flower of South Africa
Пили фотки, посмотрим.
White Ladies Priory (often Whiteladies Priory), once the Priory of St Leonard at Brewood, was an English priory of Augustinian canonesses, now in ruins, in Shropshire, in the parish of Boscobel, some eight miles (13 km) northwest of Wolverhampton, near Junction 3 of the M54 motorway. Dissolved in 1536, it became famous for its role in the escape of Charles II of England after the Battle of Worcester in 1651. The name &#39;White Ladies&#39; refers to the canonesses who lived there and who wore white religious habits.
2 Building and endowments
3 The canonesses
4 Decay and dissolution
5 After dissolution
7 External links
The origins and exact date of foundation of the priory are not known. The surviving ruins show work typical of the late 12th century, and the first documentary evidence dates from 1186 or earlier. In it, Emma, daughter of Reynold of Pulverbatch, in the process of giving land to Haughmond Abbey mentions that she has already granted land in Beobridge to the white nuns of Brewood. In fact, it was not, and never has been, in the parish of Brewood, which is in the neighboring part of Staffordshire, not Shropshire: Brewood was simply the nearest village of any size. The priory was outside existing parishes and manors, so its location gives no clues to the identity of the founder.
The priory acquired the church and some tithes at Montford very early in its history. So it is possible that the Lacy family or the FitzAlans, who succeeded them as holders of the manor of Montford with Forton, may have been important in its founding.
The dedication was to St. Leonard of Noblac, a saint associated with the liberation of prisoners, who was extremely popular after a number of alleged miracles earlier in the 12th century.
Building and endowments
The view from the south-east. The large arch marks the entrance to the north transept. To the left of it can be seen the nave north wall and windows; to the right the chancel.
The church building was a simple cruciform, sandstone structure, with a nave of five bays, and a chancel of three bays. The transepts were small and without chapels. Today, the lay-out of the building is still easy to discern, although little remains of either transept, and only the north wall of the nave and chancel is fairly intact. There is a fine, round-headed Romanesque arch leading into the north transept, through which the residents would have passed to reach the cloister and the monastery. The windows on the north side are largely intact, making it easy to identify the bays of both nave and chancel. The south wall would have been windowed in the same way. It seems that the stone for the church was obtained locally - perhaps even in a field adjacent to the site, as one of the fish ponds seems to have been created from a quarry scoop.
The priory buildings are long-gone, and may have been timber-framed, but appear to have stood against the north wall of the church. Charles II commissioned a painting of the later house around 1670, and details of the painting suggest that it may have incorporated parts of the prioress&#39; residence, which must have stood west of the main priory buildings and cloister.
The priory held many very small pieces of property, mostly donated by local families - sometimes probably as the dowries of canonesses on their admission to the community. Sometimes the gift would be fishing rights, a watermill or advowson of a parish, rather than land. By the Dissolution, there were lands, property or rights at Beckbury, Berrington, Chatwall (in Cardington), Donington, High Ercall, Humphreston (in Donington), Ingardine (in Stottesdon), Highley, Rudge, Haughton (probably in Shifnal), Sutton Maddock, and Tong, as well as Montford - all fairly local. There were also properties in Calverton, Nottinghamshire and Tibshelf, Derbyshire.
The priory was occupied by canonesses regular of the Augustinian Order. Strictly, they were not nuns, but the term was used of them in the middle ages and still is. Although named after Saint Augustine of Hippo, the Rule of St. Augustine is actually a brief medieval document setting out guidelines for a religious life. It allowed its followers more access to the outside world than the stricter Benedictine Rule, and was more suited to a community involved with parish life. Many Augustinians were canons regular, who operated mainly outside the walls of a religious house, and are often confused with the Augustinian friars. As opposed to abbeys of "secular canonesses", these lived largely enclosed lives, in a manner similar to that of nuns, and the residents of White Ladies fell into this category. The priory normally supported five canonesses and a prioress, although there would also have been some lay servants.
John Leland was commissioned in 1533 by Henry VIII to investigate the libraries of religious houses in England. As part of his duties, he visited White Ladies shortly after its dissolution in 1536. He originated the false idea that White Ladies was a Cistercian house. Certainly Cistercians wore a white habit, while the color of the Augustinian habit could vary, the primary element being the wearing of a white, linen rochet, similar to that of the canons. However, the 14th century registers of the Bishop of Hereford clearly style the community "the prioress and convent of St Leonard of Brewood, of the Order of St Augustine".
Decay and dissolution
The priory was supervised by the Bishop of Lichfield, who carried out canonical visitations. Generally the small community was found to be struggling financially, although not in debt, and it was always able to meet its own burial costs. Sometimes the conduct of the prioress was found wanting. In 1338 Bishop Northburgh criticized Prioress Alice of Harley for her financial mismanagement, her extravagant dress, and for hunting and keeping hounds. When Prioress Alice Wood retired in 1498, she was assigned the income from Tibshelf, about a fifth of the total revenues, as a pension, but Bishop Arundel required that she pay for her own food if she stayed at Brewood.
From about that date, decline seems to have set in - probably because most of the income came from leases at fixed rents in a time of inflation. In 1521 it was found that, although the priory was actually not in debt, the prioress, probably Margaret Sandford, did not know how to render account and two canonesses claimed they were still owed their monthly incomes. In 1524 the dormitory was reported to be in bad repair. In 1535, White Ladies Priory was reported to have revenues of only S31 1s. 4d. Expenses came to S13 10s. 8d, including S5 for the chaplain. The next year&#39;s figures were almost identical. This brought it well within the threshold of the Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries Act of 1536, which dissolved all houses worth less than S200 per annum, clear of expenses.
Notice of the dissolution arrived in early 1537. Lord Stafford wanted the property, but the asking price was too high, and there were still four canonesses in residence early in 1538. By May, however, the dissolution was complete, and the site went to William Skeffington (also Skevington) of Wolverhampton on a 21-year lease.
The reversion was sold to William Whorwood, the Attorney General in 1540, which made him the effective owner, but Skeffington retained the lease. It was almost certainly he who built a house on the site, probably incorporating some of the prioress&#39;s residence. When he died in 1550, it will have passed to his wife, Joan, who subsequently married Edward Giffard, son of Thomas Giffard (died 1560) of Chillington. It is unclear whether Skeffington or Joan or Giffard paid off the Whorwoods, but the property certainly became part of the Giffard family&#39;s estates. After Edward, White Ladies passed to his son, John, who extended the old farm buildings north of the priory site to create Boscobel House about 1630. In 1651, it belonged to John Giffard&#39;s daughter, Frances Cotton, at that time a widow. The Giffards were Catholics and the most important Recusants in the area. They were strong supporters of the royalist cause in the English Civil War. Their servants too were all Catholic.
White Ladies was not occupied by Frances Cotton during the escape of Charles II. It was being run by housekeepers and servants. Among the tenants of the estate were five brothers called Penderell. (There had been six but one was killed at the Battle of Edgehill.) The Penderell family were small farmers but the sons seem to have worked part of their time as woodmen, farm servants and retainers of the Giffard family, living at different places in the neighborhood and caring for some houses such as White Ladies Priory and Boscobel House, which is about a mile away.
Charles Giffard, a cousin of Frances, escorted King Charles to White Ladies Priory early on 4 September 1651, after riding through the night after the previous day&#39;s battle. They were admitted by George Penderell, a servant of the house, who sent for Richard Penderell, who lived in a farm house nearby, and for their elder brother William, who was at Boscobel. After failing to cross the River Severn, Charles returned to the estate on 6 September and spent the day in the grounds of Boscobel House hiding in the famous Royal Oak.
Frances Cotton, n™e Giffard, died shortly after these events, and both White Ladies and Boscobel passed via her daughter, Jane Cotton, who had married Basil Fitzherbert in 1648, to the Fitzherbert family of Norbury Hall, Derbyshire. The house was demolished some time in the 18th century. The estate and Boscobel were sold to Walter Evans, a Derbyshire industrialist, in 1812, but the Fitzherbert family retained the White Ladies site. In 1884, the head of the Fitzherbert family became Lord Stafford, and in 1938 Edward Fitzherbert, 13th Baron Stafford placed White Ladies in the care of the Office of Works, a government department.
Whilst the priory is now gone, the remains of its medieval church and the 19th century boundary wall of the small graveyard still remain and are currently under the care of English Heritage. The graveyard was used by Catholic families until 1844, when St. Mary&#39;s church at Brewood was consecrated.
кто из Минска курит эту дурь?
The Graecostasis was a platform in the Comitium near the Roman forum, located to the west of the Rostra. The name refers to the Greek ambassadors for whom the platform was originally built after the Roman Republic conquered Greece. Placed at the southwest end of the Comitium, the platform was the designated spot for all representatives of foreign nations and dignitaries from the republic and empire&#39;s domain.
Visiting outsiders were not permitted within the Senate House or Curia and instead stood on this platform while waiting to meet with senators or to hear orations from the Rostra to its east side.
2 Surrounding area
The Graecostasis was, as Niebuhr remarks, like privileged seats in the hall of a parliamentary assembly. The Stationes Municipiorum, of which Pliny speaks, appear to have been places allotted to municipals for the same purpose. When the sun was seen from the Curia coming out between the Rostra and the Graecostasis, it was mid-day; and an accensus of the consul announced the time with a clear loud voice.
Much of the history of the structure has been effected in the same way as other known similar monuments. When the orators on the Rostra faced north towards the Curia to speak the Graecostatsis was aligned along a hemicircle believed to have been the outer footprint of the Comitium amphitheater removed when a moratorium against permanent theatre was placed on the city. It is believed this may have been from riots stirred up by political speeches on the Rostra or a political theatrical performance or show.
While there have been excavations of the site, the exact location remains unclear. Several layers of rubble in the Comitium show constant changes within a small period of time, which raised the level of the space and, consequently the location of the platform. Many historians believe that the Rostra maintained its location in the Comitium during varied restorations and construction as that platform was a permanent fixture of Roman politics and held in an honored and elevated status, while the Graecostasis was presumed to be a simple wooden structure. A theory has been put forth that the finale phase of the structure was constructed of stone and concrete and is visible in the topmost layer directly beneath the contemporary ground level next to the remains of the original Rostra before it was moved by Julius Caesar.
Due in part to confusion over a similarly named structure nearby and the Roman use of many Greek traditions the location has been debated; however contemporary writings from the time do distinguish two separate structures of which the Graecostadium is one, but much larger and a complete architectural building. Its use was for training and exercise and is the ancient equivalent to a large complicated gymnasium.
Near the Graecostasis and Rostra was an ancient shrine called the Vulcanal. It and the Lapis Niger represent the oldest parts of the Comitium space. The altar, originally a shrine to the god Vulcan, became the first suggestum or speakers platform, similar in nature to the Rostra and was probably first used for oration by the kings of Rome. The environs of the Vulcanal, Rostra and the Graecostasis is also the site of several historic monuments as well as two trees supposedly planted by Romulus. A cypress and a lotus tree stood close to these structures, and who&#39;s age and size were so great, it was recorded that the roots of the trees had begun to undermine the ground beneath the Forum of Caesar.
The original location of the Comitium was on a shelf like slope of the Capitoline hill. This shelf was wider due to the depression between two summits of the hill and located directly in front of the Tabularium. This is the location of a terrace where the three original races met on neutral ground outside the fortifications of their individual settlements and tribes and provided a location for the first buildings of mutual government. When the Tiber River flooded, water would cover the Forum and Comitium stalling all business for days on end. It was for this reason that many of the original buildings were placed upon higher ground and the lower level was reserved for assemblies, elections and public shows, making it necessary to be free from major permanent obstructions. It is believed that both the original Rostra and Graecostasis were just such non permanent structures. Simple raised, wooden tribunals that could be assembled, disassembled and moved where needed.
А у тебя няшная жёнушка? :3Просто ответь, потом поцелуй свою няшу в щёчку
Abel Jorge Pereira da Silva (born 21 August 1969 in Lisbon), sometimes known as just Abel, is a Portuguese retired footballer.
One of the players who scored (both editions combined) goals in Portugal&#39;s two consecutive FIFA U-20 World Cup triumphs, the right defender played for a total of ten clubs.
1 Playing career
2 Coaching career
4 External links
In 1987, at the age of 18, Abel was invited to play for S.L. Benfica&#39;s youth teams. He performed well, winning many youth awards, and moved to the first team after just one season. He was on squad for Portugal when it won the 1989 FIFA World Youth Championship, scoring the opener in the final against Nigeria (20).
After a first unspectacular season, only playing one game (his debut came against S.C. Braga, on 2 April 1989, in a 10 win), Silva transferred to Acad™mica de Coimbra in the second division on loan, where he was given his first real chance, totalling 14 appearances during the season and scoring two goals. His next stop was at F.C. Penafiel, in the same predicament, where he started most of the year to help his team avoid relegation, ultimately netting his penultimate goal as a professional.
Abel experienced a final loan spell with C.S. Marќtimo, also in the top level, in 199192, then returned to Benfica. In January 1995 he was finally released and joined VitЈria Futebol Clube, for whom he played nine times in the remainder of the season.
Subsequently, Silva represented F.C. Felgueiras, S.C. Campomaiorense, G.D. Estoril Praia, F.C. Alverca and Atl™tico Clube de Portugal the latter in division three with an average of about 20 appearances per year, before retiring from the game in June 2001, aged nearly 32. He amassed top flight totals of 142 games and nine goals over the course of nine seasons.
In 200405, Abel took up coaching, being part of Giovanni Trappatoni&#39;s staff as the Reds put an end to an 11-year drought and won the national league.
After more assistant spells, with F.C. Famalic“o and Al Nassr FC, he began his head coaching career in 2007, with lowly C.D. Portosantense. In 2011 he returned to Benfica, as scout.
^ Pierrend, Jos™ Luis. "World Youth Cup Champions Squads 1977 - 2005". RSSSF. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
^ "Veteranos da Associa—“o Acad™mica de Coimbra [Associa—“o Acad™mica de Coimbra veterans]" (in Portuguese). Veteranos AAC. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
Stats and profile at Zerozero
Stats at ForaDeJogo
Benfica career stats (Portuguese)
Abel Silva FIFA competition record
Help improve this page
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Sportspeople from Lisbon
Association football defenders
Primeira Liga players
S.L. Benfica footballers
Associa—“o Acad™mica de Coimbra players
F.C. Penafiel players
C.S. Marќtimo players
VitЈria F.C. players
F.C. Felgueiras players
S.C. Campomaiorense players
G.D. Estoril-Praia players
FC Alverca players
Portugal youth international footballers
Portugal under-21 international footballers
Portuguese football managers
Не буду, извини.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in the U.S. state of Nebraska face some legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents. Same-sex sexual activity is legal in Nebraska. Same-sex couples and families headed by same-sex couples do not have the same protections as opposite-sex couples.
1 Laws against homosexuality
2 Recognition of same-sex relationships
3 Adoption and parenting
4 Discrimination protection
5 Hate crime laws
6 Public Opinion
7 See also
Laws against homosexuality
All sodomy laws were repealed at the state level in June 1977.
Recognition of same-sex relationships
Nebraska voters adopted a constitutional amendment in November 2000 that defined marriage as the union of a man and a woman and prohibited the recognition of same-sex relationships under any other name. Similar restrictions appear in the state statutes as well.
A federal court challenge to the constitutional amendment, Citizens for Equal Protection v. Bruning, won in the District Court in 2005, but lost in the Court of Appeals in 2006. Opponents of the constitutional amendment did not seek review of that decision by the Supreme Court.
Adoption and parenting
Nebraska permits adoption by individuals. There are no explicit prohibitions on adoption by same-sex couples. Second-parent adoptions by one party to a same-sex couple terminates the parental rights of the other party.
No provision of Nebraska law explicitly addresses discrimination on the bases of sexual orientation or gender identity.
Hate crime laws
Nebraska&#39;s hate crimes law covers hate crimes based on sexual orientation but not those based on gender identity.
An August 2011 poll found that 42% of Nebraskans were in favor of same sex marriage and 51% were opposed. The polling results also showed that a majority of Omaha residents favor legal gay marriage. 54% of the city favored gay marriage and 40% were opposed.
A September 2011 Public Policy Polling survey found that 36% of Nebraska voters thought same-sex marriage should be legal, while 54% thought it should be illegal and 10% were not sure. A separate question on the same survey found that 64% of Nebraska voters supported the legal recognition of same-sex couples, with 30% supporting same-sex marriage, 34% supporting civil unions, but not marriage, 34% favoring no legal recognition and 2% not sure.
^ William N. Eskridge, Dishonorable Passions: Sodomy Laws in America, 1861-2003 (NY: Penguin Group, 2008), 201n, available online, accessed April 10, 2010
^ David Orgon Coolidge, "Evangelicals and the Same-Sex &#39;Marriage&#39; Debate," in Michael Cromartie, ed., A Public Faith: Evangelicals and Civic Engagement (Washington, DC: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 2003), 98-99, available online, accessed April 11, 2011
^ Human Resources Campaign: Nebraska Marriage/Relationship Recognition Law , accessed April 11, 2011
^ Omaha World-Herald: Citizens for Equal Protection v. Bruning, May 12, 2005 , accessed April 11, 2011
^ U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit: Citizens for Equal Protection v. Bruning, July 14, 2006, accessed April 11, 2011
^ Human Resources Campaign: NebraskaAdoption Law, accessed April 11, 2011
^ Human Resources Campaign: Nebraska Non-Discrimination Law, accessed April 11, 2011
^ Human Resources Campaign: Nebraska Hate Crimes Law, accessed April 11, 2011
^ "Poll: Gay-marriage opposition dips". Livewell Nebraska. Retrieved 8/19/2011.
^ , Nebraska supports Civil Unions September 30-October 2, 2011
Вайп ми гуд ю пис оф гавно! Надеюсь твоя дрочная жизнь пройдет без проблем. ОП
The Rhoads Opera House, located in Boyertown, Pennsylvania, caught fire on January 13, 1908 during a church-sponsored stage play. The fire started when a kerosene lamp was knocked over, lighting gasoline from a stereoscopic machine. The stage and auditorium were located on the 2nd floor and all auxiliary exits were either unmarked or locked. One fire escape was available but unable to be accessed through a locked window above a 3 foot sill. 171 people perished when the exit was crowded against to escape the fire. Entire families were wiped out.
4 External links
According to the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, Philadelphians contributed relief funds of $18,000. Three morgues were set up and approximately fifteen thousand people attended funerals on a single day. One hundred and five new graves were dug in Boyertown&#39;s Fairview Cemetery.
In the days following the fire, Dr. Daniel Kohler, Burgess of Boyertown, appointed a relief committee, to whom the people were asked to report the names of missing persons, and who would arrange a proper and speedy burial of the dead. The Relief Committee would act in tandem with the National Bank of Boyertown (now known as National Penn Bank), to receive and distribute all contributions received from all sources. The Committee met three times a day the first weeks following the fire, once a day the next month and once a week for the next year. Irwin Ehst served as chairman, James Stauffer as secretary. On April 10, 1909, the Berks County Democrat, the newspaper published in Boyertown, PA, printed a detailed report of the income and expenditures of the Relief Committee. Total contributions received equaled $22,075.89. A total of $21,636.44 was expended. The largest contributors noted were Calvin Fegley, Treasurer of Pottstown ($2,000); Eishenlor Brothers Cigar Factory ($1,000) and Boyertown Burial Casket ($600).
The incident spurred the Pennsylvania legislature into passing new legislative standards for doors, landings, lighting, curtains, fire extinguishers, aisles, marked exits, and doors. All doors were required to open outward and remain unlocked. Pennsylvania governor Edwin Stuart signed Pennsylvanias first fire law on May 3, 1909.
A building of apartments and stores has now been built on the former opera house&#39;s site with a plaque commemorating the tragedy.
Memorial to the unidentified victims in Fairview Cemetery, Boyertown
Memorial Plaque on the former Rhoads Opera House Building
January 13, 1908, was meant to be a night to remember in Boyertown, Pennsylvania.
The town was buzzing over the debut of a new play, "The Scottish Reformation," at the Rhoads Opera House. While dozens of townspeople readied for their roles as cast members, hundreds of others laid out their Sunday best in anticipation of watching the action unfold from the audience. But no one could have guessed what real life drama awaited them inside the walls of the opera house.
WFMZ-TV marked the 100th anniversary of that fateful night with a one hour documentary, "The Rhoads Opera House Fire: The Legacy of a Tragedy." It revisits the fire that killed 170 people and sparked changes in fire safety standards that still stand today. "The fire wiped out about 10 percent of the town," says WFMZ reporter Jaccii Farris, the documentarys writer and narrator. "Nearly everyone knew someone or cared about someone who died."
The fire broke out when an actor knocked over a kerosene light on the stage. The entire opera house was engulfed in minutes. Many of the victims could not escape the flames due to the fire exits not being clearly marked. In addition, the doors of the opera house opened inward, so panicked patrons sealed their own fate when they crowded together in front of them.
Farris says the fire brought Boyertown to a standstill.
"Every day (after the fire) there were funerals and burials," she says.
The impact of the loss was woven through the entire town. Children were orphaned, and entire families were wiped out. Others had to learn to live without brothers, sisters, cousins, and friends. Farris says, in one example, a wife went to the play to surprise her husband, who was playing piano for the show.
"Unfortunately, the surprise he got was that his wife was among the dead," says Farris.
But from the ashes of tragedy came the seeds of change. The fire was the catalyst for revamping building safety regulations nationwide.
"Now, anytime you walk into a building, youll walk past exits signs. Fire extinguishers will be on the walls, and the doors will open outward," says Farris.
Schneider, Mary Jane. (1991) Midwinter Mourning: The Boyertown Opera House Fire. MJS Publications.
The Rhoads Opera House Fire; The Legacy of a Tragedy, Documentary DVD 2008. WFMZ TV Documentary Unit. Winner PAB Best Documentary 2008.
Boyertown Information Page
Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry
100th anniversary of the fire TV special website
Coordinates: 40.3318`N 75.6353`W
Blenheim (pron.: /xblnm/, M±ori: &#39;Waiharakeke&#39;) is the most populous town in the region of Marlborough, in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand, and the seat of the regional council. It has a urban population of 30500 (June 2012 estimate). The area which surrounds the town is well known as a centre of New Zealand&#39;s wine industry. It enjoys one of New Zealand&#39;s sunniest climates, with hot, relatively dry summers and crisp winters.
The Marlborough Region in which Blenheim is situated has a wide range of leisure activities, from swimming with dolphins in the Marlborough Sounds to watching whales in Kaikoura; from walks through the bush and along the rugged coastline, as well as scenic boat cruising, fishing, water-skiing and kayaking. The relaxed lifestyle and the flourishing wine and gourmet food industry in Marlborough are enjoyed by both locals and visitors alike.
Blenheim is named after the Battle of Blenheim (1704), where troops led by John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough defeated a combined French and Bavarian force.
2.2 Weather Extremes
2.3 Climate Data
10 Events and points of interest
12 External links
"Kia Ora Welcome to Blenheim"
The sheltered coastal bays of Marlborough supported a small M±ori population possibly as early as the 12th century. Anthropologists have christened this part of central Aotearoa, Waenganui, a region that stretched from inland Ureweras to Kaiapohia. M±ori in the Marlborough Region cultivated crops, including kumara (sweet potato) and exploited marine resources.
Although the early history of Marlborough was closely associated with the Nelson settlement, the people of Marlborough wanted independence from Nelson. Nineteen years after the original Nelson settlement the request of Marlborough settlers was granted, and Marlborough became a separate province in 1859. Although gold was discovered in the province in the early 1860s the boom did not last and, while it helped to expand the region, the development of pastoralism provided the greatest long-term benefits. Marlborough squatters developed huge sheep runs that dominated the countryside, rivalling Canterbury&#39;s sheep stations in size and wealth.
Today the region&#39;s economy is still rurally based with pastoral and horticultural farming, providing a major source of income. The region&#39;s inhabitants continue to utilise the marine resources. Lake Grassmere is the country&#39;s only source of salt, and fishing and mussel farming are also extremely important in the region. Grape growing has been one of the fastest growing industries and Marlborough is now New Zealand&#39;s largest wine producing region, receiving worldwide recognition for its sauvignon blanc wines. Olive growing has also become popular in recent years.
Vineyards in the region include: Wither Hills Vineyard, located in Omaka. Terravin, a vineyard located in Omaka. Montana Wineries, also located in Omaka.
The sunny, pleasant climate has attracted people to the region, either as holiday-makers or as permanent settlers. The region is especially popular among retired people, as well as people seeking an alternative lifestyle. Rapid population growth and other factors though have led to a contemporary chronic shortage of affordable housing for low and middle income earners.
The Taylor River in central Blenheim
[icon] This section requires expansion. (June 2008)
The Taylor River Geyser in Blenheim City
Blenheim, situated on the Wairau Plain, is mostly flat with surrounding hills, which do not, however, give it as much protection from prevailing winds as might be expected. Open areas in and around Blenheim are hit quite hard by winds blowing in from Cook Strait. Blenheim sits at the confluence of the Taylor and Opawa rivers. Blenheim is in a tectonically active zone and experiences several (usually small) earthquakes each year. The boundary between the Pacific plate (on which Blenheim sits) and the Indo-Australian plate passes just north of Blenheim.
The climate of Blenheim is generally very settled, largely due to the rainshadow effect of the mountain ranges to the west which shelter Blenheim from the heaviest of rains that hit the western part of the South Island.
Summers are typically warm & dry while winters are normally cool & frosty with clear sunny days that follow. Snowfall in Blenheim is rare as it is sheltered from cold southerly weather by the mountain ranges to the south.
Thunderstorms are also an uncommon occurrence due to the sheltered aspect of Blenheim&#39;s climate, though there is a higher likelihood of these occurring in Summer months due to afternoon heating generating cloud buildups above the ranges.
The highest recorded temperature in Blenheim is 36.0C, the lowest 8.8C.
[hide]Climate data for Blenheim
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high `C (`F) 23.8
Average low `C (`F) 12.5
Precipitation mm (inches) 47
Source: NIWA Climate Data
Based on the number of hours of sun recorded, in more recent years the title of "New Zealand&#39;s Sunniest Town" has gone to Blenheim. Historically, Nelson has been the sunniest.
NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research), New Zealand&#39;s "Crown-owned research and consultancy company", states:
"The sunniest centre in 2008 was Blenheim, recording 2505 hours, followed by Nelson with 2472 hours, then Lake Tekapo with 2444 hours"
At the 2006 census, Blenheim had a population of 28,700, a change of 7.0% since the 2001 census. The June 2012 estimate put Blenheim&#39;s population at 30500.
21.3% of people living in Blenheim were under 15, compared with 22.7% for all of New Zealand.
16.7% of people living in Blenheim were aged 65 years and over, compared with 12.1% for all of New Zealand.
28.7% of people aged 15 years and over had a post-secondary-school qualification, compared with 32% for New Zealand as a whole.
Most Blenheim residents are of European origin, predominantly of British, Irish, German and Dutch descent. Small M±ori, Pacific Island and Asian communities exist. Ethnic diversity has increased in recent years[when?] with the arrival of large numbers of South Americans (mostly Brazilians) and Asians (mainly Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Filipino) who work in the expanding viticulture sector.
The 2006 New Zealand Census found that of people in the Blenheim Urban Area who actually completed the census forms (which are not available in either Japanese or Korean script):
78.4% belonged to the European or Pakeha ethnic group
1.6% belonged to the Asian ethnic group
10.5% belonged to the M±ori ethnic group
1.6% belonged to the Pacific Island ethnic group
0.5% belonged to the Middle Eastern/Latin American/African ethnic groups
16.1% belonged to Other ethnic group
Today the region&#39;s economy is still rurally based with pastoral and horticultural farming, providing a major source of income. The region&#39;s inhabitants continue to utilise the marine resources. Lake Grassmere is the country&#39;s only source of salt. Fishing and mussel farming are also extremely important in the region. Grape growing has been one of the fastest growing industries and Marlborough is now New Zealand&#39;s largest wine producing region, receiving worldwide recognition for its sauvignon blanc wines. Olive growing has also become popular in recent years.
The Marlborough region is famous for its wine production, although other forms of agriculture are significant and the services sectors is also important.
With the growing international critical recognition of Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, much of the wine industry has come to be dominated by large firms, owned by major New Zealand companies or offshore investors. There are currently over 50 vineyards that are located adjacent to Blenheim. Wages for most industry participants are low (around NZ$12-NZ$13/hour) and often calculated on a piece rate basis. Employment arrangements are often insecure and frequently not in accordance with New Zealand employment law. Agricultural land prices in the Wairau Valley have increased dramatically in value through the 1990s and 2000s.
The sunny, pleasant climate has long attracted people to the region, either as holiday-makers or as permanent settlers. The region is especially popular among retired people, as well as people seeking an alternative lifestyle. Rapid population growth and other factors though have led to a contemporary chronic shortage of affordable housing for low and middle income earners.
The first school was opened in Blenheim in 1859. By 1875 there were three classes: Blenheim Upper Boys, Blenheim Lower Boys, and Blenheim Girls and Infants. A Blenheim High School was formed within the school in 1879.
Catholic schools for boys and girls also were established in Blenheim in 1872. St Mary&#39;s Boys&#39; school replaced it in 1886. In 1929 St Mary&#39;s was rebuilt after a fire.
A coeducational secondary school called Marlborough High School was founded in Blenheim in 1900. It moved to the Marlborough Boys&#39; College Stephenson Street site in 1901. In 1919 it changed its name to Marlborough College. The intermediate section was split to form Bohally Intermediate in 1956, and the girls moved to form Marlborough Girls&#39; College in 1962, at which time the school took its current name.
Marlborough Boys&#39; College is a boys&#39; secondary (years 913) school with a roll of 1006. Marlborough Girls&#39; College is a girls&#39; secondary (years 913) school with a roll of 1029. Both have a decile rating of 7.
The other schools in Blenheim are all coeducational.
Bohally Intermediate is an intermediate (years 78) school with a roll of 407 and a decile rating of 6.
Blenheim School and Whitney Street School are contributing primary (years 16) schools with decile ratings of 3 and 5, respectively. Blenheim School has a roll of 81, and Whitney Street School has a roll of 248.
St Mary&#39;s School is a state integrated full primary (years 18) school with a decile rating of 8 and a roll of 376.
Other primary schools are in the suburbs of Redwoodtown, Witherlea, Mayfield, and Springlands, and in the surrounding localities of Renwick, Fairhall, Grovetown, Rapaura and Riverlands.
The Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology has a campus in Blenheim.
Да братишка, мы это мы.
Woodbourne Airport is a domestic airport and is also used by the RNZAF as an operational base. There are direct flights from Auckland, Christchurch and Wellington with Air New Zealand. From Nelson and Paraparaumu with Air2there. Omaka Aerodrome, to the south of the city centre, is used solely by private and vintage aircraft. An airshow (based mainly on World War I and II aircraft) is held at Omaka Aerodrome every two years at Easter.
State Highway 1 runs through Blenheim and State Highway 6 terminates at the junction of the two state highways. Blenheim is notable for a town of its size in that it does not have traffic lights at any intersection. Instead, roundabouts speed arterial traffic flow. Since the installation of these roundabouts traffic volumes have quickly increased and upgrading options are being considered, e.g. traffic lights, longer two-lane approaches and even a bypass.
Blenheim is on the Main North Line, the northern part of the unofficially-named South Island Main Trunk Railway. The TranzCoastal, the daily long-distance passenger train between Picton and Christchurch, stops at Blenheim Railway Station.
A major railway classification yard is north of Blenheim at Spring Creek.
The narrow-gauge Blenheim Riverside Railway runs through the town.
Blenheim is served by a variety of print publications. The major daily newspaper serving the Blenheim-Picton area is The Marlborough Express published by Fairfax NZ. The Marlborough Express&#39;s headquarters is in downtown Blenheim. The Saturday Express and Midweek are community newspapers published by the same company and distributed throughout Marlborough. The Blenheim Sun is a twice weekly free newspaper distributed in Marlborough each Wednesday and Friday.
This is a list of FM radio stations in Blenheim. Note that the town can also receive most FM & AM radio stations from the capital city of Wellington, across Cook Strait; these are not included in this list.
FM Frequency Nickname Callsign Format
88.1 The Shed Classic rock
88.7 Sunshine Radio Easy listening
88.9 Fresh FM Nelson Alternative Community Radio
89.7 The Breeze Easy Listening
90.5 ZM Top 40
91.3 The Rock Classic/Modern Rock
92.1 Newstalk ZB News/Talk
92.9 MORE FM Marlborough Adult Contemporary
94.5 Radio Hauraki Classic Rock
95.3 Radio Live News/Talk
96.1 Solid Gold Classic Rock/Oldies
96.9 Classic Hits Marlborough 2ZZE-FM Classic Hits
98.5 Radio Sport Sports/Talk
99.3 Radio New Zealand Concert Classical
101.7 Radio New Zealand National Public Radio
104.9 The Edge FM Top 40
105.7 LiveSport Horseracing
106.7 Whisper FM Nostalgia
AM Frequency Nickname Callsign Format
1539AM Radio Sport 2ZE-AM Sports/Talk
Events and points of interest
Seymour Square, the main square of Blenheim
Omaka Aerodrome, south of the town centre, is the setting for the biennial Classic Fighters Marlborough airshow. The show, with a large emphasis on aircraft of World War One, has been held biannually since 2001, with the last show held over Easter weekend 2011.
The Forrest Graperide is a 101 km (63 mi) cycle race held through the most picturesque scenery in Marlborough every autumn and is a big drawcard for cyclists all over New Zealand.
Hunters Garden Marlborough is an annual event held over a few days in early November which celebrates the gardens & the love of gardening in the Marlborough region. The event comprises garden tours, specialist workshops, and a fete.
The Havelock Mussel festival is an annual event held in Havelock in mid March which celebrates the produce of local mussel industry. With the 2011 festival offering over 70 stalls of food, wine, beer, jewellery, craft and industry, there is usually plenty to entertain or amuse.
Kaikoura Seafest is held annually in late September/early October in Kaikoura. This event celebrates the food, wines, and beverages featured predominantly from the local Kaikoura, Marlborough, and North Canterbury regions.
The first weekend in February sees the festival "Blues, Brews and BBQ&#39;s", which comprises Blues and Jazz music, food and a variety of Beer and wine. It starts at 12 pm and ends at 7 pm, located at the A and P park near Redwoodtown.
The second weekend in February marks the annual event of Wine Marlborough. This event is a showcase of the regions wines brought together in one place at Brancott Estate vineyard with good food & great entertainment on the offering.
The Marlborough Wine Weekend, first held in 2007 and held biannually since in late October is a showcase of new release Marlborough wines and the greater Marlborough wine growing region. Hosted on a variety of stunning Marlborough sites this event is a wine enthusiast&#39;s Mecca as well as a quality destination event with trade and VIP guests enjoying fine wine, gourmet cuisine and magnificent venues.
Seymour Square and Pollard Park are two of the town&#39;s main attractions for walks and general tourism. Seymour Square is an open public area at the centre of Blenheim. The Square contains the War Memorial and Clock Tower, unveiled in 1928, which is classified as a "Category I" ("places of &#39;special or outstanding historical or cultural heritage significance or value&#39;") historic place by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust. The Square was named after Henry Seymour.
The Wither Hills are just out of Blenheim and have many attractive walks found just off Maxwell Road. They are dry and arid and have seen many severe forest fires in the past.
The GCSB Waihopai communications monitoring facility, part of the ECHELON network, is situated near Blenheim.
Reed, A. W. (2002). The Reed Dictionary of New Zealand Place Names. Auckland: Reed Books. ISBN 0-7900-0761-4.
^ a b c "Subnational population estimates at 30 June 2012". Statistics New Zealand. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012. Also "Infoshare; Group: Population Estimates - DPE; Table: Estimated Resident Population for Urban Areas, at 30 June (1996+) (Annual-Jun)". Statistics New Zealand. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
^ "Climate Data". NIWA. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
^ A. D. McIntosh, ed. (1940). Marlborough A Provincial History. pp. 338349.
^ A. D. McIntosh, pp 328329
^ "Marlborough Boys&#39; College History".
^ "Te Kete Ipurangi Marlborough Boys&#39; College". Ministry of Education.
^ "Te Kete Ipurangi Marlborough Girls&#39; College". Ministry of Education.
^ "Te Kete Ipurangi Bohally Intermediate". Ministry of Education.
^ "Te Kete Ipurangi Blenheim School". Ministry of Education.
^ "Te Kete Ipurangi Whitney Street School". Ministry of Education.
^ "Te Kete Ipurangi St Mary&#39;s School, Blenheim". Ministry of Education.
^ "Marlborough Campus". Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology.
^ "Hunter&#39;s Garden Marlborough, Garden Tours, Workshops, Market Day.". Retrieved 24 January 2012.
^ "War Memorial and Clock Tower". Register of Historic Places. New Zealand Historic Places Trust. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
^ An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand 1966
Blenheim Tourist Information
Marlborough District Council
The Marlborough Express daily newspaper
Blenheim Street Map
Marlborough Boys&#39; College website
Marlborough Girls&#39; College website
The Best is a compilation double album of American guitarist Leo Kottke&#39;s releases on the Capitol label. The liner notes were written by Dr. Demento.
The Rhino box set release Anthology covers the first 15 years of Kottke&#39;s career and includes selections from the Takoma, Capitol, and Chrysalis releases along with extensive liner notes. Capitol later released another compilation package titled The Best of Leo Kottke. Chrysalis released Essential Leo Kottke covering Kottke&#39;s mid-career releases on that label. Blue Note Records also released two compilations, The Best of the Capitol Years and The Best of the Chrysalis Years on CD in 2003.
The Best was re-issued on CD by BGO (CD277) in 1996.
2 Track listing
2.1 Side one
2.2 Side two
2.3 Side three
2.4 Side four
5 External links
Allmusic 4.5/5 stars 
In their 1996 review, Dirty Linen stated "...Combining equal parts acoustic, electric, live, and vocal material, the compilation is an ideal introduction for new listeners...",
In his Allmusic review, critic Thom Jurek called it "...the best one for the money. Sonically it is superior, using later-phase master technology, and its presentation is sleeker as well. The biggest asset here is that this collection does feature some of the more well-known vocal selections closely associated with the guitarist..."
Music critic Robert Christgau stated: "Much as I admire John Fahey, I&#39;m no aficionado of the school of solo guitar he inspired, and though I once complained that Kottke lacked Fahey&#39;s "courage and clarity" I think what I really meant was geniusand I have no idea what that means. If a guest were to request Kottke I&#39;d play Capitol&#39;s The Best twofer, which I enjoy under duressthe sides he doesn&#39;t sing on, that is."
All songs by Leo Kottke except as noted.
The four original sides were labeled, in order, Acoustic, Electric, Live, and Singing
All songs taken from Mudlark, Greenhouse, Ice Water, My Feet are Smiling, Dreams and All That Stuff, and Chewing Pine
The 1996 CD release included two discs.
"Machine No. 2" 3:00
"Cripple Creek" (Traditional) 3:07
"Bouree" (J. S. Bach) 1:26
"When Shrimps Learn to Whistle" 3:28
"Bill Cheatham" (Traditional) 1:45
"The Song of the Swamp" 3:00
"Last Steam Engine Train" (John Fahey) 3:02
"Bean Time" 2:32
"The Spanish Entomologist" 2:19
"Short Stories" (Leo Kottke, Cal Hand) 3:01
"Hole in the Day" 2:50
"Mona Roy" 1:48
"Venezuela, There You Go" 3:08
"Monkey Lust" (Kottke, Kim Fowley) 1:48
"Busted Bicycle" 2:37
"June Bug" 2:06
"Eggtooth" (Kottke, Johnson) 5:15
"Living in the Country" (Pete Seeger) 1:36
"Medley Crow River Waltz/Jesu, Joy of Man&#39;s Desiring/Jack Fig" 7:20
"Standing in My Shoes" (Kottke, Bruce) 4:01
"Eight Miles High" (Roger McGuinn, David Crosby, Gene Clark) 3:33
"Tilt Billings and the Student Prince" (Leo Kottke, Ron Nagle) 4:56
"Pamela Brown" (Tom T. Hall) 4:02
"Standing on the Outside" (Leo Kottke, Mary Kottke) 2:29
"Power Failure" (Gary Brooker, Keith Reid) 2:20
Leo Kottke - 6 & 12-string guitar, vocals
Bill Barber - piano
Bill Berg - drums
Kenny Buttrey - drums
Roy Estrada - bass
Kim Fowley - vocals
Cal Hand - pedal steel guitar
Paul Lagos - drums
Wayne Moss - bass
Larry Taylor - bass
^ a b Jurek, Thom. "The Best > Review". Allmusic. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
^ "Burnt Lips". Dirty Linen: 59. June/July 1996.
^ Robert Christgau web site.
The Best liner notes
Leo Kottke&#39;s official site
Unofficial Leo Kottke web site (fan site)
The Capitol Years
RamЈn Sagredo (18341873) was a 19th century Mexican painter and photographer who worked under the patronage of Emperor Maximilian and decorated the former cupola of "La Profesa" with the Catalonian master Pelegrќn Clav™.
Trained at San Carlos Academy from 1854 to 1859, he received praise for his Jesus on the road to Emmaus (including a positive review by Cuba&#39;s national poet Jos™ Martќ). Under sponsorship of Maximilian of Mexico, he went on to decorate Iturbide Hall at the Imperial Palace (current Ambassador&#39;s Hall at the National Palace) with a full-length, posthumous portrait of Vicente Guerrero. He also worked with Clav™ on the former cupola of La Profesa (ravaged by a fire in January 1914) and at San Carlos&#39; galleries.
By the end of the Reform War, his personal finances were dwindling. Following the example of many of his contemporaries, he ventured into photography by painting over photographic enlargements for a fraction of its cost. According to an 1862 newspaper article quoted by Oliver Debroise:
[RamЈn Sagredo and other artists] sacrificed their best years and resources to a most beautiful art that is, unfortunately, little appreciated [...] Consequently, they have abandoned those studies that cost them so dearly [...] Today they contribute their talents and the fruit of their long vigils to the profit of photographers who, employing them in the coloring of photographic portraits for the paltry stipend of one-third of their value, take advantage of the labor of these former students of the Academy.
Later on, as a photographer, he formed short-lived associations with Luis Veraza (1864), for whom he started coloring at Espќritu Santo 17 m; and the Valleto brothers (Sagredo, Valleto y Ca.,1865) at Vergara 7, before setting up his own studio in the Mexican capital.
The details of his death are rather murky. According to most sources, he committed suicide on 2 July 1872 while San Carlos&#39; galleries catalog, according to Abelardo Carrillo y Gariel, places his death in 1873.
JesЄs en el camino a EmaЄs (Jesus on the road to Emmaus) shown at the gallery of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City.
La muerte de SЈcrates (The Death of Socrates), exhibited at the National Museum of San Carlos.
Ismael abandonado en el desierto (Ishmael Abandoned in the Desert), exhibited at the Quer™taro Museum of Art.
Vicente Guerrero (circa 1865), a full-length, posthumous portrait of the Mexican liberator exhibited at Ambassador&#39;s Hall (National Palace).
^ a b qlvarez, Jos™ Rogelio, ed. (1993) (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de M™xico. EdiciЈn especial para Encyclop–dia Britannica de M™xico. XII (2 ed.). Enciclopedia de M™xico. pp. 7081. ISBN 968-457-180-1. OCLC 28982138.
^ Garcќa Barrag‘n, Elisa (1982). "El pintor Pelegrќn Clav™ y la renovaciЈn de la Academia de San Carlos" (in Spanish). Historia del arte mexicano (SEP/INBA/Salvat) 8 (72): 38.
^ V‘zquez P™rez, Marlene. "Martќ crќtico de arte" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2009-04-18.
^ a b B‘ez, Eduardo (1992) (in Spanish). La pintura militar de M™xico en el siglo XIX. Mexico City: Secretarќa de la Defensa Nacional. pp. 46. ISBN 968-6285-65-2 9789686285659. OCLC 29319186.
^ "Iglesia San Jos™ el Real, La Profesa" (in Spanish). Instituto de AdministraciЈn y AvalЄos de Bienes Nacionales. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
^ a b Debroise, Oliver (2001). Mexican Suite: A History of Photography in Mexico. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. pp. 3132. ISBN 0-292-71611-7 9780292716117. OCLC 249945646. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
^ Aguilar Ochoa, Arturo (1996) (in Spanish). La fotografќa durante el Imperio de Maximiliano. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional AutЈnoma de M™xico, Instituto de Investigaciones Est™ticas. pp. 161. ISBN 968-36-4505-4 9789683645050. OCLC 253917303. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
^ Negrete qlvarez, Claudia (2006). "De Veracruz a M™xico" (in Spanish). Valleto Hermanos: fotЈgrafos mexicanos de entresiglos (1 ed.). Mexico City: Universidad Nacional AutЈnoma de M™xico, Instituto de Investigaciones Est™ticas. pp. 3738. ISBN 970-32-3164-0 9789703231645. OCLC 150855436. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
^ Rodrќguez Prampolini, Ida (1997) (in Spanish). La crќtica de arte en M™xico en el siglo XIX. Estudios y documentos. Mexico City: Universidad Nacional AutЈnoma de M™xico, Instituto de Investigaciones Est™ticas. pp. 150151. ISBN 968-36-4818-5 9789683648181. OCLC 252677079. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
^ Carrillo y Gariel, Abelardo (1950) (in Spanish). Las galerќas de San Carlos. Mexico City: Ediciones Mexicanas. pp. 39. OCLC 253113387.
^ Fern‘ndez, Justino. "Jos™ Justo Montiel: Un pintor desconocido de mediados del siglo XIX" (in Spanish). Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Est™ticas. Universidad Nacional AutЈnoma de M™xico. Retrieved 2009-04-18.
^ Hern‘ndez S‘nchez-Barba, Mario, ed. (1989). "El arte hispanoamericano y sus tendencias" (in Spanish). Reformismo y progreso en Am™rica (1840-1905). Madrid: Rialp. pp. 473. ISBN 84-321-2119-3 9788432121197 8432121126 9788432121128. OCLC 20981075. Retrieved 2009-04-19.
^ "Museo de Arte de Quer™taro". Academy of San Carlos Collection. Retrieved 2009-04-19.[dead link]
Mexico This article about an artist from Mexico is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
А передозы были, ОП? Ну, там, лютую измену ловил, стены надвигающиеся, панические атаки, чувство неминуемого пиздеца? Если да, старайся почаще думать о них и пореже о приятных составляющих.
>>40647568>А от сахара и алкоголя в 10 раз страшнее, так как от последних двух люди умирают при отказе от вещества.
люди умирают при отказе от алкоголя?
ISM Racing is a former autoracing team owned by Bob Hancher. The team fielded entries in the Indy Racing League and the NASCAR Winston Cup Series.
Indy Racing League
ISM fielded cars in the IRL from 1997 to 1999. In 1998, Jeff Ward finished 6th in IRL driver points and won the pole at Phoenix in an ISM car and the team fielded three cars in the 1998 Indianapolis 500. However, the team was only able to run part-time in 1999 and shut down in July of that year. The IRL team used G-Force chassis and Oldsmobile engines.
ISM IRL drivers
Jim Guthrie (1998)
Steve Knapp (1998-1999)
Jeff Ward (1997-1999)
The Tabasco Pontiac
McIlhenny Company, maker of Tabasco brand products, sponsored their Winston Cup car. The company announced in 1997 that it would sponsor the #35 Pontiac driven by Todd Bodine. The car would be owned by Bob Hancher. The team debuted on the weekend of the announcement at Lowe&#39;s Motor Speedway, with Bodine finishing 26th.
After a rumor that Tabasco had ended his its sponsorship, the team failed to qualify for the first three races of the 1998 season. Surprisingly, McIlhenny Company voiced no concerns, despite the high-pressure stakes of NASCAR racing.
After a tenth-place finish at Atlanta Motor Speedway, Team Tabasco missed the next race at Darlington Raceway, as well as three of the next four races, ranking 39th place in the one race in which it did appear.
A practice accident took Bodine out of the California 500, where Wally Dallenbach Jr. filled in as driver. Bodine would be back on board for the Coca-Cola 600 in late May, finishing 28th.
June 6 saw Bodine&#39;s last ride in the Tabasco Pontiac at Richmond International Raceway. In his brief tenure, Team Tabasco only managed to qualify in five of the first thirteen races (including the race during which Dallenbach drove). Without the sponsor&#39;s knowledge, ISM released Bodine after the race in an attempt to turn things around.
ISM replaced Bodine with Loy Allen Jr., and it scheduled Gary Bradberry and Jimmy Horton to drive for the team at future races. After running only one of the next three races, however, Hancher sold the operation to Tim Beverly and his driver Darrell Waltrip. The Tyler Jet Motorsports Team drove Chevrolet Monte Carlos and intended to continue using the model. In their first race, the Brickyard 400, Waltrip started dead-last but climbed through the field to finish 13th. But the team&#39;s use of Chevrolets sparked outrage at McIlhenny Company because it had invested heavily in Pontiacs as part of its marketing program. Lawsuits ensued between Tabasco and Hancher, and McIlhenny Company forced the team to run Pontiacs. Waltrip&#39;s best finish that year was 18th at Richmond; otherwise, the team performed poorly and Tabasco left the sport at the end of the year.
In NASCAR discussion this affair has become known as the "Tabasco Fiasco".
Так я тред запилил после последней с ней ссоры, не могу больше так. Конечно няшная, иначе зачем жениться? ОП
hahinkapa Zoo is an 18-acre (7.3 ha) zoo in Wahpeton, North Dakota. Opened in 1933 on land that had been purchased in 1903, it is the first zoo built in North Dakota. It is open May through October and by appointment during the winter. It features over 200 animals ranging from Gibbon apes to Bengal Tigers.
Chahinkapa Zoo has been accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) since 1995.
5 External links
Wahpeton purchased the land for Chahinkapa Park from the federal government in 1903. In 1933 the town established a Park Board with R.J. Hughes as director, and started the zoo with just a few animals.
In the 1960s the zoo was moved to its current location, occupying 18 acres (7.3 ha) at the North end of Chahinkapa Park. The Chahinkapa Zoo Association was formed in 1974 to help plan and raise money for the zoo, and by 1984 a master plan had been developed.
In 1989 the Rodger Ehnstrom Nature Center was opened as the center of educational activity in the zoo. The zoo hired its first director in 1994, and was accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) in 1995.
In April 1997 the zoo was flooded, but all animals were safely evacuated and the zoo reopened at the end of May. Subsequently a levee was constructed to protect the North side of Walpeton (including the zoo) from 500 year flood levels. The zoo was renovated at this time with new exhibits, paths, and a petting zoo.
The zoo is home to more than 200 animals representing about 70 species.
Primates at the zoo include orangutan, white-handed gibbon, black-handed spider monkey, black-and-white ruffed lemur, ringtailed lemur, crowned lemur, and cottontop tamarin. Grazing mammals include Bactrian camels, plains zebras, llama, alpaca, bison, Dall sheep, and elk. Other mammals include Bengal tiger, snow leopards, fossa, grizzly bear, cougar, bobcat, river otters, and red kangaroos.
Birds at the zoo include bald eagle, red-tailed hawk, rough-legged hawk, turkey vulture, black vulture, great horned owl, Eastern screech owl, pheasants, ducks, and Australian black swans.
Reptiles at the zoo include American alligator, red-tailed boa, Burmese tortoise, Sulcata tortoise, and Eastern leopard tortoise.
The Prairie Rose Carousel is a restored 1926 wood carousel built by Spillman Engineering for Lee Funland in upstate New York. It has 20 jumping horses arranged in two rows, and two chariots. Music is provided by band organ #125 from the Johnson Organ Co. The carousel is now housed in a climate controlled pavilion.
^ a b c d e "A Brief History of Chahinkapa Zoo". chahinkapazoo.org. Chahinkapa Zoo. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
^ a b "Chahinkapa Zoo". chahinkapazoo.org. Chahinkapa Zoo. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
^ "List of Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". aza.org. AZA. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
^ a b c d "Animals". chahinkapazoo.org. Chahinkapa Zoo. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
^ "Prairie Rose Carousel". nationalcarousel.org. National Carousel Association. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
Zoos of North Dakota
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Andrew VanWyngarden (born February 1, 1983) is the lead vocalist, guitar player and songwriter for the band MGMT, praised for (according to Interview Magazine) "an uncanny knack for producing pop music that sounds as if it were filtered through a kaleidoscope". One of his (and MGMT cofounder Ben Goldwasser&#39;s) songs "Kids" (from the Oracular Spectacular album) received a Grammy 2010 nomination for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group, while the duo was nominated in the Best New Artist category.
1.1 Side projects
3 External links
Andrew VanWyngarden was born in Columbia, Missouri, and grew up in Memphis, Tennessee, where he attended Lausanne Collegiate School and White Station High School. His father Bruce VanWyngarden is the editor of the alternative newspaper Memphis Flyer since 1992. Andrew fondly remembered his childhood years in Memphis, especially fishing and camping with his dad. "I&#39;ve always really liked nature and the ocean. My friends and I would go out with nets and make little aquariums with the creatures we&#39;d find," he said. He was active in YMCA outdoors programs, and the family frequently went canoeing, camping, and fishing. 
The first musical influences he had involved listening to his dad play The Who song "Pinball Wizard" on his Fender Twin Reverb electric guitar when he was 4 years old. In seventh grade he received a Les Paul guitar and immediately started playing, that same year he won a contest at Lausanne, playing Under the Bridge by the Red Hot Chili Peppers. Also listening music with his sisters especially Nirvana and Phish and going through his parents record collection in the attic where he found Neil Young, Bob Dylan, the Rolling Stones, etc. "From then on, all he ever wanted for Christmas was musical instruments; future seasons saw a drum set, a banjo, and a mandolin" 
While in high school he formed a band with Dan Treharne called Glitter Penis, and it was basically just the two playing around in the computer just making songs, VanWyngarden says where they created and recorded parody songs but did not perform live.  Then VanWyngarden was in a band called Accidental Mersh with future MGMT guitarist Hank Sullivant who would later introduce James Richardson future MGMt&#39;s guitarist. The band achieved local success and fame in and around the Memphis area, and released two albums: The self-titled Accidental Mersh and Mirror Isaeli. The first album reached the #2 spot on Napster&#39;s "Unsigned Bands" chart. The band went on hiatus when most of the band members went to college. Andrew invited Ben Goldwasser to play the keyboard for Mersh during the summer of 2002. The band had a weekly gig at Newbys but the new shows were sparsely attended and the band dissolved.  In college, he wrote and performed a song called "Super Volcano" for a class.
VanWyngarden attended and graduated in music, from Wesleyan University, where he met fellow band member Ben Goldwasser in his freshmen year. He said he planned to study natural sciences of astronomy, but meeting Goldwasser changed his whole life course. It was Andrew who initiated the formation of the group: [Ben] wasnt really into it. I remember him saying he wanted to do some sort of social work, something noble for a good course. I was like: Cmon, man! Wheres your selfish ambition? he remembered. Andrew (according to Q) remembered his University years as something "almost sickeningly idyllic: lots of doing mushrooms in the woods, not a hard graft in the library". He has said in interviews that "Kids" was one of the first songs they produced together, the song is included in the band&#39;s early EP We (Don&#39;t) Care (release under the name The Management).
VanWyngarden was on NME Cool List 2008 in number 3, just below Jay-Z and Alice Glass.
Andrew came up with the title of MGMT&#39;s 2010 album Congratulations while making Oracular Spectacular. He writes a lot of the lyrics for MGMT, he has described the process, "I&#39;d sit down for a few hours and try to do them. Usually, the ideas for the lyrics have been in my head for a while, and that&#39;s how I go over them again and again." His favorite song of the new album is Siberian Breaks. In a recent interview, speaking of fame and its effects on him, Andrew conceded that to some extent he&#39;s turned into a kind of character he was poking fun at in the debut album. "I didn&#39;t realize it until now, but it&#39;s kind of funny, because the first song on our first album was &#39;Time to Pretend&#39;, which was about the imagined rock star scenario. So, [the song] &#39;It&#39;s Working&#39; is like, "Yeah, we went out there and we did a lot of drugs, and it&#39;s not that great," he told Spin Magazine. Upon the release of "Congratulations" Andrew says he has gotten more of a kind of anxious feeling developing over the past year when they got a lot of criticism from music journalists. He has cited his literary influences likes Leaves of Grass by Walt whitman, the ice Storm, The Anthology of French Poetry and authors such as Robert Anton Wilson and John Ashbery. His favorite pastime is surfing and says that in the future he would like to produce.
Andrew VanWyngarden is in a project with Kevin Barnes from Of Montreal called Blikk Fang. He appeared in "The Heart is a Drum Machine," a documentary film about the nature of contemporary music. VanWyngarden mentions Werner Herzog, David Lynch, and Federico Fellini as his favourite directors.
^ Cole Rachel. "MGMT interview". www.interviewmagazine.com. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
^ "Grammy nominations 2010 announced". NME. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
^ "Sutton, MGMT Nominated for Grammy Awards". Weslean University. Archived from the original on 4 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
"General Bernardino Caballero" redirects here. For the city, see General Bernardino Caballero, Paraguay.
Juan Bernardino Caballero de AЎasco y Melgarejo (20 May 1839, Ybycuќ, Paraguay 26 February 1912, AsunciЈn) was the President of Paraguay from 1881 until 1886 and founder of the Colorado Party.
A descendant from Spanish nobility, he was the son of Jose RamЈn Caballero de Anazco (a descendant from TЄpac Huallpa through Inca Garcilaso de la Vega) and his wife Melchora In™s Melgarejo y Gen™s. Married twice, to Marќa de la ConcepciЈn Dќaz de Bedoya and to Julia qlvarez, without issue. From the first marriage he had two children, Ramon Caballero de Bedoya, married to Martha Cahen, and had issue, and Melchora Caballero de Bedoya, married to her distant cousin Carlos Francisco Saguier Pereira, and had issue. Outside of his marriages he had a further 90 children, all formally recognized by him, and thus today he has a myriad of descendants.
Born in Ybycuќ, he joined the Paraguayan Army while still young and fought in the Paraguayan War. During the war, he became the assistant of President Francisco Solano LЈpez, in Humait‘ and remaining loyal, rose through the ranks. He became an increasingly important leader of rearguard actions, eventually becoming a General.
After the death of Juan Bautista Gill in 1877, he helped ensure his friend C‘ndido Barreiro gained the presidency. Soon after Barreiro&#39;s death he organised a coup and took the presidency for himself, during which period he privatised much of the land in Paraguay to raise money.
Caballero rigged the 1886 election to ensure the victory Patricio Escobar, his favoured candidate. In response, his opponents founded the Liberal Party and he then founded the Colorado Party. Out of office, Caballero maintained a large degree of control as he remained commander of the army. His favoured candidates controlled the country until 1894, when Juan Bautista Eguzquiza overthrew Juan Gualberto Gonz‘lez. Caballero helped to organise another coup in 1902, putting Juan Antonio Escurra in power, but after Escurra&#39;s overthrow by the Argentine Army, the Liberals took power.
The Paraguayan town of General Bernadino Caballero is named after him.
^ abctv.com.py Birth date
Warren, Harris G. (1985). Rebirth of the Paraguayan Republic: The First Colorado Era. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 5161. ISBN 978-0-8229-3507-0.
Adolfo Saguier Vice President of Paraguay
18801881 Succeeded by
Juan Antonio Jara
Adolfo Saguier President of Paraguay
18811886 Succeeded by
Heads of state of Paraguay
Flag of the President of Paraguay.svg
Rodrќguez de Francia
Rodrќguez de Francia
Flag of Paraguay.svg
Italics indicate acting, interim or provisional role.
Fort McRee, was a historic military fort constructed by the United States, on the eastern tip of Perdido Key, to defend Pensacola and its important natural harbor. In the defense of Pensacola Bay, Fort McRee was accompanied by Fort Pickens, located across Pensacola Pass from Fort McRee on Santa Rosa Island, and Fort Barrancas, located across Pensacola Bay on the grounds of what is now Naval Air Station (NAS) Pensacola. Very little remains of the fort today.
1.2 Early Use
1.3 Civil War action
1.4 Post-war neglect
1.5 Activity returns
1.6 Final military use
1.7 Fort McRee today
2 Location confusion
3 See also
5 External links
Fort McRee was constructed between 1834 and 1839 and consisted of a three-tiered fort and a detached water battery. It was located on the eastern tip of Perdido Key on a stretch of beach known as Foster&#39;s Bank. It had a highly unusual shape because of its position on a small, narrow island.
Although the fort was completed in 1839, its 122 guns were not installed until sometime between 1843 and 1845. Further, it is likely that many of these guns were not actually in place for some time due to several issues, the largest of which was a problem with the second tier wooden decking beginning to rot.
Fort McRee was named in April, 1840 for Army engineer Colonel William McRee.
The first troops stationed at Fort McRee, the men of I Company, 3rd Artillery, arrived on 2 May 1842. These men were joined by E Company, 7th Infantry in July. From this time until October, 1845 when much of the artillery unit was ordered to Louisiana, the fort was manned at various levels.
After the Mexican-American War, barracks were built near Fort Barrancas on the mainland. Once these were completed, Fort McRee was only manned during drills, maneuvers and target practice. This judicious use of personnel is understandable considering the strength of the entire US Army on 1 December 1853 was reported to stand at 10,417.
This method of manning Fort McRee was also used to man the other two forts up until the outbreak of the Civil War.
Civil War action
With less than 50 men to occupy all three fortifications in Pensacola, First Lieutenant Adam J. Slemmer (the senior Army officer present) decided to concentrate his small force in a more defensible location. Over 9 and 10 January 1861, his garrison spiked the guns of Barrancas and McRee then moved across the bay to Fort Pickens. The move was a timely one as on 12 January, Florida and Alabama militia arrived and took control of the evacuated fortifications.
Over the next several months, both sides built new cannon batteries and brought in more personnel. The opposing forces engaged in cannon duels many times but with little effect. Near the end of the year, manning stood at about 7,000 men on the Confederate side opposed by 2,000 Union soldiers around Fort Pickens.
On 9 October 1861 the commander of Confederate forces in Pensacola, General Braxton Bragg, ordered an assault on Fort Pickens that was ultimately unsuccessful. Colonel Harvey Brown, the commander of Union forces, felt this attack required an answer and planned an attack of his own. Fort McRee, the closest fortification to Fort Pickens and a road block to any attempted assault on Pensacola, was to be the primary target.
Starting on the morning of 22 November 1861, Fort McRee was bombarded heavily by Union forces at Fort Pickens, and by two ships, Niagara and Richmond. Initially returning strong fire, the Confederates were able to hold their own and even managed to heavily damage the Richmond. However, the combined efforts of the two ships eventually led to the suppression of fire by an adjacent battery early in the afternoon with the guns of Fort McRee falling silent by 5pm. A fall in tide and the onset of darkness caused the two ships to withdraw.
After the days fight, General Bragg sent messengers out to ascertain the extent of damage to the Confederate defenses. The commander of Fort McRee, Colonel John B. Villepique, advised that his position was heavily exposed on most sides and that half his weapons had been dismounted and their powder stores unprotected. Villepique stated he was unable to return fire and asked to sabotage the fort and withdraw. Worried about the effect the retreat would have not only on his men but the enemy as well, Bragg denied the request.
At 10am on 23 November, the Niagara resumed its attack on Fort McRee as did the cannons at Fort Pickens. The guns of Fort McRee remained silent. The end of fighting that day signaled the end of the Colonel Brown&#39;s attack. Although Fort McRee survived, it was badly battered. Large chunks of the wall were blown away while other portions had holes shot clean through by the cannon shells. In one area a section of wall totally collapsed. Most of the wood decking within the fort had gone up in flames while one powder magazine caved in, killing six Confederates in the process.
The actions on 22 and 23 November would be the last engagement for Fort McRee. Although there was an artillery duel on 1 January 1862, the fort was not a participant in that action.
When Confederate forces abandoned Pensacola in May 1862, they burned Fort McRee and several other buildings in the area believed to be of strategic value. No mention in surviving records indicate that any repairs were made or even attempted on the fort by Union forces.
Battered and burned is how Fort McRee remained for the next three decades. The only actions taken were to stem the erosion of the beach by the construction of two jetties. An example of this neglect can be seen in an 1871-1872 expenditures report which recorded a total of $191.29 being spent on maintaining the fort.
In 1875, the War Department authorized the commander of Fort Barrancas to remove 50,000 bricks from Fort McRee to build walkways and make structural repairs at his location.
In 1885, a group of businessmen offered to purchase the remaining structure of Fort McRee for $500. This request was denied by the Army Corps of Engineers on the basis that the remaining bricks were worth more to the War Department as a source of material for repairing Fort Barrancas and structures at the nearby Navy yard.
With the completion of the Endicott Board and the subsequent renewed interest in strengthening the coastal defenses of the US, activity returned to Fort McRee. In 1898 a battery of two 8-inch rifled guns were constructed just west of the fort. It was named Battery Slemmer in honor of the Union officer who evacuated Pensacola at the start of the Civil War.
In 1899 a battery of rapid fire guns were installed in another battery to be named Battery Center after Lieutenant J. P. Center, an officer killed at the Battle of Lake Okeechobee.
Manning of Battery Slemmer and Center were by members of the US Coast Guard. Manning fluctuated between 50 and 100 personnel who were rotated from Fort Barrancas.
A hurricane that struck on 2627 September 1906 destroyed most of the newer structures that had been erected since 1898. After the hurricane, only a minimal caretaker staff remained to ensure the security of the site. With America&#39;s entry into World War I in 1917, the guns of Battery Slemmer were removed and sent to Europe for mounting on railway cars. In 1920, the guns of Battery Center were declared surplus and removed as well. With the removal of these guns, Fort McRee once again fell into disuse.
Final military use
With the onset of World War II, activity once again returned to Fort McRee. A battery of two 6-inch shield guns with a range of 15 miles was planned for the site. Foundations were poured and the gun carriages received. However, the war ended before the guns were put in place and the site, known as Battery 233, was abandoned.
With the end of World War II came the end of the need for fixed coastal defenses. In 1947, Fort Barrancas was deactivated and ownership transferred to NAS Pensacola. As a sub-post of Barrancas, Fort McRee was included in this transfer.
The US Navy managed the forts until 1971 when Fort Barrancas, along with Fort Pickens, was turned over to the National Park Service and became part of Gulf Islands National Seashore. This ended nearly 140 years of military ownership for Fort McRee.
Fort McRee today
Of the three forts that once protected Pensacola, Forts Pickens and Barrancas were preserved first through continued use and later as historic sites. However, due to its location on a site accessible only by foot or boat, Fort McRee was left to the elements. Storms and erosion took their toll on the site. Today, nothing more than a few scattered foundations remain.
Because the land on which Fort McRee once stood now belongs to the National Park Service, it is open to anyone visiting Gulf Islands National Seashore. However, the area is remote and no visitor facilities of any kind exist. Additionally, the use of metal detectors is prohibited and any artifacts found are not to be removed from the site.
The actual location of Fort McRee is open to some speculation. Foster&#39;s Bank has seen much change over the past 170-plus years, shrinking and growing from the effects of weather and the sea. Warfare, fires, weather and recycling all but reduced the fort to its foundations. Combined, these conditions have left very little physical evidence of the structures.
Adding to the confusion are two differing sets of coordinates listed for the site by the US Coast Guard in a 1882 survey. One set of coordinates places the fort at latitude 30 degrees 30 minutes 19 seconds, longitude 87 degrees 48 minutes 18 seconds in which case the fort lies just on shore of the present day remains of Foster&#39;s Bank. The other set of coordinates places the fort at latitude 37 degrees 29.4 minutes 19 second, longitude 87 degrees 46.8 minutes 18 seconds which puts the fort under water just off the beach.
Fort Pickens - fort across the bay, on Santa Rosa Island.
Fort Barrancas - fort on the mainland, at Pensacola, Florida.
^ a b VFO-Forts "The Forts of Pensacola Bay". Visit Florida Online. Retrieved 2007-11-04.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Coleman, James C. (1988). Fort McRee, The Castle Built on Sand. Pensacola Historical Society.
Да. Более того, алкогольная ломка - единственная смертельная из всех наркотиков. Спроси у наркологов и реаниматологов, они подтвердят.
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Tuckerman Ravine with late spring skiers after the headwall has thawed
Elevation 4,430 ft (1,350 m)
Location New Hampshire, United States of America
Range White Mountains
Coordinates 44`1545N 71`1754WCoordinates: 44`1545N 71`1754W
Tuckerman Ravine is a glacial cirque sloping eastward on the southeast face of Mt. Washington, in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Although it draws hikers throughout the year, and skiers throughout the winter, it is best known for the many "spring skiers" who ascend it on foot and ski down the steep slope from early April into July. In this period, the temperatures are relatively mild but the natural snowpack which averages up to 55 feet (17 m) in a typical winter is still adequate to ski most seasons. The record-setting high winds atop Mount Washington scour a massive amount of snow from the surrounding highlands and drop it here or in the adjacent Huntington Ravine.
Literally thousands of people have been known to ski Tuckerman in a single spring weekend. Skiing or ice climbing is not limited to this time, but the avalanche danger requires special training to assess and navigate the ravine safely during the winter. There have been 10 avalanche fatalities recorded (including one expert rescuer during a 1982 search) from 34 avalanche incidents in the area in the past 60 years.
The ravine is most easily accessed from the AMC lodge on Route 16 at Pinkham Notch, via the moderate 2.4-mile (3.9 km) lower section of the Tuckerman Ravine Trail. This trail is maintained in winter and spring as a "cat" trail, and parallels the Sherburne Trail used for ski and snowboard descents. It is a 1,850-foot (560 m) elevation drop from the foot of Tuckerman to the lodge.
1 Anatomy of the Bowl
3 Image gallery
4 See also
6 External links
Anatomy of the Bowl
Tuckerman Ravine has many different runs that span the bowl, all as steep as 40 to 55 degrees. From the base of the bowl, the run farthest to the left is known simply as "Left Gully" and is one of the easiest runs. Moving to the right, the runs are more challenging and steeper. More to the right, "The Chute" drops between two large cliffs that slowly narrow the run. Still farther to the right are the Center Gullies, which includes "The Icefall", which is 55 degrees, and requires skiers to go off cliffs as tall as 25 feet (7.6 m). Right of the "The Icefall" is "The Lip". It is an open run that averages between 50 and 55 degrees. "Right Gully", one of the bowl&#39;s easier runs, drops into "The Sluice" about halfway down, and averages about 40 degrees.
The ravine is named after botanist Edward Tuckerman who studied alpine plants and lichens in the area in the 1830s and 1840s. According to the New England Ski Museum, the first recorded use of skis on Mount Washington was by a Dr. Wiskott of Breslau, Germany, who skied on the mountain in 1899, while the first skier in Tuckerman was John S. Apperson of Schenectady, New York, in April 1914.
Races held in the 1930s attracted large groups of spectators and skiers. Harvard-Dartmouth slaloms, Olympic tryouts, and giant slaloms all were held in the ravine in that decade. But the races that caught the imagination more than any other, the races that still are talked about by Tuckerman skiers, were the three American Infernos of the 1930s.
Just two years after the headwall was first run on April 11, 1931 by Dartmouth men John Carleton and Charles N. Proctor, the Ski Club Hochgebrige proposed a 4.2-mile summit-to-base race on Mt. Washington, to be called the American Inferno, named for a similar race held in M¬rren, Switzerland. The American Inferno races were only run in 1933, &#39;34 and most famously on April 16, 1939. A shortened course was run in the spring of 1952 (because of a cloud-shrouded summit) that started just above the Lip of the Headwall, and was won by Dartmouth&#39;s Bill Beck. The races featured famous skiers like Dick Durrance (&#39;34 and &#39;39), Brooks Dodge (&#39;52) and Toni Matt (&#39;39), who accidentally straight-lined the steep headwall for the win, a still-impressive achievement.
The headwall in late March 2009; several skiers can be seen just above its lip
Tuckerman Ravine viewed from the Boott Spur Trail
Aerial view of Tuckerman Ravine and Mt. Washington from southeast
Boott Spur rising above Tuckerman Ravine in late fall
A view down the run "Right Gully," one of the easier runs in Tuckerman Ravine
The runs "Sluice" and "Right Gully" as seen from the base of the ravine
White Mountain National Forest
List of New Hampshire-related topics
Tuckerman Brewing Company
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. (April 2009)
^ "Routes for Tuckerman Ravine (The Bowl)". SkiCentral. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
^ Jeffrey R. Leich. "Recreational History of Tuckerman Ravine". Mount Washington Avalanche Center. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
Official USFS website of Tuckerman area
Time for Tuckerman community and information site for extreme skiing on Tuckerman Ravine
"Intrepid Descent" film documentary on Tuckerman Ravine, 2008
Friends of Tuckerman Ravine nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of the natural ravine
"For Daredevil Skiing, the Season Is Now" The New York Times (May 25, 2007)
"Long Way to the Top" April 2007 article on spring skiing at Tuckerman
Понимаешь в чем дело, это одна из вещей, которая мне нравится. Острота ощущений что-ли. ОП
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is a free trade area with twenty member states stretching from Libya to Zimbabwe. COMESA was formed in December 1994, replacing a Preferential Trade Area which had existed since 1981. Nine of the member states formed a free trade area in 2000 (Djibouti, Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Sudan, Zambia and Zimbabwe), with Rwanda and Burundi joining the FTA in 2004 and the Comoros and Libya in 2006.
COMESA is one of the pillars of the African Economic Community.
In 2008, COMESA agreed to an expanded free-trade zone including members of two other African trade blocs, the East African Community (EAC) and the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Comesa is also considering a common visa scheme to boost tourism.
3 Comparison with other regional blocs
4 See also
6 External links
Burundi (21 Dec 1981)
Comoros (21 Dec 1981)
Democratic Republic of the Congo (21 Dec 1981)
Djibouti (21 Dec 1981)
Egypt (6 Jan 1999)
Ethiopia (21 Dec 1981)
Kenya (21 Dec 1981)
Libya (3 June 2005, at the 10th COMESA summit)
Madagascar (21 Dec 1981)
Malawi (21 Dec 1981)
Mauritius (21 Dec 1981)
Rwanda (21 Dec 1981)
South Sudan (2011)
Sudan (21 Dec 1981)
Swaziland (21 Dec 1981)
Uganda (21 Dec 1981)
Zambia (21 Dec 1981)
Zimbabwe (21 Dec 1981)
Lesotho (left in 1997)
Mozambique (left in 1997)
Tanzania (left September 2, 2000)
Namibia (left May 2, 2004)
Angola (Suspended itself in 2007)
The following organs have decision-making power according to the treaties
The COMESA Authority, composes of Heads of States or Government.
The COMESA Council of Ministers
The COMESA Court of Justice
The Committee of Governors of Central Banks
The following lower policy organs make recommendations to the above:
The Inter-governmental Committee
The Twelve Technical Committees
The Consultative Committee of the Business Community and other Interest Groups
The COMESA Secretariat.
Other institutions created to promote development are:
The PTA Bank (Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank) in Nairobi, Kenya
The COMESA Clearing House in Harare, Zimbabwe
The COMESA Association of Commercial Banks in Harare, Zimbabwe
The COMESA Leather Institute in Ethiopia
The COMESA Re-Insurance Company (ZEP-RE)in Nairobi, Kenya
The Regional Investment Agency in Cairo, Egypt
Comparison with other regional blocs
African Economic Community
blocs (REC)1 Area (kmb) Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
in millions per capita
AEC 29,910,442 853,520,010 2,053,706 2,406 54
ECOWAS 5,112,903 300,000,000 703,279 1,748 15
ECCAS 6,667,421 121,245,958 175,928 1,451 11
SADC 9,882,959 233,944,179 737,335 3,152 15
EAC 1,817,945 124,858,568 104,239 1,065 5
COMESA 12,873,957 406,102,471 735,599 1,811 20
IGAD 5,233,604 187,969,775 225,049 1,197 7
blocs Area (kmb) Population GDP (PPP) ($US) Member
in millions per capita
CEMAC 2 3,020,142 34,970,529 85,136 2,435 6
SACU 2 2,693,418 51,055,878 541,433 10,605 5
UEMOA 2 3,505,375 80,865,222 101,640 1,257 8
UMA 3 5,782,140 84,185,073 491,276 5,836 5
GAFTA 4 5,876,960 166,259,603 635,450 3,822 5
1 The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is a signatory to the AEC, but not participating in any bloc yet
2 Economic bloc inside a pillar REC
3 Proposed for pillar REC, but objecting participation
4 Non-African members of GAFTA are excluded from figures
smallest value among the blocs compared
largest value among the blocs compared
During 2004. Source: CIA World Factbook 2005, IMF WEO Database
This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the African Union
Portal icon Politics portal
East African Community (EAC)
Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS)
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
Arab Maghreb Union (UMA)
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA)
Yellow card system - motor insurance scheme of COMESA
^ "Comesaweb Comesa anthem". Comesa.int. Retrieved 2 September 2011.
^ All Africa Global Media. "COMESA Welcomes New Member". MENAFA.com. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
^ "SADC, COMESA and the EAC: Conflicting regional and trade agendas". Institute for Global Dialogue. October 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
^ "African integration is great but has its hurdles". New Vision. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
Information on COMESA history
Agreement establishing COMESA
At the time of unification, South Yemen and North Yemen had vastly different but equally struggling underdeveloped economic systems. Since unification, the economy has been forced to sustain the consequences of Yemens support for Iraq during the 199091 Persian Gulf War: Saudi Arabia expelled almost 1 million Yemeni workers, and both Saudi Arabia and Kuwait significantly reduced economic aid to Yemen. The 1994 civil war further drained Yemens economy. As a consequence, for the past 10 years Yemen has relied heavily on aid from multilateral agencies to sustain its economy. In return, it has pledged to implement significant economic reforms. In 1997 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) approved two programs to increase Yemens credit significantly: the enhanced structural adjustment facility (now known as the poverty reduction and growth facility, or PRGF) and the extended funding facility (EFF). In the ensuing years, Yemens government attempted to implement recommended reformsreducing the civil service payroll, eliminating diesel and other subsidies, lowering defense spending, introducing a general sales tax, and privatizing state-run industries. However, limited progress led the IMF to suspend funding between 1999 and 2001.
In late 2005, the World Bank, which had extended Yemen a four-year US$2.3 billion economic support package in October 2002 together with other bilateral and multilateral lenders, announced that as a consequence of Yemens failure to implement significant reforms it would reduce financial aid by one-third over the period July 2005 through July 2008. A key component of the US$2.3 billion packageUS$300 million in concessional financinghas been withheld pending renewal of Yemens PRGF with the IMF, which is currently under negotiation. However, in May 2006 the World Bank adopted an assistance strategy for Yemen under which it will provide approximately US$400 million in International Development Association (IDA) credits over the period FY 2006 to FY 2009. In November 2006, at a meeting of Yemens development partners, a total of US$4.7 billion in grants and concessional loans was pledged for the period 200710. At present, despite possessing significant oil and gas resources and a considerable amount of agriculturally productive land, Yemen remains one of the poorest of the worlds low-income countries; more than 45 percent of the population lives in poverty. The influx of an average 1,000 Somali refugees per month into Yemen looking for work is an added drain on the economy, which already must cope with a 20 to 40 percent rate of unemployment. Yemen remains under significant pressure to implement economic reforms or face the loss of badly needed international financial support.
At unification, both the Yemen Arab Republic and the People&#39;s Democratic Republic of Yemen were struggling underdeveloped economies. In the north, disruptions of civil war (19621970) and frequent periods of drought had dealt severe blows to a previously prosperous agricultural sector. Coffee production, formerly the north&#39;s main export and principal form of foreign exchange, declined as the cultivation of khat increased. Low domestic industrial output and a lack of raw materials made the YAR dependent on a wide variety of imports.
1 Macro-economic trend
2 Integration issues
3.1 Agriculture and fishing
3.2 Oil and gas
3.3 Industry and manufacturing
3.4 Services and tourism
5 Currency, exchange rate, and inflation
6 Banking and finance
8 Government budget
9 Foreign economic relations
9.1 History and overview
9.2 Foreign trade
9.3 External debt
9.4 Foreign investment
11 External links
This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Yemen (since reunification) at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Yemeni Rials.
Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange Inflation Index (2000=100)
1990 125,562 11.70 Yemeni Rials 5.10
1995 516,643 40.49 Yemeni Rials 51
2000 1,539,386 161.00 Yemeni Rials 100
2005 2,907,636 191.37 Yemeni Rials 175
For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 150.11 Yemeni Rials only. Mean wages were $1.06 per manhour in 2009.
Remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid paid for perennial trade deficits. Substantial Yemeni communities exist in many countries of the world, including Yemen&#39;s immediate neighbors on the Arabian Peninsula, Indonesia, India, East Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union and People&#39;s Republic of China provided large-scale assistance to the YAR. This aid included funding of substantial construction projects, scholarships, and considerable military assistance.
In the south, pre-independence economic activity was overwhelmingly concentrated in the port city of Aden. The seaborne transit trade, which the port relied upon, collapsed with the closure of the Suez Canal and Britain&#39;s withdrawal from Aden in 1967. Only extensive Soviet aid, remittances from south Yemenis working abroad, and revenues from the Aden refinery (built in the 1950s) kept the PDRY&#39;s centrally planned Marxist economy afloat. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union and a cessation of Soviet aid, the south&#39;s economy basically collapsed.
Since unification, the government has worked to integrate two relatively disparate economic systems. However, severe shocks, including the return in 1990 of approximately 850,000 Yemenis from the Persian Gulf states, a subsequent major reduction of aid flows, and internal political disputes culminating in the 1994 civil war, hampered economic growth.
Agriculture and fishing
Khat cultivation in western Yemen near At Tawilah
Agriculture is the mainstay of Yemens economy, generating more than 20 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) since 1990 (20.4 percent in 2005 according to the Central Bank of Yemen) and employing more than half (54.2 percent in 2003) of the working population. However, a U.S. government estimate suggests that the sector accounted for only 13.5 percent of GDP in 2005. Numerous environmental problems hamper growth in this sectorsoil erosion, sand dune encroachment, and deforestationbut the greatest problem by far is the scarcity of water. As a result of low levels of rainfall, agriculture in Yemen relies heavily on the extraction of groundwater, a resource that is being depleted. Yemens water tables are falling by approximately two meters a year, and it is estimated that Sanaas groundwater supplies could be exhausted by 2008. The use of irrigation has made fruit and vegetables Yemens primary cash crops. With the rise in the output of irrigated crops, the production of traditional rain-fed crops such as cereals has declined. According to the Central Bank of Yemen, in 2005 the production of khat, a mildly narcotic and heavily cultivated plant that produces natural stimulants when its leaves are chewed, rose 6.7 percent and accounted for 5.8 percent of GDP; its usage in Yemen is widespread. According to the World Bank and other economists, cultivation of this plant plays a dominant role in Yemens agricultural economy, constituting 10 percent of GDP and employing an estimated 150,000 persons while consuming an estimated 30 percent of irrigation water and displacing land areas that could otherwise be used for exportable coffee, fruits, and vegetables.
Although Yemens extensive territorial waters and marine resources have the potential to produce 840,000 tons of fish each year, the fishing industry is relatively underdeveloped and consists largely of individual fishermen in small boats. In recent years, the government has lifted restrictions on fish exports, and production has reached one-quarter of capacity, yielding revenues valued at US$260 million in 2005. Fish and fish products constitute only 1.7 percent of Yemens GDP but are the second largest export. In December 2005, the World Bank approved a US$25 million credit for a Fisheries Management and Conservation Project to be launched in all coastal governorates along the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden. This project is expected to improve fish landing and auction facilities, provide ice plants for fish preservation, and enable Yemens Ministry of Fisheries to undertake more effective research, resource management planning, and regulatory activities.
Oil and gas
Yemen is a small oil producer and does not belong to the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Unlike many regional oil producers, Yemen relies heavily on foreign oil companies that have production-sharing agreements with the government. Income from oil production constitutes 70 to 75 percent of government revenue and about 90 percent of exports. Yemen contains proven crude oil reserves of more than 4 billion barrels (640,000,000 m3), although these reserves are not expected to last more than 9 years, and output from the countrys older fields is falling, a concern since oil provides around 90% of the country&#39;s exports. The World Bank predicts that Yemen&#39;s oil and gas revenues will plummet during 2009 and 2010, and fall to zero by 2017 as supplies run out, and UK&#39;s Royal Institute for International Affairs warns that instability there could expand a zone of lawlessness from northern Kenya to Saudi Arabia, while describing Yemen&#39;s democracy as "fragile" and pointing to armed conflicts with Islamists and tribal insurgents. Thus western and other diplomats and leaders are concerned to preserve Yemen&#39;s stability and to avert adverse outcomes. According to statistics published by the Energy Information Administration, crude oil output averaged 413,300 barrels per day (65,710 m3/d) in 2005, a reduction from 423,700 bbl/d (67,360 m3/d) in 2004. For the first eight months of 2006, crude oil output was flat, averaging 412,500 bbl/d (65,580 m3/d).
Following a minor discovery in 1982 in the south, an American company found an oil basin near Ma&#39;rib in 1984. A total of 27,000 mc (170,000 barrels) of oil per day were produced there in 1995. A small oil refinery began operations near Ma&#39;rib in 1986. A Soviet discovery in the southern governorate of Shabwah has proven only marginally successful even when taken over by a different group. A Western consortium began exporting oil from Masila in the Hadhramaut in 1993, and production there reached 67,000 mc (420,000 barrels) per day in 1999. More than a dozen other companies have been unsuccessful in finding commercial quantities of oil. There are new finds in the Jannah (formerly known as the Joint Oil Exploration Area) and east Shabwah blocks. Yemen&#39;s oil exports in 1995 earned about US$1 billion.
Marib oil contains associated natural gas. In September 1995, the Yemeni Government signed an agreement that designated Total of France to be the lead company for a project for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG). In 1997, Yemen Gas Company joined with various privately held companies to establish Yemen LNG (YLNG). In August 2005 the government gave final approval to three LNG supply agreements, enabling YLNG to award a US$2 billion contract to an international consortium to build the countrys first liquefaction plant at Balhat on the Arabian Sea coast. The project is a $3.7 billion investment over 25 years, producing approximately 6.7 million tons of LNG annually, with shipments likely to go to the United States and South Korea. Production of LNG began in October 2009. The Yemen government expects the LNG project to add US$350 million to its budget and enable it to develop a petrochemicals industry.
Industry and manufacturing
The U.S. government estimates that Yemens industrial sector constitutes 47.2 percent of gross domestic product. Together with services, construction, and commerce, industry accounts for less than 25 percent of the labor force. The largest contributor to the manufacturing sectors output is oil refining, which generates roughly 40 percent of total revenue. The remainder of this sector consists of the production of consumer goods and construction materials. Manufacturing constituted approximately 9.5 percent of Yemens gross domestic product in 2005. In 2000 Yemen had almost 34,000 industrial establishments with a total of slightly fewer than 115,000 workers; the majority of the establishments were small businesses (one to four employees). Almost half of all industrial establishments are involved in processing food products and beverages; the production of flour and cooking oil has increased in recent years. Approximately 10 percent of the establishments are classified as manufacturing mixed metal products such as water-storage tanks, doors, and windows.
Services and tourism
Economists have reported that Yemens services sector constituted 51.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2002 and 52.2 percent of GDP in 2003. The U.S. government estimates that the services sector accounted for 39.7 percent of gross domestic product in 2004 and 39.3 percent in 2005.
Yemens tourism industry is hampered by limited infrastructure as well as serious security concerns. The countrys hotels and restaurants are below international standards, and air and road transportation is largely inadequate. Kidnappings of foreign tourists remain a threat, especially outside the main cities, and, coupled with terrorist bombings at the Port of Aden in 2000 and 2002, present a significant deterrent to tourism. As recently as September 2006, tribesmen in the Shabwa province, east of Sanaa, kidnapped four French tourists on their way to Aden. They were freed two weeks later. In October 2006, the U.S. Department of State reiterated previous warnings to U.S. citizens, strongly urging them to consider carefully the risks of traveling to Yemen. Britains Foreign Office has issued a similar advisory. Recent statistics for tourist arrivals in Yemen are not available, but in 2004 the number rose to 274,000 from 155,000 in 2003.
According to the U.S. government, the agriculture and herding sector employs the majority of Yemens working population (54.2 percent in 2003). Industry, together with services, construction, and commerce, accounts for less than 25 percent of the labor force.
According to the World Bank, Yemens civil service is characterized by a large, poorly paid work force and inadequate salary differential between high and low skilled jobs to attract and retain qualified workers. In 2004 the government increased civil service salaries by 20 to 40 percent in order to alleviate the impact of anticipated economic reforms that were never implemented. The result was a 20 percent rise in wage costs; civil service wages constituted 7 percent of gross domestic product in 2004. The 2005 budget reduced economic subsidies but in exchange required the government to make various concessions, including increasing civil service wages another 10 to 15 percent by 2007 as part of a national wage strategy.
The economic assistance package the International Monetary Fund (IMF) pledged to Yemen is contingent on the implementation of civil service reform, which the government has resisted because of the countrys estimated 20 to 40 percent unemployment rate. In 2004 the government claimed to have reduced the civil service labor force through retirements and layoffs, but it appears that the large salary increases have lessened the impact of any reforms. The IMF has stated that civil service salaries as a component of gross domestic product should be reduced 1 to 2 percent, a level that can only be achieved with continued reductions in the size of the civil service. It is unclear whether the national wage strategy, which may succeed in streamlining the system and removing irregularities, will in fact be able to reduce employment costs.
Currency, exchange rate, and inflation
Yemens currency is the Yemeni riyal (YR), which was floated on the open market in July 1996. Periodic intervention by the Central Bank of Yemen has enabled the riyal to gradually depreciate approximately 4 percent per year since 1999. Its valued averaged YR191.5 per US$1 in 2005, and has averaged YR197.5 in 2006. In late November 2006, the exchange rate was about YR198 per US$1.
During the years immediately following unification (199096), Yemen experienced a very high average rate of inflation40 percent. Economic reforms brought this rate down to only 5.4 percent in 1997, but high oil prices and cuts in the fuel subsidy in recent years have had a negative impact on the inflation rate, which has generally been on the rise despite some fluctuations. In 2004 efforts by the Central Bank of Yemen to tighten the money supply were offset by a weakening US$, to which the Yemeni riyal is linked in a managed float, and by rising global commodity prices, resulting in an inflation rate of 12.5 percent. In July 2005, the government succumbed to public opposition and lowered the new general sales tax from 10 to 5 percent. This tax, coupled with reductions in government fuel subsidies and higher import prices, is expected to result in an estimated inflation rate of 15 percent in 2006, up from 11.8 percent in 2005.
Banking and finance
According to economists, Yemens financial services sector is underdeveloped and dominated by the banking system. Yemen has no public stock exchange. The banking system consists of the Central Bank of Yemen, 15 commercial banks (nine private domestic banks, four of which are Islamic banks; four private foreign banks; and two state-owned banks), and two specialized state-owned development banks. The Central Bank of Yemen controls monetary policy and oversees the transfer of currencies abroad. It is the lender of last resort, exercises supervisory authority over commercial banks, and serves as a banker to the government. Since end 2005 and up to the end of 2010, Tadhamon International Islamic Bank has maintained the top spot between all banks in Yemen (Commercial and Islamic) in terms of total assets, capital and trade business. The largest commercial bank, the Credit and Agricultural Cooperative Bank, which is state-owned, and the Yemen Bank for Reconstruction and Development, which is majority state-owned, are currently being restructured with the goal of eventual privatization. Because of fiscal difficulties in both banks, in 2004 Yemens government adopted a plan to merge them; the new publicly owned Development Bank will have a minimum capital of US$50 million. Till end April 2011 this step has yet to materialize.
The large volume of non-performing loans, low capitalization, and weak enforcement of regulatory standards hamper Yemens banking sector as a whole. Numerous banks are technically insolvent. Because many debtors are in default, Yemens banks limit their lending activities to a select group of consumers and businesses; as a result, the entire banking system holds less than 60 percent of the money supply. The bulk of the economy operates with cash. Legislation adopted in 2000 gave the Central Bank the authority to enforce tougher lending requirements, and in mid-2005 the Central Bank promulgated several new capital requirements for commercial banks aimed at curtailing currency speculation and protecting deposits.
Сделал меня умиляться от ночного :3
Да, няшная, худенькая и ласковая. чмокнул, сказав, что от антона привет
Будапешт с того, что вроде как ее обманываю с этими нашими шпайшами.
Походу мой барыга вайпит. ОП
Ты уже второй раз отвечаешь на пост, который писался не тебе, ТЫ ТАМ ОБЪЁБАНЫЙ ШТОЛЕ?
. Но это даже не важно, главное, что она няшная и скорее всего любит тебя, поцелуй няшу, сука, иначе не слезешь со своей химки.
The Mayor is the highest elected official in Savannah, Georgia. Since its incorporation in 1789, the town has had 64 mayors.
Savannah is a city located in the state of Georgia, United States. It is the largest city in and county seat of Chatham County. Established in 1733, Savannah was the first colonial and state capital of Georgia. It is known as America&#39;s first planned city and attracts millions of visitors, who enjoy the city&#39;s architecture and historic buildings: the birthplace of Juliette Gordon Low (founder of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America), the Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences (one of the South&#39;s first public museums), the First African Baptist Church (one of the oldest African American Baptist congregations in the United States), Temple Mickve Israel (the third-oldest synagogue in America), and the Central of Georgia Railway roundhouse complex (the oldest standing antebellum rail facility in America). Today, Savannah&#39;s downtown area is one of the largest National Historic Landmark Districts in the United States (designated by the U.S. government in 1966).
Mayors of Savannah, Georgia
# Name Party Sworn In Left Office Comments
1 John Houstoun 1790 1791 Governor of Georgia in 177879 and 178485
2 Thomas Gibbons 1791 1792
3 Joseph Habersham 1792 1793 Delegate to the Continental Congress in 1785
Planter (who supported the legalization of slavery in Georgia in 174950)
4 William Stephens 1793 1794
2 Thomas Gibbons 1794 1795
4 William Stephens 1795 1796
5 John Noel 1796 1797
6 John Glen 1797 1798
7 Matthew McAllister 1798 1799
2 Thomas Gibbons 1799 1800
2 Thomas Gibbons 1800 1801
8 David Mitchell Democratic-Republican 1801 1802 Scottish immigrant
Governor of Georgia in 180913 and 181517
Georgia State Representative from 1794 to 1798
9 Charles Harris 1802 1803
9 Charles Harris 1803 1804
5 John Noel 1804 1805
5 John Noel 1805 1806
5 John Noel 1806 1807
10 William Davies 1807 1807
9 Charles Harris 1807 1808
11 John Williamson 1808 1809
12 William Bulloch Democratic-Republican 1809 1810 U.S. Senator in 1813
12 William Bulloch Democratic-Republican 1810 1811
13 Thomas Mendenhall 1811 1811
12 William Bulloch Democratic-Republican 1811 1812
14 George Jones 1812 1813
14 George Jones 1813 1814
7 Matthew McAllister 1814 1815 Once was the State Attorney General of Georgia
15 Thomas Charlton 1815 1815
15 Thomas Charlton 1815 1816
15 Thomas Charlton 1816 1817
16 James Wayne Democratic-Republican 1817 1818 U.S. Representative in 182935
16 James Wayne Democratic-Republican 1818 1819
15 Thomas Charlton 1819 1819
15 Thomas Charlton 1819 1820
15 Thomas Charlton 1820 1821
17 James Morrison 1821 1821
17 James Morrison 1821 1822
17 James Morrison 1822 1823
17 James Morrison 1823 1824
18 William Daniell 1824 1825
18 William Daniell 1825 1826
19 Joseph W. Jackson Democrat 1826 1827 U.S. Representative in 185053
19 Joseph W. Jackson Democrat 1827 1828
20 William Thorne Williams 1828 1829
20 William Thorne Williams 1829 1830
21 William Waring 1830 1831
21 William Waring 1831 1832
22 George Owens Democrat 1832 1833 U.S. Representative in 183539
Owner of the Owens-Thomas House in 183056
20 William Thorne Williams 1833 1833
20 William Thorne Williams 1833 1834
23 William Gordon 1834 1835 Georgia State Representative in 1835
Georgia State Senator in 1838
23 William Gordon 1835 1836
24 William Cuyler 1836 1836
25 John Nicoll 1836 1837
26 Matthew Hall McAllister 1837 1838
26 Matthew Hall McAllister 1838 1839
27 Robert Charlton Democrat 1839 1839 U.S. Senator in 185253
27 Robert Charlton Democrat 1839 1840
27 Robert Charlton Democrat 1840 1841
20 William Thorne Williams 1841 1842
28 Dr. Richard Arnold 1842 1843 Rice producer
Councilmember from 1831 to 1833 and from 1852 to 1853
20 William Thorne Williams 1843 1844
29 Dr. Richard Wayne Democrat 1844 1845 First elected mayor
30 Henry Burroughs Whig 1845 1846 Councilmember from 1841 to 1842
30 Henry Burroughs Whig 1846 1847
30 Henry Burroughs Whig 1847 1848
29 Dr. Richard Wayne Democrat 1848 1849
29 Dr. Richard Wayne Democrat 1849 1850
29 Dr. Richard Wayne Democrat 1850 1851
28 Dr. Richard Arnold Union Party (Whig) 1851 1852 Rice producer
29 Dr. Richard Wayne Democrat 1852 1853
31 John Elliott Ward Democrat 1853 1854
32 Edward Anderson American 1854 1855 Banker, planter, factor and commission merchant
Councilmember from 1870 to 1871
32 Edward Anderson American 1855 1856
33 James Proctor Screven Democrat 1856 1857 Alderman of Savannah (elected in 1849)
Georgia State Senator in 1855
29 Dr. Richard Wayne Democrat 1857 1858
34 Thomas Turner Democrat 1858 1858 Councilmember from 1846 to 1847, 1848 to 1852,
1857 to 1858 and 1862 to 1863
34 Thomas Turner Democrat 1858 1859
28 Dr. Richard Arnold Opposition (American) 1859 1860 Born in Rhode Island
35 Charles Jones Democrat 1860 1861 Councilmember from 1859 to 1860
36 Thomas Purse Democrat 1861 1862 Councilmember from 1832 to 1837, 1848 to 1851 and 1856 to 1857
37 Thomas Holcombe Democrat 1862 1863 Councilmember from 1841 to 1842, 1852 to 1853 and 1858 to 1859
28 Dr. Richard Arnold Democrat 1863 1864 Rice producer
28 Dr. Richard Arnold Democrat 1864 1865
32 Edward Anderson Democrat 1865 1866 Banker, planter, factor and commission merchant
32 Edward Anderson Democrat 1866 1867
32 Edward Anderson Democrat 1867 1868
32 Edward Anderson Democrat 1868 1869
38 John Screven Democrat 1869 1870
38 John Screven Democrat 1870 1871
38 John Screven Democrat 1871 1873
32 Edward Anderson Democrat 1873 1875
32 Edward Anderson Democrat 1875 1877
39 John Wheaton Democrat 1877 1879
39 John Wheaton Democrat 1879 1881
39 John Wheaton Democrat 1881 1883
40 Rufus Lester Democrat 1883 1885 U.S. Representative from 1889 to 1906
40 Rufus Lester Democrat 1885 1887
40 Rufus Lester Democrat 1887 1889
41 John Schwarz Democrat 1889 1891 Councilmember from 1869 to 1873, 1877 to 1883,
1887 to 1889 and 1899 to 1901
42 John McDonough Democrat 1891 1893 Irish-American mayor
42 John McDonough Democrat 1893 1895
43 Herman Myers Democrat 1895 1897 1st Jewish mayor
German-born from Bavaria
Councilmember from 1885 to 1895
44 Peter Meldrim Democrat 1897 1899 Irish-American mayor
Superior Court Judge from 1917 to 1933
President of the American Bar Association in 1915
Owner of the Green-Meldrim House by 1892
43 Herman Myers Democrat 1899 1901
43 Herman Myers Democrat 1901 1903
43 Herman Myers Democrat 1903 1905
43 Herman Myers Democrat 1905 1907
45 George Tiedeman Democrat 1907 1909 Councilmember from 1895 to 1897 and from 1899 to 1907
45 George Tiedeman Democrat 1909 1911
45 George Tiedeman Democrat 1911 1913
46 Richard Davant Democrat 1913 1915
46 Richard Davant Democrat 1915 1915
47 Wallace Pierpont Democrat 1915 1917
47 Wallace Pierpont Democrat 1917 1919
48 Murray Stewart Democrat 1919 1921
48 Murray Stewart Democrat 1921 1923
49 Paul Seabrook Democrat 1923 1925
50 Robert Hull Democrat 1925 1927
50 Robert Hull Democrat 1927 1927
51 Thomas Hoynes Democrat 1927 1929
52 Gordon Saussy Democrat 1929 1931 Once a Member of the Georgia General Assembly
Ordinary of Chatham County, Georgia from 1931 until his death in 1952
52 Gordon Saussy Democrat 1931 1931
51 Thomas Hoynes Democrat 1931 1933
53 Thomas Gamble Democrat 1933 1935 Mayor of Tybee Beach, prior to 1933
53 Thomas Gamble Democrat 1935 1937
54 Robert Hitch Democrat 1937 1939
53 Thomas Gamble Democrat 1939 1941
53 Thomas Gamble Democrat 1941 1943
53 Thomas Gamble Democrat 1943 1945
53 Thomas Gamble Democrat 1945 1945
55 Peter Roe Nugent Democrat 1945 1947 Son of an Australian immigrant
Councilmember from 1937 to 1945
56 John Groover Kennedy Democrat 1947 1949 Irish-American mayor
57 Olin Fulmer Democrat 1949 1951
57 Olin Fulmer Democrat 1951 1953
57 Olin Fulmer Democrat 1953 1955
58 Lee Mingledorff, Jr. Democrat 1955 1957
58 Lee Mingledorff, Jr. Democrat 1957 1958
58 Lee Mingledorff, Jr. Democrat 1958 1960
59 Malcolm Maclean Democrat 1960 1962 Scottish-American mayor
Councilmember from 1957 to 1960
59 Malcolm Maclean Democrat 1962 1966
60 Julius Curtis Lewis, Jr. Republican 1966 1970
61 John Rousakis Democrat 1970 1974 1st Greek-American mayor
61 John Rousakis Democrat 1974 1978
61 John Rousakis Democrat 1978 1982
61 John Rousakis Democrat 1982 1986
61 John Rousakis Democrat 1986 1992
62 Susan Weiner Republican 1992 1996 1st woman to serve as Mayor of Savannah
Born in Albany, New York
63 Floyd Adams, Jr. Democrat 1996 2000 1st African-American mayor
1st Catholic mayor
Councilmember from 1982 to 1996
63 Floyd Adams, Jr. Democrat 2000 2004
64 Otis Johnson Democrat 2004 2008 2nd African-American mayor
Councilmember from 1982 to 1988
64 Otis Johnson Democrat 2008
Portal icon State of Georgia portal
Garden City, Georgia
List of mayors of Garden City, Georgia
List of mayors of Atlanta
List of mayors of Augusta, Georgia
List of mayors of Columbus, Georgia
List of mayors of Macon, Georgia
^ Savannah Morning News
^ a b c "Savannah". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press. September 11, 2006. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
^ "Savannah Information". Savannah Area Convention & Visitors Bureau. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
^ About North Georgia, Antebellum Georgia 1838 to 1860
^ Davies resigned in 1807.
^ Harris served the remainder of Davies&#39; term, which expired in 1808.
^ Mendenhall resigned in 1811.
^ Bulloch served the remainder of Mendenhall&#39;s term, which expired in 1812.
^ Matthew McAllister resigned in 1815.
^ Charlton served the remainder of Matthew McAllister&#39;s term, which expired in 1815.
^ Wayne resigned in 1819.
^ Charlton served the remainder of James Wayne&#39;s term, which expired in 1819.
^ Charlton resigned in 1821.
^ Morrison served the remainder of Thomas Charlton&#39;s term, which expired in 1821.
^ Owens resigned in 1833.
^ Telfair Museum of Arts, Owens-Thomas House
^ Williams served the remainder of Owens&#39; term, which expired in 1833.
^ Gordon resigned in 1836.
^ Cuyler served the remainder of Owens&#39; term, which expired in 1836.
^ Matthew Hall McAllister resigned in 1839.
^ Charlton served the remainder of Matthew Hall McAllister&#39;s term, which expired in 1839
^ New Georgia Encyclopedia, Cities and Counties, Bryan County
^ In 1844, Wayne became the first mayor of Savannah who was elected directly by the citizens. Prior to his election, mayors were appointed by the city aldermen.
^ Inventory of the George Wayne Anderson Papers, 17581896, Collection Number 1498, Manuscripts Department, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
^ Arnold and Screven Family Papers, Collection Number 3419, Manuscripts Department of The Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
^ Dr. Wayne died in office in 1858.
^ Turner was appointed by the Council to serve the remainder of Wayne&#39;s term, which expired in 1858.
^ On December 21, 1864, Mayor Richard Arnold surrendered the city to Major General William Tecumseh Sherman and Brevet Brigadier General Lester Sebastian Willson.
^ Jews of Savannah, B. H. Levy and Rabbi Arnold Mark Belzer, Jewish Virtual Library
^ The Jewish Community of Savannah, Savannah Jewish Archives
^ Herman Myers (18471909), City of Savannah Research Library
^ Davant died in office in October 1915.
^ Pierpont was appointed by the Council to serve the remainder of Davant&#39;s term, which expired in 1917.
^ Hull died in office in August 1927.
^ Hoynes was appointed by the Council to serve the remainder of Hull&#39;s term, which expired in 1929.
^ Saussy resigned in May 1931.
^ Hoyne was appointed by the Council to serve the remainder of Saussy&#39;s term, which expired in 1933.
^ Gamble died in office in July 1945.
^ Nugent was appointed by the Council to serve the remainder of Gamble&#39;s term, which expired in 1947.
^ Mingledorff resigned in 1960.
^ Maclean served the remainder of Mingledorff&#39;s term, which expired in 1962.
^ The History of St. Paul&#39;s Greek Orthodox Church, Savannah, Georgia
^ The Georgia General Assembly extended Rousakis&#39; fifth term by one year; it started in October 1986 and ended in January 1992.
^ Pastoral Musings...,St. Peter&#39;s in the Loop, St. Peter&#39;s Church, May 20, 2007
школьник сагрился на твой лвл
The Crown Prince Cup, officially known as (Arabic: уУг шфъ ЧфйчЯ), is the top knockout tournament of the Saudi Arabia football. The King&#39;s Cup, officially known as (Arabic: уУг Чфхфу), was a Saudi football tournament created in 1956. Due to time constraints, saturation and club pressure, the competition didn&#39;t last, being cancelled in 1990.
1.1 King&#39;s Cup
1.2 Crown Prince Cup
2 Performance by club
4 External links
1956/57 : Al-Wahda 4-0 Al-Ittihad
1957/58 : Al-Ittihad 3-0 Al-Wahda
1958/59 : Al-Ittihad 2-0 Al-Wahda
1959/60 : Al-Ittihad 3-0 Al-Wahda
1960/61 : Al-Hilal 3-2 Al-Wahda
1961/62 : Al-Ahli 1-0 Al-Riyadh
1962/63 : Al-Ittihad 3-0 Al-Hilal
1963/64 : Al-Hilal 0-0 Al-Ittihad [3-1 pen]
1964/65 : Al-Ahli 3-1 Al-Ittifaq
1965/66 : Al-Wahda 2-0 Al-Ittifaq
1966/67 : Al-Ittihad 0-0 Al-Nasr [5-3 pen]
1967/68 : Al-Ittifaq 4-2 Al-Hilal
1968/69 : Al-Ahli 1-0 Al-Shabab
1969/70 : Al-Ahli 2-0 Al-Wahda
1970/71 : Al-Ahli 2-0 Al-Nasr
1971/72 : Al-Ahli 21 Al-Nasr
1972/73 : Al-Nasr 10 Al-Ahli (alternative source shows Al-Ahli won cup)
1973/74 : Al-Nasr
1974/75 not played
1975/76 : Al-Nasr 2-0 Al-Ahli
1976/77 : Al-Ahli 3-1 Al-Hilal
1977/78 : Al-Ahli 1-0 Al-Riyadh
1978/79 : Al-Ahli 4-0 Al-Ittihad
1979/80 : Al-Hilal 3-1 Al-Shabab
1980/81 : Al-Nasr 3-1 Al-Hilal
1981/82 : Al-Hilal 3-1 Al-Ittihad (alternative source shows Ittihad bt Shabab 1-0)
1982/83 : Al-Ahli 1-0 Al-Ittifaq
1983/84 : Al-Hilal 4-0 Al-Ahli
1984/85 : Al-Ittifaq 1-1 Al-Hilal [4-3 pen] (alternative source shows shootout as finishing 6-5)
1985/86 : Al-Nasr 1-0 Al-Ittihad
1986/87 : Al-Nasr 1-0 Al-Hilal
1987/88 : Al-Ittihad 1-0 Al-Ittifaq
1988/89 : Al-Hilal 3-0 Al-Nasr
1989/90 : Al-Nasr
Crown Prince Cup
1956/57 : Al-Thaghar 3-0 Al-Olempy
1957/58 : Al-Ittihad 3-2 Al-Thaghar
1958/59 : Al-Ittihad 4-3 Al-Wahda
1959/60 : Al-Wahda ?-? Al-Ittihad
1960/61 : West Team 2-1 Central Team
1961/62 : East Team 2-1 West Team
1962/63 : Al-Ittihad 6-2 Al-Ittifaq
1963/64 : Al-Hilal 3-2 Al-Wahda
1964/65 : Al-Ittifaq 3-0 Al-Ittihad
1965/66 : not played
1966/67 : West Team 5-2 East Team
1967/68 : West Team 4-3 Central Team
1968/69 : Central Team 0-0 West Team (Central Team on pens)
1969/70 : Al-Ahli bt Al-Wahda (on pens?)
1970/71 : Not played
1971/72 : Not played
1972/73 : Al-Nasr 2-1 Al-Wahda
1973/74 : Al-Nasr 1-0 Al-Ahli
1974/90 : Not played
1990/91 : Al-Ittihad 0-0 Al-Nasr (aet, 5-4 pens)
1991/92 : Al-Qadisiya 0-0 Al-Shabab (aet, 4-2 pens)
1992/93 : Al-Shabab 1-1 Al-Ittihad (aet, 5-3 pens)
1993/94 : Al-Riyadh 1-0 Al-Shabab (aet)
1994/95 : Al-Hilal 1-0 Al-Riyadh
1995/96 : Al-Shabab 3-0 Al-Nasr
1996/97 : Al-Ittihad 2-0 Al-Ta&#39;ee
1997/98 : Al-Ahli 3-2 Al-Riyadh (asdet)
1998/99 : Al-Shabab 1-0 Al-Hilal
1999/00 : Al-Hilal 3-0 Al-Shabab
2000/01 : Al-Ittihad 3-0 Al-Ittifaq
2001/02 : Al-Ahli 2-1 Al-Ittihad
2002/03 : Al-Hilal 1-0 Al-Ahli
2003/04 : Al-Ittihad 1-0 Al-Ahli
2004/05 : Al-Hilal 2-1 Al-Qadisiya
2005/06 : Al-Hilal 1-0 Al-Ahli
2006/07 : Al-Ahli 2-1 Al-Ittihad
2007/08 : Al-Hilal 2-0 Al-Ittifaq
2008/09 : Al-Hilal 1-0 Al-Shabab (aet)
2009/10 : Al-Hilal 2-1 Al-Ahli
2010/11 : Al-Hilal 5-0 Al-Wahda
2011/12 : Al-Hilal 2-1 Al-Ittifaq
Performance by club
Club King&#39;s Cup Winning years Crown Prince Cup Winning years Total
1961, 1964,1980, 1982, 1984, 1989
1964, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
1962, 1965, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1983
19571, 1970, 1998, 2002, 2007
1958, 1959, 1960, 1963, 1967, 1988
1958, 1959, 1963, 1991, 1997, 2001, 2004
1974, 1976, 1981, 1986, 1987, 1990
1993, 1996, 1999
1including one title as Al-Thaghar
^ Ian King and Mohammed Qayed (14 May 2010 (updated)). "Kings Cup". Saudi Arabia - List of Cup Winners. RSSSF. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
Rangers Football Club is a football club based in Glasgow, Scotland that plays in the Third Division of the Scottish Football League. Their home ground is the 50,987-capacity all-seater Ibrox Stadium in the south-west of the city.
Founded in 1872, Rangers are one of the ten founder members of the Scottish Football League, remaining in the top division until the end of the 201112 season, during which the company became insolvent and entered administration. After the failure to agree a settlement with creditors, Rangers&#39; assets were bought by a new company which obtained the transfer of Rangers&#39; Scottish Football Association membership and relaunched the club. Though an application for admittance to the Scottish Premier League was rejected, a successful application to the Scottish Football League secured Rangers a place in the Third Division for the 201213 season.
In domestic football Rangers have won more league titles and trebles than any other club in the world, winning the league title 54 times, the Scottish Cup 33 times and the Scottish League Cup 27 times, and achieving the treble of all three in the same season seven times. In European football, Rangers were the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final. They won the European Cup Winners&#39; Cup in 1972 after being runner up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners up finish came in the UEFA Cup in 2008.
Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm, since the late 19th century.
2 Club crest
4 Stadium and training facility
7 Ownership and finances
8 Rangers Charity Foundation
11 Backroom staff
13 See also
15 Further reading
16 External links
Main article: History of Rangers F.C.
See also: List of Rangers F.C. seasons and Rangers F.C. Hall of Fame
Formation and early years
The four founders of Rangers brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath met in 1872. Rangers&#39; first match, in May of that year, was a 00 friendly draw with Callander F.C. on the public pitches of Glasgow Green. In 1873, the club held its first annual meeting and staff were elected. By 1876 Rangers had their first international player, with Moses McNeil representing Scotland in a match against Wales, and by 1877 Rangers had reached a Scottish Cup final. The first ever Old Firm match took place in 1888, the year of Celtic&#39;s establishment. Rangers lost 52 in a friendly to a team composed largely of "guest players" from Hibernian
The 189091 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers, by then playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club&#39;s first ever league match on 16 August 1890 resulted in a 52 victory over Hearts of Midlothian. After finishing equal-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 22 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers&#39; first ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 31 victory over rivals Celtic in the final. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two league titles and three Scottish Cups.
Bill Struth and Scot Symon
Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers&#39; most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional new year holiday Old Firm match. Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cup, 2 League Cups, 7 war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours.
Scot Symon continued Struth&#39;s success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963-64 season, the era of &#39;Slim&#39; Jim Baxter, one of the club&#39;s greatest players.
Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 124 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners&#39; Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 41 on aggregate. Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, losing 10 after extra time to Bayern Munich.
Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace
The Ibrox Disaster memorial statue, commemorating the 1971 tragedy
The Ibrox Disaster memorial statue, commemorating the 1971 tragedy
The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of the New Year&#39;s Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs. A benefit match to raise funds for the victims&#39; families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans.
In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to finally achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 32 victory over FC Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners&#39; Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions and rioting by Rangers fans. Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans, later reduced on appeal to a year.
Emerging from the shadows of Jock Stein&#39;s Celtic side, Rangers regained ascendancy with notable domestic success under the stewardship of manager Jock Wallace. In his first season in charge the club&#39;s centenary Rangers won the Scottish Cup at Hampden in front of 122,714 supporters. In 197475, Wallace led Rangers to their first League championship triumph in eleven years, before winning the treble the following season, repeating the historic feat in 197778.
Graeme Souness and Walter Smith Nine in a row
Every year from the 198889 season until the 199697 season, Rangers won the league title. This nine-in-a-row achievement equalled Celtic&#39;s record, set prior to the forming of the Scottish Football League Premier Division, subsequent to which competing teams met 4 times a season. The first three of these seasons the club was managed by Graeme Souness, the latter six under the stewardship of Walter Smith.
Notable seasons included 199091, which culminated in a final day finale, Rangers securing a 20 victory at Ibrox over Aberdeen, who needed only a draw to secure the championship. Season 199293 was notable for a domestic treble of trophies, as well an extended run in the inaugural UEFA Champions League, the club at one stage only one goal from securing a place in the final.
Outstanding contributions from Player of the Season winners Ally McCoist (199192), Andy Goram (199293), Mark Hateley (199394), Brian Laudrup (199495 and 199697) and Paul Gascoigne (199596), were crucial to maintaining success. Rangers ninth consecutive championship title was secured at Tannadice Park on 7 May 1997, with a 10 victory over Dundee United.
Dick Advocaat and Alex McLeish
In 1998, Dutchman Dick Advocaat became the club&#39;s first foreign manager. Nine-in-a-row era stalwarts having moved on, Advocaat invested heavily in the team with immediate results, leading the club to their sixth domestic treble. The league championship was won with a 30 victory at Celtic Park on 2 May 1999. A second consecutive league title was won by a record 21 point margin, the club securing a domestic double with a 40 Scottish Cup final victory over Aberdeen. Rangers campaign in the Champions League was promising, defeating UEFA Cup winners Parma en route.
Advocaat&#39;s third season saw Rangers fail to compete domestically against Celtic under new manager Martin ONeill. Despite investment in the team including Tore Andre Flo for a club record S12 million, European success beyond the Champions league group stages again proved elusive. After a slow start to the following season, Advocaat resigned from his post in December 2001 to be replaced as manager by Alex McLeish.
In his first full campaign, 200203 season saw McLeish become the sixth Rangers manager to deliver a domestic treble. The championship was won on goal difference during a dramatic final day 61 triumph over Dunfermline at Ibrox, securing Rangers&#39; 50th league title, the first club in the world to achieve the feat. Major expenditure sanctioned by Chairman David Murray had burdened Rangers with considerable debts in the region of S52m. The club&#39;s worsening financial state saw many of the team&#39;s top players leave in the summer of 2003, the following season failing to deliver any trophies, only the second such occasion since 198586.
The 200405 season restored success to Rangers, who were boosted by signings such as Jean-Alain Boumsong, Dado Pro and Nacho Novo, along with the return of former captain Barry Ferguson. The club&#39;s league championship triumph culminated in a dramatic last day finish. The destination of the trophy changed unexpectedly, with Celtic conceding late goals to Motherwell at Fir Park whilst Rangers led against Hibernian, requiring the helicopter carrying the SPL trophy to change direction and deliver the prize to the Easter Road ground in Leith.
Despite beginning as favourites to retain the championship, Rangers suffered an unprecedented run of poor results between September and November, a club record run of 10 games without a win. Included within this period, a 11 draw with Inter Milan took Rangers into the last 16 of the Champions League, the first Scottish team to achieve the feat since 1993, the club eventually exiting on the away goals rule to Villarreal. On 9 February 2006, it was announced by chairman David Murray that McLeish would be standing down as manager at the end of that season.
Paul Le Guen and Walter Smith return
Rangers F.C. showing French card display at Ibrox to welcome Paul Le Guen
Card display at Ibrox to welcome Paul Le Guen
Frenchman Paul Le Guen replaced Alex McLeish as manager after season 200506. The season started poorly for Rangers, with an early exit from the League Cup whilst rivals Celtic built a commanding lead at the top of the table. In the UEFA Cup Rangers became the first Scottish side to qualify for the last 32 of the competition since the introduction of the group phase after finishing their group unbeaten. However, amid claims of disharmony between the manager and captain Barry Ferguson, it was announced on 4 January 2007 that Le Guen had left Rangers by mutual consent. On 10 January 2007, former boss Walter Smith resigned from his post as Scotland manager to return to the Ibrox helm, with Ally McCoist as assistant manager.
The 2008 UEFA Cup Final in Manchester which Rangers contested
The 2008 UEFA Cup Final in Manchester which Rangers contested.
The following season Rangers contested the UEFA Cup after dropping into the competition from the Champions League. The club reached the final, defeating Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen, Sporting Lisbon and Fiorentina along the way. The final in Manchester against Zenit St. Petersburg, who were managed by former Rangers manager Dick Advocaat, ended in a 20 defeat.
The 200809 season saw Rangers recover from an early exit from the UEFA Champions League to FBK Kaunas of Lithuania. The club secured their 52nd league championship on the last day of the season with a 30 victory of Dundee United at Tannadice. Rangers also successfully defended the Scottish Cup, a 33rd competition triumph, defeating Falkirk 10 in the final.
Despite financial problems preventing new signings and curtailing squad size, the 200910 season saw Rangers reach their fifth consecutive domestic final. Against St. Mirren in the Scottish League Cup, the club overcame a two-men deficit from red cards, a late deciding goal from Kenny Miller securing a record 27th competition victory. The league championship title was retained with three matches remaining at Easter Road, defeating Hibernian 10 with a Kyle Lafferty goal. Smith&#39;s final season in charge saw Rangers retain the League Cup, defeating Celtic at Hampden with a Nikica Jelavi· goal in extra time. A third consecutive title was won by beating Kilmarnock 51 on the last day of the season, Smith&#39;
С парашютом прыгнуть не пробовал, или забраться на гору? Тоже непередаваемые ощущения, но без вреда и даже с пользой для здоровья.
Ally McCoist and insolvency
As announced the previous year, Ally McCoist took over from Walter Smith in June 2011 with his first competitive match in charge against Hearts in July, ending in a 11 draw. Rangers lost 21 on aggregate to Swedish side Malm¦ FF in the Champions League third round qualifying match, and were then knocked out of Europe after losing 32 on aggregate in the Europa League qualifying match against Slovenian side Maribor. In the first Old Firm match of the 201112 season and McCoist&#39;s first in charge of the club Rangers won 42 at Ibrox. Good league form saw Rangers maintain top spot in the SPL and were unbeaten after 11 games. They were knocked out of the League Cup by Falkirk and the Scottish Cup by Dundee Utd at Ibrox.
Rangers was placed into administration on 14 February 2012 as a result of financial problems and a dispute with HMRC. This resulted in the club being deducted 10 points, as per SPL rules, which extended Celtic&#39;s lead at the top of the league to 14 points. Rangers&#39; first game in administration was played in front of a sell-out crowd at Ibrox though they lost 10 to Kilmarnock, and poor form continued with defeats to Hearts and Dundee United. The last significant game for Rangers in the 201112 season was the Old Firm game on 25 March where a win for Celtic would see their rivals win the championship at Ibrox. Rangers won 32 however and ultimately finished the season in second place behind Celtic.
A failure to reach agreement with creditors on 14 June 2012 led to The Rangers Football Club plc (since renamed RFC 2012 plc) entering liquidation and its business, assets and history were then sold to a new company, Sevco Scotland Limited, which was later renamed The Rangers Football Club Ltd. This company then applied for the transfer of Rangers&#39; SFA membership which was agreed by the SFA upon acceptance of a number of conditions, including a one year transfer ban (taking effect from the end of that summer&#39;s transfer window). Though an application for membership of the Scottish Premier League was rejected, an application to the Scottish Football League was successful with member clubs deciding to place Rangers in the bottom division, the Third, for the start of the 201213 season rather than the First Division as had been proposed.
Rangers&#39; first home match in Division 3 after being relegated from the Scottish premier league was a 51 victory over East Stirlingshire in front of a crowd of 49,118 at Ibrox, a world record for a football match in a fourth tier league.[n 1] However, away from home, Rangers started their league campaign with three successive draws before losing 10 to Stirling Albion, at the time the bottom club. Rangers were defeated by Queen of the South at Ibrox in the third round of the Scottish Challenge Cup and lost 3-0 at home to Inverness Caley Thistle in the quarter finals of the Scottish League Cup after getting revenge on Falkirk who had knocked them out of the same competition the season prior and defeating then SPL leaders Motherwell 20 at Ibrox in the previous round. Rangers beat their own new record against Queens Park with an attendance of 49,463. and again against Stirling Albion with an attendance of 49,913.
Rangers FC have two different club badges, both of which have undergone minor variations since introduction. The scroll badge, representing the letters RFC overlapping, has been used since the club&#39;s formation in 1872. The scroll badge has appeared on club shirts from 1968, and also features regularly on club merchandise. After a successful end to the season in 2003, which delivered Rangers a Domestic Treble and their 50th league title; five stars were added to the top of the scroll badge, one for every ten titles won by the club.
A circular club badge was adopted in 1959 and featured a lion rampant, an old-style football and the club&#39;s motto Ready, which was shortened from Aye Ready (meaning Always Ready in Scots), all surrounded by the team name, Rangers Football Club. The circular badge was modernised in 1969; the lion rampant, team name, club motto and old style football all remained. The modern circular badge is regularly used on club merchandise and by the media; it has never featured prominently on the club strip.
Rangers FC crests
Scroll crest since formation in 1872.
Scroll crest since formation in 1872
The modified scroll crest worn 2003 present
The modified scroll crest worn 2003 present
Lion rampant club crest 1959 1969.
Lion rampant club crest 1959 1969
The club colours of Rangers F.C. are royal blue, white and red. However, for the majority of the first forty-eight years of Rangers existence the club played in a plain lighter blue home shirt. The only deviation from this was a four season period from 1879 when the side wore a light blue hooped shirt. Traditionally this is accompanied by white shorts (often with royal blue and/or red trim) and black socks with red turn-downs. Rangers moved from the lighter shade of blue to royal blue in 1921, and have had a royal blue home shirt every year since. Black socks were first included in 1883 for five seasons before disappearing for eight years but became a more permanent fixture from 1896 onwards. When the red turn-downs were added to the socks in 1904, the strip began to look more like the modern day Rangers home kit. Occasionally the home kit will be altered by the shorts and socks, sometimes replacing the black socks with white ones; or replacing the white shorts and black socks combination with royal blue shorts and socks.
The basic design of Rangers away strips has changed far more than the traditional home strip. White and red have been the most common colours for Rangers alternate strips, though dark and light blue have also featured highly. In 1994 Rangers introduced a third kit. This is usually worn if both the home and away kits clash with their opponents. The colours used in the third kits have included combinations of white, red, dark and light blue as well as black.
Rangers home kits through history
The blue shirt, white shorts and blue & white hooped socks. Worn 18731879
The blue shirt, white shorts and blue & white hooped socks. Worn 18731879
The blue & white hooped shirt, white shorts and blue & white hooped socks. Worn 18791883
The blue & white hooped shirt, white shorts and blue & white hooped socks. Worn 18791883
The blue shirt, white shorts and black socks. Worn 18831888 and 18961904
The blue shirt, white shorts and black socks. Worn 18831888 and 18961904
The royal blue shirt with white collar and black socks with red tops. Worn 19211968
The royal blue shirt with white collar and black socks with red tops. Worn 19211968
The royal blue shirt and red socks with white tops. Worn 19681973.
The royal blue shirt and red socks with white tops. Worn 19681973.
The royal blue shirt and black socks with red tops. Worn 19731978
The royal blue shirt and black socks with red tops. Worn 19731978
Sponsors and manufacturers
When Rangers played French sides AJ Auxerre and RC Strasbourg in the 199697 Champions League and the UEFA Cup respectively, due to a French ban on alcohol advertising the team wore the logo of Center Parcs.
Year Kit manufacturer Shirt sponsor
19781984 Umbro None
19841987 CR Smith
19871990 McEwan&#39;s Lager
Stadium and training facility
Main articles: Ibrox Stadium and Murray Park
The club used a variety of grounds in Glasgow as a venue for home matches in the years between 1872 and 1899. The first was Flesher&#39;s Haugh, situated on Glasgow Green, followed by Burnbank in the Kelvinbridge area of the city, and then Kinning Park for ten years from the mid-1870s to the mid-1880s. From February of the 188687 season, Cathkin Park was used until the first Ibrox Park, in the Ibrox area of south-west Glasgow, was inaugurated for the following season. Ibrox Stadium in its current incarnation was originally designed by the architect Archibald Leitch, a Rangers fan who also played a part in the design of, among others, Old Trafford in Manchester and Highbury in London. The stadium was inaugurated on 30 December 1899, and Rangers defeated Hearts 31 in the first match held there.
A panorama of Ibrox Stadium from the Broomloan Road End. This picture was taken the first match of the 2011/12 season, against Hearts of Midlothian.
A panorama of Ibrox Stadium from the Broomloan Road End. This picture was taken during the first match of the 2011/12 SPL season, Rangers vs Heart of Midlothian.
Rangers&#39; training facility is located in Auchenhowie, Glasgow. The facility is known as Murray Park after former chairman and owner Sir David Murray. It was proposed by then-manager Dick Advocaat upon his arrival at the club in 1998. It was completed in 2001 at a cost of S14 million. Murray Park was the first purpose-built facility of its kind in Scotland, and incorporates features including nine football pitches, a state of the art gym, a hydrotherapy pool, and a video-editing suite. Rangers&#39; youth teams are also accommodated at Murray Park, with around 140 players between under-10 and under-19 age groups using the training centre. Various first-team players have come through the ranks at Murray Park, including Alan Hutton, Chris Burke, Stevie Smith, John Fleck and Charlie Adam. International club teams playing in Scotland, as well as national sides, have previously used Murray Park for training, and Advocaat&#39;s South Korea team used it for training prior to the 2006 World Cup.
Main article: Rangers F.C. supporters
See also: Rangers Supporters&#39; Trust, Follow Follow (fanzine), and 2008 UEFA Cup Final riots
Rangers FC are one of the best supported clubs in Europe, with an average attendance that is consistently one of the highest on the continent, the figure for the 201112 season being the 19th largest home league attendance. The club&#39;s website lists over 150 supporters clubs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with 95 further clubs spread across over 20 countries around the world. Rangers fans have contributed to several records for high attendances, including the highest home attendance for a British league fixture, 118,567 on 2 January 1939.
In 2008, an estimated 150,000 Rangers supporters, many without match tickets, travelled to Manchester for the UEFA Cup Final. Despite most supporters behaving "impeccably", a minority of fans rioted in the city centre, clashing violently with police and damaging property.
A panorama of Rangers supporters at the 2008 UEFA Cup final, in the Piccadilly Gardens fan zone. This picture was taken during the day before the match against Zenit Saint Petersburg on 14 May 2008.
A panorama of Rangers supporters at the 2008 UEFA Cup final, in the Piccadilly Gardens fan zone. This picture was taken during the day before the match against Zenit Saint Petersburg on 14 May 2008.
А про зависимость от них можно? Ельтсин джан?
The club&#39;s most distinct rivalry is with Glasgow neighbours Celtic F.C.; the two clubs are collectively known as the Old Firm, though they are not currently playing in the same league. Rangers&#39; traditional support is largely drawn from the Protestant Unionist community, whilst Celtic&#39;s traditional support is largely drawn from the Catholic community. The first Old Firm match was won by Celtic and there have been nearly four hundred matches played to date. The Old Firm rivalry has fuelled many assaults, sometimes leading to deaths, on Old Firm derby days; an activist group that monitors sectarian activity in Glasgow has reported that on Old Firm weekends, admissions to hospital emergency rooms have increased over normal levels and journalist Franklin Foer noted that in the period from 1996 to 2003, eight deaths in Glasgow were directly linked to Old Firm matches, as well as hundreds of assaults.
The rivalry with Aberdeen began in the late 1970s when the two clubs were among the strongest in Scotland. Relations between fans were further soured during a league match on 8 October 1988, when Aberdeen player Neil Simpson&#39;s tackle on Rangers&#39; Ian Durrant resulted in Durrant being injured for two years. Resentment continued and in 1998 an article in Rangers match programme branded Aberdeen fans "scum", although Rangers later issued a "full and unreserved apology" to Aberdeen and their supporters, which was accepted by Aberdeen. Fixtures have been described as "even more of a powderkeg than Old Firm games".
Rangers&#39; fall to the Third Division has led to the club&#39;s original rivalry with Queen&#39;s Park being renewed for the first time since 1958 in the league. Rangers and Queen&#39;s Park first played each other in March 1879 some nine years before the start of the Old Firm rivalry. Matches with Queen&#39;s Park has been advertised as the "Original Glasgow Derby" by Rangers.
Sectarian chanting by supporters has incurred criticism and sanctions upon the club as well as convictions against individuals identified. In 1999, the vice chairman of The Rangers Football Club Plc, Donald Findlay, resigned after being filmed singing sectarian songs during a supporters club event. UEFA&#39;s Control and Disciplinary Body have punished Rangers for incidents during European ties, most notably Villarreal in 2006, Osasuna in 2007, and PSV Eindhoven in 2011.
Main article: Sectarianism in Glasgow
During the 19th century, many immigrants came to Glasgow from Ireland this was a time of considerable anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment in Scotland. The early success of Celtic, a club associated with the Irish and Catholic community, has been described as sharpening Rangers&#39; Protestant Unionist identity, contributing to the eventual absence of openly Catholic players from the team. From the early 20th century onwards, Catholics were not knowingly signed by the club, nor employed in other prominent roles as an &#39;unwritten rule&#39;.
In 1989, Rangers signed Maurice "Mo" Johnston, "their first major Roman Catholic signing". Johnston was the highest-profile Catholic to sign for the club since the World War I era, though other Catholics had signed for Rangers before. Since Johnston&#39;s signing, an influx of overseas footballers has contributed to Catholic players becoming common place at Rangers. In 1999 Lorenzo Amoruso became the first Catholic captain of the club.
Rangers partnered with Celtic to form the &#39;Old Firm Alliance&#39;, an initiative aimed at educating children from across Glasgow about issues like healthy eating and fitness, as well as awareness of anti-social behaviour, sectarianism and racism. The club&#39;s &#39;Follow With Pride&#39; campaign was launched in 2007 to improve the club&#39;s image and build on previous anti-racist, anti-sectarian campaigns.[n 2] William Gaillard, UEFA&#39;s Director of Communications, commended the SFA and Scottish clubs, including Rangers, for their actions in fighting discrimination. In September 2007, UEFA praised Rangers for the measures the club has taken against sectarianism.
Ownership and finances
Main articles: Ownership of Rangers F.C. and Administration and liquidation of The Rangers Football Club Plc
Incorporation to limited company and then to a PLC
Rangers Football Club became a limited company on 27 May 1899 when it was incorporated as The Rangers Football Club Ltd. It continued in this form until, in 2000, David Murray decided to list the company on the stock exchange, making it a public limited company. The name of the company was therefore changed to The Rangers Football Club PLC.
Craig Whyte and administration
On 6 May 2011, Craig Whyte bought David Murray&#39;s shares for S1. On 13 February 2012. Whyte filed legal papers at the Court of Session giving notice of their intention to appoint administrators. The next day, The Rangers Football Club plc which was subsequently renamed RFC 2012 plc entered administration over non-payment of S9 million in PAYE and VAT taxes to HM Revenue and Customs. In April the administrators estimated that the club&#39;s total debts could top S134m which was largely dependent on the outcome of a First Tier Tax Tribunal concerning a disputed tax bill in relation to an EBT scheme employed by the club since 2001. However, on the 20th of November 2012, the Tribunal ruled in favour of Rangers, meaning the tax bill would be significantly reduced from an estimated S74m to under S2m.
On 25 June 2012, the Crown Office asked Strathclyde Police to investigate the purchase of Rangers and the club&#39;s subsequent financial management during Whytes tenure.
Liquidation of Plc and current ownership
Sevco 5088 Ltd was formed on 29 May 2012 as a means for Charles Green to acquire the assets of The Rangers Football Club plc (subsequently renamed RFC 2012 plc), should it go into liquidation. Green agreed a deal with the administrators of Rangers to purchase its assets for a S5.5million fee if a proposed CVA were to be rejected. On 14 June 2012, the formal rejection of the proposed CVA meant that the company would enter the liquidation process. The accountancy firm BDO were appointed to reveal why the company running the club failed.
Hours after the CVA&#39;s rejection, Green completed the purchase of the assets and various contracts for Sevco 5088 Ltd. The company acquired Ibrox Stadium and Murray Park along with various other assets including intellectual property, goodwill and various contracts. The assets were then transferred to a company called Sevco Scotland Ltd which changed its name to &#39;The Rangers Football Club Ltd&#39; at the end of July 2012.
As a result of Rangers&#39; "assets, business and history" being sold to a new company when The Rangers Football Club plc (subsequently renamed as RFC 2012 plc) entered the liquidation process, the extent to which Rangers can be regarded as a continuation of the club officially founded in 1872 has been interpreted differently. The Rangers Football Club has been described by some in the mainstream media as a "new club", whilst Chief Executive Charles Green has maintained "this is still Rangers", with the SPL chairman Neil Doncaster saying "it is an existing club, even though it&#39;s a new company".
The company formally applied to acquire the SPL share of the company then called The Rangers Football Club plc on 18 June 2012. The SPL agreed to consider the request to transfer the share, but on 4 July, voted by 101 to reject the application. Kilmarnock abstained and the old Rangers company voted in favour. Thereafter, an application to the Scottish Football League was successful with Rangers securing associate membership on 13 July 2012 at an SFL meeting by a vote of 29-1. On the same day a place in the fourth tier of Scottish Football, Scottish Third Division for the 201213 season, rather than the Scottish First Division from the two options presented to the SFL member clubs with 25 of the 30 clubs voting that the club should be placed in Division Three.
The company also applied for SFA membership on 29 June 2012, it being a requirement for a club to be an SFA member to be eligible to participate in the SFL or the Scottish Cup. The SFA has confirmed that it has "received an information pack from Sevco Scotland relevant to their membership application." Agreement was reached on the transfer of SFA membership, with the new company accepting a number of conditions relating to the old company.
Rangers Charity Foundation
The Rangers Charity Foundation was created in 2002 and participates in a wide range of charitable work, regularly involving Rangers staff and star players. The foundation also has partnerships with UNICEF, The Prostate Cancer Charity and Erskine, and is responsible for over S2.3 million in donations. As well as fundraising, the Rangers Charity Foundation regularly bring sick, disabled and disadvantaged children to attend matches and tours at Ibrox, with the chance to meet the players.
Main article: List of Rangers F.C. records and statistics
Record league percentage win
100% 189899[n 3]
Record Highest Attendance
143,570 vs Hibernian, 27 March 1948
Record home attendance
118,567 vs Celtic, 2 January 1939
World record fourth tier attendance
49,913 vs Stirling Albion, 8 December 2012
Highest scoring match
142 vs Blairgowrie, 20 January 1934
Record league victory
100 vs Hibernian, 24 December 1898
World record league titles won
World record trebles won
World record trophies won
All players are from Scotland unless otherwise stated.
John Greig, 755, 19601978
Ally McCoist, 355 goals, 19831998
Most league goals
Ally McCoist, 251 goals
Most Scottish caps whilst playing at Rangers
Ally McCoist, 60 caps 61 in total
First team squad
As of August 2012 Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
No. Position Player
Scotland GK Neil Alexander
Scotland GK Scott Gallacher
Greece DF Anestis Argyriou
Northern Ireland DF Matty Clarke
Scotland DF Darren Cole
Brazil DF Emќlson Cribari
France DF S™bastien Faure
Northern Ireland DF Chris Hegarty
Scotland DF Ross Perry
Scotland DF Lee Wallace (vice-captain)
Scotland MF Fraser Aird
Scotland MF Ian Black
Scotland MF Robbie Crawford
Scotland MF Kyle Hutton
No. Position Player
Scotland MF Lewis Macleod
Scotland MF Lee McCulloch (captain)
Northern Ireland MF Andrew Mitchell
Northern Ireland MF Dean Shiels
Australia MF Francesco Stella
Scotland MF David Templeton
Poland MF Kamil Wiktorski
Scotland MF Tom Walsh
England FW Kane Hemmings
Scotland FW Kevin Kyle
Northern Ireland FW Andrew Little
Scotland FW Barrie McKay
Scotland FW Kal Naismith
Spain FW Francisco Sandaza
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
No. Position Player
Romania DF Dorin Goian (at Spezia Calcio until the end of the 201213 season)
United States DF Carlos Bocanegra (at Racing de Santander until the end of the 201213 season)
As of August 2012
Manager Ally McCoist
Assistant Manager Kenny McDowall
First Team Coach Ian Durrant
Goalkeeping Coach Jim Stewart
Fitness Coach Adam Owen
Head of Youth Development Jim Sinclair
Head of Football Administration Andrew Dickson
Physiotherapist Philip Yeates
Doctor Dr Paul Jackson
Kit Controller Jimmy Bell
Kit Controller David Lavery
Team Analyst Steve Harvey
For a list of team managers, see List of Rangers F.C. managers.
Rangers have had 15 managers during there 140 year history and 3 caretaker managers. The longest serving manager is Bill Struth who served for 34 years and 26 days. Rangers have had two foreign managers during there history first was Dick Advocact 1 June 1998 to 12 December 2001 and Paul Le Guen 9 May 2006 to 4 January 2007 who is also the manager with the shortest time at the club. Graeme Souness is the only ever Player-Manager during rangers history.
The most successful manager in terms of the number of trophies won is Bill Struth with 18 League titles, 10 Scottish Cups and 2 League Cups, but the most successful manager in terms of trophies to time served is Walter Smith with 7 League titles, 3 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups which he served for 7 years 42 days and during his second spell which was he managed due finical constraints due to the bank debt at the time he won 3 League titles, 2 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups which he server for 4 years 126 days. The other successful manager is William Waddell who won the European Cup Winner&#39;s Cup during his 2 years and 175 day stint.
See also: Reserve Honours, Youth Honours, and Rangers Honours
As of August 2012
Scottish League Championships: 54
1891,[n 4] 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1911, 1912, 1913, 1918, 1920, 1921, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1933, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1939, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1963, 1964, 1975, 1976, 1978, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011
Scottish Cup: 33
1894, 1897, 1898, 1903, 1928, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1953, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1966, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1981, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2008, 2009
Scottish League Cup: 27
1947, 1949, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1965, 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2011
Main article: Rangers F.C. in European football
UEFA Cup Winners&#39; Cup: 1
Doubles and trebles
Scottish Cup, League Cup, League Title: 7
194849, 196364, 197576, 197778, 199293, 199899, 200203
Scottish Cup and League Cup: 4
1962, 1979, 2002, 2008
Scottish Cup and League Title: 9
192728, 192930, 193334, 193435, 196263, 199192, 199596, 19992000, 200809
League Cup and League Title: 10
1947, 1961, 1987, 1989, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2005, 2010, 2011
Rangers became the first British side to reach a European final in 1961..
Notable Rangers F.C. players
International Rangers F.C. footballers
Rangers F.C. Reserves and Youths
Rangers F.C. (Superleague Formula team)
Book: Rangers F.C.
Wikipedia books are collections of articles that can be downloaded or ordered in print.
Football in Scotland
Richest Football Clubs
Лол!Интересно, чем он будет заниматься на НГ?
Я не экстримал. Развлекал себя поездками по свету, а сейчас ребенок маленький. И да эта хуйня меня очень пристыжает. ОП
Давай хуле у тебя же всё ровно в жизни и всегда так будет. ОП
Я не барыга и даже не вайпер, не надо мне тут.ЦЕЛУЙ ЖЕНУ, СУКА
ОП, курил пару лет каждый день разные спайсы, еще когда были jwh-018 и следующие, покупал оптом но не порошок а уже готовый спайс. Но до этого брал за обычную цену типа 500р грамм лол. Дохуя скурил, даже пару вещичек из дома продал что бы купить миксов, пиздец. Хорошо в один момент понял что ниче хорошего это не принесет и перестал курить. Так же я попросил каждого кто увидит меня курящим спайс бил меня в живот, не знаю помогло ли, но с тех пор я пару раз курил всего, когда угощали, и не купил ни хапочки. Удачи ОП , главное действительно захотеть и поймешь что это просто. Воля на самом деле нужна что бы что-то делать, а что бы НЕ делать никаких сил прикладывать не надо.
на моем примере, я покурил последний раз давно, но осталось ощущение что или покурил недостаточно или не настроился как следует на эйфорию, хотет БОЛЬШЕ БОЛЬШЕ БОЛЬШЕ
Алсо, прообовал скурить за один раз ебищем?
Химик прошу ещё раз! Ответь ты правда считаешь, что антидепрессант+успокоительное это выход? ОП
Спит уже, ну и типа в ссоре мы. ОП
>>40649054Да блять, никто не заставляет тебя её будить, подойди и чмокни в щёчку, бездушная сволота, может простит тебя, химика >>40648990
Ну вот представь ситуацию когда не надо ничего продавать, финансовый тупик не заставит меня задуматься, поскольку не наступит. В отчаянии я Ан
Я тоже плотно заторчал на спайсах, как и все знакомые. Его юзать уже стало мэйнстримом штоле, лол. Мозги выносит просто пиздец, кажется что умираешь иногда, что ни трип то бэд сплошной. Но всеравно сука каждый раз ночью когда родители засыпают я забиваю себе этой дряни и нахуяриваюсь ей до 5 утра. Вот и сейчас
Не в этот раз, завтра попробую опять шельму включить. Я реально с горя совета прошу, совсем в ахуе. ОП
Я не оп, но пробовал половину - полная блевота. Мозг как будто начинает нагреваться и вонять в прямом смысле теплыми половыми тряпками.
У Этих каннабимиметиков, что в спайсах, другое действие - сильный почти мгновенный приход, действует минут 20, далле нужно подкуриваться немного. И так весь день. Я по такому принципу упарываю. правда на эту хуйню 50К ушло спустя месяц сентябрь
где берешь деньги?
Ну это же пиздец! Я вот и хочу понять блевота действует на определенный тип организма или как? Где ёбаный выход? ОП
Ну ладно, я спать пойду, а тебя я желаю слезть с химки, если ты так хочешь, ну и с женой помирись, заебал. Добра
Да заказал 10-ку реагента за 450 долларов и хуярю уже джва месяца
Такая же хуйня-постоянная догонка, заебало СУКА!!!! ОП
Сам себя заебал! Спок! ОП
сколько вышло из 10-ки реагента?
Нет товарищ майор
Вы правда хотите на барыжную тему тред спустить? Хотя советы избитые, химик-доктор не отвечает. Танцуйте хуле. ОП
Замутил 1к10 себе, норм, 100 грамм. Если юзать в одиночку то можно с полгода каждый день торчать, что я и делаю, лол
Да, но еще веселее хотя бы день перекумариться или сменить сорт. Так и живу. ОП
Да, паранойя пиздец, особенно если на работе. Подозреваешь, что тебя даже уборщица палит.
Так мой случай более запущенный, грамм в раз-легко. ОП
Ну я в своё время успел и попродавать немного. ОП я бросил сам хз почему. Просто понял что это пиздец, что я живу как будто в другом мире и всё как во сне. После этого я просто не стал курить ни плюхи ни сигареты
К АКВ у меня был пиздец толер, а сейчас новые порошки лучше сделали, толер медленее растет
Видишь как получается, либо какое-то желание внутреннее, либо никак. А у меня нет мотивации бросить, именно к этой хуйне. А ведь что только не юзал. ОП
Ты это понял во время накура штоле, лол?
Нахуй иди, отморозок малолетний.
Ща посру и пойду за шпайшом.
Красиво работаешь. Это всё или по теме выскажешься? ОП
Ну ебать-колотить, в натуре что-ли в барыжную тему всё скатилось? Ох, грустно.ОП
Кажется у кого-то КАНИКУЛЫ?
Тут собрались успешые работобоги, могущие себе позволить не только пиво на мамкину зряплату. Так что проходите далее, уважаемый, не заддерживайтесь..
Понял после того как два с лишним года жизни прошли как в тумане и я обнаружил что ничего не делаю кроме муток и круглосуточного курения.
А вообще что я собственно хотел? Набить буковок и решить свою самую главную проблему, походу совсем чердак протёк. ОП
>>40650022>успешые работобоги курящие подростковую спайсуху
Успех уровня б.
Оригинал ты однако Василий.
Все норм, тебе нужно общаться с кем то на волнующую тебя проблему.советы уровня б, но все же тут не только долбоебы сидят
Ну были темы когда двощ выручал советом, но к сожалению химик-медик уебал дальше в пучины сверхскоростного супершоссе, а разговоры про мотивацию я думаю, что ты понимаешь, в моем случае не помогут. Плотно встрял. ОП
ВОПРОС: Зачем нужен спайс, когда есть питерский твердый?
Уже отвечал. Это как вместо чая пить заварку недельной давности. Оп
Да не поможет тебе химия. Ты просто решил что нужно завязать из-за того что отношения с женой портятся, а на самом деле не хочешь бросать
Дело базаришь, а делать то что? ОП
Потому что после длительного упарывания химии твой твёрдый становится беспонтом
Ты сравниваешь аптечный приход спайса с хуевой, но психоделикой камня? Почему бы тебе не начать жрать феназепам?
Бросай жену, сиди дома, пыхай спайс, очевидно же.
Зачем вообще длительно употреблять ХИМИЧЕСКОЕ курево. Это же пиздец! Это даже не курёха!
Так попустись, долбоёб. 3 месяца и накуривать будет снова как младенца.
Оп, базарю, кури камень и хорошенько еби жену\воспитывай ребенка. Это самый лучший компромисс в твоей ситуации.
Если бы кто то знал что делать то наркомании бы не было.
Комон, бро! Я же писал всё это уже. Я пробовал практически всю хуйню, но вот конкретно этот драг не отпускает. Насчет 3-х месячной паузы это не ко мне, я стабильно раз в неделю раньше курил, иногда чаще. Но эта блевонтина действительно круче. ОП
Я так полтора года жил. Похуй.
Потом просто накрыло так, что все понял.
Сейчас вышел на уровень раз в месяц.
Ещё один гений. Неужели такая потребность постучать по клаве. ОП
Вот тебе тут правильно все пояснили. Кстати, а что ты будешь делать, когда и к спайсу прикуришься?
Во-первых я завязал и больше не курю. Во-вторых тем кому понравился эффект от спайса уже не нужна обычная дудка так как эффект не тот. Хочется именно того прихода и сумашествия что дарит химия.
Начни выращивать свои качественные шишки. Это получше любого спайса будет.
выбери дни когда можно. используй их максимально и жди их как праздника. потом они станут сслучаться всё реже. пото пройдёт. только так.
Мой организм устроен так что бэд для тебя-прогулка под грибным дождем для меня. Я именно из-за дарковых приходов юзаю, вот в чем дело. ОП
ОП, что ты своему ребенка про вещества говорить будешь в будущем?
Опять же писал уже, просто меняешь сорт. Я не сильно разбираюсь в сортах говна, но там походу основа разная. ОП
Ну а что тут ещё сказать? Ведь ты не хочешь бросать и если даже заставишь себя это сделать то всё равно будешь хотеть курнуть что бы ещё раз испытать это так как это охуительно
Представляешь мне даже жена это предлагала. Но одно другого не заменит. ОП
Ёще один стыд с которым я живу. Не знаю что сказать. Оп
Ну так да, поменяй сорт. Потом заебет, бросишь. Еще раз повторюсь, за весь тред лично для тебя совета лучше не видел. Просто мне твоего ребеночка жалко, пиздос, папка на спайсах зависает. Это даже не смешно.
Ну так и я так делал. Погружал себя в бездну и искал свой смысл.
Химического изменения не нужно в таком количестве. Да, это можно попробовать или даже изредка повторять опыт с прослушиванием сотни динамиков с сотней музыкальных композиций на разной громкости и одновременно, но можно послушать свою и понять намного больше. Наш механизм прост и понятен.
Я не смеюсь, если почитаешь мои ответы, мне не до уровня Б
ПОЧЕМУ ПИДОРАС СЛОМАЛ МОЙ ББ ГДЕ МНЕ ТЕПЕРЬ ЗАВИСАТЬ. ПИДОРЮГА СЛОМАЛ МОЙ ББ, КУДА МНЕ ПОЙТИ
Мне похуй как тебе, ты конченный; я хочу, чтобы твой ребенок не стал курить спайсы как папка, ты же этого не допустишь? Хотя бы ради себя
В моём случае изредка не прокатит. Вот дурь я изредка мог курить и норм. всё было ровно, а эта хуйня требует постоянства. Дошло уже до того, что на работе считаю время-ну когда же епт. говна въебу. Оп
Схуяли он конченный?
Борды взрослеют со своей аудиторией. Так что это вы, школьники, здесь понаехавшие. А старшие есть аборигены.
Мне жена всё время про сына твердит, но эта хуйня сильнее родственных связей. Я в последнее время приходил домой и даже не общался с сыном, сразу на балкон и въебать. А в этом состоянии уже жена не разрешает с ним общаться, она думала что я таким образом завяжу. И прикинь, всё пох, лишь бы обмазаться говнищем. ОП
33 года, жена и ребенок, а этот кретин создает тредик на харче, в котором его обкладывают советами по его проблеме, но он уперто продолжает твердить "это не то, это не то". Что он делает, чего он хочет услышать или добиться? Это исповедь? Почему он исповедуется блять?! Почему он не поступает так, как должен поступить? Ему 33, жена и ребенок, а он ведет себе как подросток.
Вот почему для меня он конченный.
Лол, знакомо до одурения. Я до пяти грамм чистого реактива в неделю уничтожал. Просто задавал себе вопрос, а почему нет?, и вытряхивал кончик сигареты, чтобы набить порошком. Охуенно было. Увидел трамвай, курнул, сел с наушниками и до конца, на 40 минут минимум. Потом возвращаешься. Еще раз куришь. До чтения мыслей пассажиров, до измерения их пульса и дыхания.
Это охуенный опыт, согласен. Просто и из этого можно вырасти.
Бросишь ты курить или нет, не важно. Счастлив не будешь ни в том не в другом случае
ПАЦАНЫ, Я СЕГОДНЯ ШЁЛ КОРОЧЕ ПО РЫНКУ И УВИДЕЛ ПИДРИЛУ ВОЗРАСТА ИСУСА В МАЙКЕ "ЯСПАЙС", НУ Я ПОДСКОЧИЛ И РЕЗКО ПЕРЕЕБАЛ ЕМУ В ЩЩИ С ВЕРТУШКИ И ПОЯСНИЛ ЕГО КРИКОМ "НЕ ЛЮБЛЮ ГОВНОКУРОВ", ПОТОМУ ЧТО Я УГОРЕЛ ПО ШИШЕЧКАМ, ПАЦАНЫ ДУХ СТАРОЙ ШКОЛЫ ЖИВЁТ ТОЛЬКО В НАТУРПРОДУКТЕ, ГДЕ ЕБАШИТ ПО ХАРДКОРУ, ГДЕ ПАЦАНЫ ЖИВУТ ПОЗИТИВНОЙ ЭНЕРГИЕЙ, МОЛОДОСТЬЮ И ЕБУТ СИСТЕМУ В РОТ! ТОЛЬКО БОШЕЧКИ 228, ТОЛЬКО ХАРДКОР!!! ЮНИТИ УЛЬТРАХАРДКОР МЫТИЩИ!!! пацаны ебашьте подъздных пидрил, ака47, антиоксиданты, пидарасню, угорайте на водных, любите Джа, пацанов и Сцену! ГОВОРИТЕ ОТКРЫТО И СМЕЛО ПРЯМО В ЛИЦО! СПАЙС ГОВНО!
А ведь я спецом лвл указал, чтобы не травмировать молодежь исповедью взрослого наркомана.Странно что ещё паст дебильных не было. Оп
Я такой же, только мне двадцать и у меня вся жизнь впереди ;3
Мне жалко тебя, но ты сам во всем виноват и уже вряд ли что тебя изменит, это же все едет в один конец. Такие дела.
НУ ТАК ЭТО ПАЦАНЫ НАЩЕТ ББ ЧЕГО СЛОМАЛИ ТО ББ МНЕ ПИДАРЮГИ КАКИЕ ТО А ГДЕ СЕЙЧАС ВСЕ ТУСЯТ ?????
Просто спайс доставляет ему удовольствие и ощущения которые ни от чего другого не получить и даже если он через силу бросит то обычная жизнь будет казаться пустой и неинтересной. Как говорил мой приятель "когда куришь колпак едет, а когда не куришь он едет ещё больше".
Тебе знакома поговорка "На вкус и цвет товарищей нет" ?
Ого! Ну это уж слишком, ты мне сейчас впарить хочешь, что всегда поступаешь должным образом? Или волей дохуя наделён? А может это из серии "а вот если бы у меня была жена и сын, то я бы". Не стоит так рассуждать, не повторяй моих ошибок. У меня нет родительской поддержки, я всегда думал что буду ОТЦОМ и хуле? Я и сам могу себя покритиковать, да это исповедь, да я до сих пор отвечаю в этом треде, да мне хуёво и я не вижу выхода. Как уже заметил Антоныч мне нужно высказаться. Куда ещё? на торчево.ру? ОП
А я вот пить бросил, уже примерно полтора месяца не пью. А раньше пил вотку-пиво 1-2-3 раза в неделю (всего лишь!). Так первые недели три тяжело было, просто неадекватные нервные реакции на любую неудачу, злоба и отчачание. Но сейчас норм стало, хорошо, спокойно.
>>40651698>и даже если он через силу бросит то обычная жизнь будет казаться пустой и неинтересной
В точку! И что, по-твоему человек, принесший в свою жизнь такую ситуацию не кретин?
Если не знаешь барыг напрямую, а раз спайс, то скорее всего не знаешь, сжигай нахуй киоски, где затариваешься.
Каждый раз придётся всё дальше и дальше от дома за говном бегать, в большом городе это заебёт, в маленьком киоски быстро кончатся.
Кроме того, психологическое удовлетворение: я могу.
%Если Дс2, могу присоедениться%
присоединиться, конечно же.
Я типа такой песни пел в своё время дворовым ребятушкам-пацанчикам старшуленькам, а в то время медляк рулил. И хуле разве я мог представить, за ближайшим углом в красивой упаковочке ко мне придёт мой perfect drug? ОП
Я не хочу впаривать тебе про себя, не обо мне речь. Я просто хочу, чтобы тебе стало ещё хуже. Я хочу, чтобы ты достиг максимальной черты страдания, а потом ты бы взглянул на все другими глазами. Ты в детстве закатывал истерики? Состояние после истерики поможет тебе, оно отрезвит и придаст тебе энергию, может даже твой дух возгорит и ты действительно станешь лучше. Все может быть. Но сейчас я упорот и сижу на руинах. И я хочу, чтобы ты страдал.
И да, я считаю, что человек должен укреплять свой дух и волю.
ДС1, я ж писал по десять смс в день, мне никуда ехать не надо и так доставляют. Вот пока писал пришло НОВОГОДНЕЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ, даже если телефон выкину, всё равно замучу если захочется-здесь этого говна жопой жуй! Оп
Он не хотел такую ситуацию, он просто не попробовал и не устоял перед притягательностью этого как и я в своё время. Просто для меня например под химией жизнь превращалась в удивительную историю и всё становилось другим непостижимым и интересным а трезвость дебильным и унылым сумашествием.
Ан, ты в точку бьёшь! Затмевает, сука, всё! вообще всё! Оп
Сам проторчал же два с лишним года на химии. Просто им не понять какого это.
Также уже придрочился-прям на ходу в сигу и вперёд. Пишу и хуею с себя. ОП
И все было бы очень хорошо, если бы нам всем не портила жизнь толерантность наших организмов, так-то. Это ад, когда трезвость и серость мира уже проникало в твой упоротый мирок. Ты упарываешься и ,по-сути, ты трезв, но побочки остаются, деньги вылетают. Толпа кретинов.
Ты сейчас о чём Станислав? Какие деньги? Какие побочки? Вперед давал?
Звучит как оправдания для унтерменшей, да-да, определенно!
Отпизди курьера битой в следующий раз.
Скажи, что еще раз повезёт по этому адресу - не вернётся.
В принципе, можно даже не пиздить, а лишь сделать вид - главное, чтоб доставлять на дом тебе желающих не находилось.
Сдаётся мне, что ты просто НЕ ХОЧЕШЬ ПО-НАСТОЯЩЕМУ
>>40651698> Просто спайс доставляет ему удовольствие и ощущения которые ни от чего другого не получить
Какое там, нахуй, удовольствие. От него ощущаешь себя дебилом. Чувство, будто ты пластмассовая игрушка, плавающая в густой жиже. А ещё он нервы пиздец сажает. Даже через несколько лет после его потребления остаёшься дёрганным и нервным, как на попусках. Плюс возможность сдохнуть с передоза и заболеть раком.
Легалка для дурачков. Это что-то на уровне дышания клеем или упарывания бензина.
Иди лучше к врачу, а то совсем поедешь и тушка развалится.
Но ведь ОП упарывается китайской синтетикой, а не травами
Я не пытаюсь оправдать своё поведение, мне это не нужно. Я хочу завязать. Тред для этого если чё. Но видишь как получается, либо люди просто бросали, ну не их тема-ок, либо из-за денег-мне не грозит, либо в барыжную тему ударяются. Я почему химика-медика призывал из-за оригинальности и краткости ответа-заинтриговал. Но без разъяснений менять один химикат на другой нет смысла. Оп
Есть вариант: выложи тут на форуме телефоны всех барыг, а местные МВД-куны сами решат твою проблему. Пересажают всех барыг, а дальше ты сам как-нибудь перекантуешься.
Он знал на что идет.
Ты когда жим будешь лежа делать не забудь стоя, ок? ОП
Не смотря на всё на это, уберменш ты наш, я смог бросить
Спайс-барыгу не посадишь.
Нет никакой легалки, лолка. За спайсы мусора также пиздят и срок дают в два раза больше, чем за ганджу. На то, списочное вещество или нет всем похуй. Партия сказала "щемить наркоманов", значит будут щемить наркоманов.
Менты эту хуйню и держат, неужели ты думаешь, что с такого оборота никто не имеет? комон ОП
А зачем тебе завязывать?
Смешно, быдло уже спайс за героин считают. Системщик, блять. Даже советов давать не буду, так как ты, тупое быдло, все равно не догонишь.
О чём ты, наркоман?
То есть это всё что тебе есть написать, ну ок тогда. Ты высший. ОП
Молодец! Лови пятюльку! А зачем ты бросил, это же охуенно упарываться!
О наркотиках, о чём же? ОП
Пацаны, так что всё-таки сильнее прёт, гидра или поника? Сколько не задаю подобный вопрос в таких тредах, обычно или нахуй шлют, или тролём обзывают, ничего не понимаю. В гугле ничего не написано про это.
Схуя ли? Ты в какой стране живёшь, сынок? В рашке все плевали на законы и списки. Если у тебя найдут что-то прущее, 100 кубов посадят. Экспертиза обязательно выявит то, что нужно следствию, а куча понятых подтвердят. На крайняк, менты героина подкинут, они не жадные.
Ну ты ощущаешь себя так,а другие способны ощутить что то ещё и получить таки удовольствие. Каждому своё как говорится и если ты не просекаешь какую то тему то не стоит осуждать её
УУУ страшный медленный наркоман вживую, прям здесь, прям сейчас! Ну охуеть, как своевременно и как в тему! ОП
Термин "легалка" был предложен в ОП-посте.
Алсо, считаю, что правильно вас говнокуров щемят. каким надо быть долбоёбом, чтобы курить какие-то китайские говнолистья, политые химатой. Любое говно жрать готовы.
И я не только осужу :)
Ссылки на реальные случаи или хуй.
По большим городам спайс-палаток как грязи.
Всем ментам о них известно.
И в жопу ебаться, ага. ОП
Я лично однолюб. Из всех веществ мне нравятся ТОЛЬКО диссоциативы. От LSD и аналогов жуткая паранойя, страх смерти, приступы ПА. От спайсов чувствую себя идиотом в полу-прозрачной жидкости, чувство ненастоящести происходящего. От бухла очень мрачный прёж. Ничего удивительного, бухло ведь и есть депрессант, то есть оно должно вызывать депрессию. После внесения DXM в списки мне вообще нечего потреблять. Всё остальное в хуй не упрёрлось, ибо "не тащит".
Наркотики, блядь. Героин - это наркотик. А то, чем ты упарываешься - параша для быдла. Просто не представляю, как такое вообще может быть, чтобы человек сначала упарывался кислотой или грибами, а потом скатился в курение говносмесей.
У меня на роёне есть такая палатка, только не палатка, а магазин кальянов. Там пацанчики на лакосте и фрет пэрри толкают правую тему и легалку дворовому быдлу. Несостыковочка произошла! На революцию деньги собирают скорее всего!
ОП, что-то ты не тянешь на 33лвл. мозги по пизде пошли уже. Я тебе серьёзно говорю, пиздуй лечиться. Или хотя б слезай с этих спайсов и переходи на православную дудку.
О семье подумай!
Меня в ДС2 взяли с таким же количеством в ноябре.
Как взяли, так и отпустили.
И вообще, блядь, тебе говорили - барыга. Не говнокур, у которого денег нет, связей нет, здоровья тоже почти нет.
Кстати, что за хуйня, ОП? Вот ты действительно упарывал ещё что-то кроме своей легалочки? Грибы говно, опиаты говно, стимуляторы говно, все говно, ЛЕГАЛОЧКА ЗАЕБОК! НАРКОТИК ДЛЯ ПОГРУЖЕНИЯ ВНУТРЬ! ТЕМНЫЕ ЛАНДШАФТЫ ДУШ! Хуйня какая-то.
Ты знаешь, ты пожалуй единственный кто мне настроение поднял!Ты перечитай что написал хоть, о мощный ты наш героиновый!Ты гордишься что-ли? Хуй поймешь. Оп
Пацаны, зачем вам наркотики?
Хорошо я постараюсь рассказать что же помогло мне бросить, хотя сам до конца этого не понимаю. Пару лет я курил почти круглосуточно. Больше всего мне помогло бросить то что я превращаюсь в того кем не хотел бы быть. Бесконечные мутки, ожидания, ужасное состояние когда не удаётся покурить меня всё это заебало. К тому же под химией я уже не мог ничего делать а я любил ффизические упражнения, мне всегда нарвилось чувствовать себя сильным. Я вообще всегда восхищался силой, любой, и то что я зависел от какой то хуйни и по сути был её рабом меня заебало. В один день я просто сказал себе что либо я бросаю эту хуйню и на удивление вышло довольно не сложно. Все друзья до сих пор постоянно дуют рядом со мной а мне похуй. Вот такая уебанская наверное история но лучше объяснить у меня вряд ли получится
Теперь ты, да? Ну ебать прости, не тяну никуда ужо, слушай а ты клевую идею подал, сейчас слезу и пересяду! Гений просто! ОП
Безблагодатное это дело, мертвецу письма писать.
Ноут недавно купил?
Не братюнь, не хуйня. Вся прелесть что можно прям на ходу упароть-это раз, доступность без заморочек-это два, а трипы с неё поверь мне достаточно лютые бывают. ОП
>>40653275> клевую идею подал, сейчас слезу и пересяду! >>40652969
Моим первым веществом тоже был декс я больше полугода плотно зависал на нём но потом бросил так как перестал общатся с другом с которым упарывались. После этого кстати некоторое время бухал и вот с тех пор вообще равнодушен к бухлу. Оно действительно ничего кроме депрессии у меня не вызывает
Не, героин я не упарывал. И ничем особо не горжусь. Тащем-та эксперименты с кислотой, ДОБом и прочим тоже позади. Я теперь даже не дую. Не вижу просто в этом никакого смысла. А был период долбил как и ты каждый день. Только не говно всякое, а шишки с камнем. Года три или больше эта каждодневная долбёжка продолжалась. Только я тогда был юнцом-студентотой без жены и ребёнка, так что всё норм. А потом в один день наверное после кислотного бэдтрипа, лол
потерял к этому всякий интерес. чего и тебе желаю :326лвл_с_бурным_прошлым_успешнокун
У меня со спортом как-то не сложилось, а вот дурь наоборот я всегда любил, но мог контролировать употребление.В целом я тебя понял, спс ОП
Лютый трипозник-ОП поясняет всем за темную стороны жизни в этом треде ИТТ!
Алсо, я почему-то всегда знал, что легалочка - это наебалово для быдла и малолеток, от которого мозг сохнет. Никогда даже мысли попробовать не было. А ты какой-то глупый, ОП.
Из-за несовершенства бытия.
Охуительно сказал.Второй трипозник ITT And This Time now!
Посмею с Вами не согласиться!
>>40652969>От LSD и аналогов жуткая паранойя
Снимай штаны, сейчас тебя пороть буду.
Может у тебя тоже есть что то чем ты дорожил всю жизнь или какие то мечты, короче то что имеет для тебя действительно большое, я бы даже сказал сакральное значение. И если курево влияет на эти вещи негативно то используй это что бы бросить. В любом случае желаю тебе найти действительно првильный путь, каким бы он для тебя не был.
Рад за тебя! Серьёзно. Кислоты в свое время с Мамедовской тусой поел прилично, но ты походу всё никак не поймешь, я в социальном плане достаточно успешный человек, мне даже работать, в прямом смысле этого слова, особо не нужно, скорее появляться. Не знаю как ещё объяснить, из всех драгов я выберу химическую дурь,ок? Такая хуйня ОП
Ебать ты наркоман!
>>40653602ПАШОЛ НАХУЙ ОЛДФАГ,,ЛОЛКА!!КТО ТРАЛЬ СТАВЬ ЛОЙС >>40653471
При этом имитируя присутствие лобных долей мозга. Ну и и и и Мне уже даже отбрыкиваться надоело, я понимаешь-ли хочу поговорить с людьми которые понимают о чем я. ОП
Ебать я наркоман ОП
>>40653655>Кислоты в свое время с Мамедовской тусой поел прилично
Пиздец, вот тут и спалился, неофит в рясе! Кислоты он поел, прилично так поел, кислоты-то, сука. В ТУСОВКЕ
поел, не хуй простой-обычный, а в ТУСОВКЕ ПОЕЛ КИСЛОТЫ ПРИЛИЧНО
И не спортивный. Оп
Так и в чём же тогда твоя проблема? Упарывай эту хуйню, разводись с женой, пусть твоего ребёнка воспитывает школа и телевизор, ходи для галочки на работу, становись овощем. Если это твой выбор, то никто не может тебя судить.
И от чего жопку бабахнуло у тебя армейский ты наш, я так и не понял. ОП
Ты хочешь торчать и будешь торчать по любому а на трезвую голову тебе объективная реальность в тягость!
Либо от твой глупости, либо от того, что ты ванильный воннаби-наркоман.
Только недавно выкинул полпакета спайса. В пизду его, больше курить не буду.
Да хули вы как и жена его ребёнком всё шантажируете? Не понимаете что трудно определится? Конечно то что он бросит хорошо будет для семьи но как ему самому то жить потом?
Вот этого я и испугался собственно, ведь всё, сука, к этому идет. А я ведь столько сил потратил на создание своей ячейки общества и тут буквально за год все слилось в дарк, уже с женой даже отношения абсолютно другие стали, хотя мы знаем друг-друга 11 лет. ОП
>>40653918>ванильный воннаби-наркоман >>40653918
То есть бомбануло всеж, ну ок. Ты держись там СуровыйСуворов ОП
11 лет она терпит великовозрастного долбоёба наркомана?Да пошел ты на хуй!
Покурил спайс. Эффект как от какого-то аптечного камня. Говно.
Пришел братишка. Я его накурил, накурил другого братишку. Один охуел, залип, блеванул и домой, в вов играть. Не оценил. Другой тоже не оценил.
Оп странный какой-то, даже для упорка.
ОП, я ж тебе говорю, это уже нихуя не шутки. Ты нихуя уже не контролируешь. Это тебе абсолютно ничего не не может дать. Это, блядь, ЗАВИСИМОСТЬ. И тебе надо с эти что-то делать, иначе пиздец. Не получится у тебя курить спайсы каждый день и быть в норме. У тебя проблема и её надо решать. чем скорее ты в это врубишься, тем лучше. Потому что может получиться так, что скоро эту проблему решать будет уже некому.
>>40653968>33 левел, упарывал как хотел и что хотел>с женой даже отношения абсолютно другие стали, хотя мы знаем друг-друга 11 лет>спайс >>40654032
У меня первый эффект тоже был весьма спорный, а потом как-то по-другому пошло, хотя бывают неприятные моменты, но и они, блядь, радуют ОП
Нахуя ты мне это написал?
Теперь зелененький штоле? Чего ты хочешь? ОП
+1. Присоединяюсь к вопросу.
ОП, отдай её нам, золотая баба пропадает. Тебе она всё равно без надобности, ты на пластмассовой крошке женат, а нам, лузерам-битардам-наркоманам-педерастам пригодится.
Ты начинаешь мыкать гандон и подобные тебе!Ты не знаешь что делать сука?А я тебе скажу просто завязать,сам не можешь пойди к специалистам пусть они тебе помогут раз ты безвольное и слабохарактерное хуйло,не умеешь с огнем играть не берись,всё ясно тебе пидор?!!
Нахуя ты прилепил эту картинку? ОП
Не проецируй на других свое неполноценное эго.
А ты почему без картинки?
Да они не поймут. Они как мантру повторяют свою херню типа "спайс говно для малолеток, эффект галимый и т.д.". А для меня всегда это было охуенно. Помню как мы своей компанией любили ночами во всякие заброшенные места ходить чтоб пострашнее, там врубали музон типа пикрелейтед а потом курили и охуевали. Вся жизнь протекала в мыслях как какая то мистическая история менты, бандиты въёбывающие барыг, обычные люди так не похожие на нас всё становилось таким захватывающим.
Хуй я валил на эго которого не существует понял уёба?
Геннадий это я спрашивал у сурового кого он имеет ввиду, если мою жену, то этот гражданин её просто не знает и выводы делать не может, хотя это же анимефорум здесь всё можно ОП
Буддист в треде, все в сансару!
Лолшто? Сахар? Я уже год его не употребляю. Вообще. Чяднт?
Выпиваю раз в две недели.
К каким специалистам порекомендуете? К специальным наверное? ОП
Что было, то прошло. Прошлого уже не воротишь. И не нужно проецировать свои давние воспоминания из юности и детства на наркотик. А ещё в детстве мы все любили мороженное и сладкую вату. Помнишь? Но это не значит, что надо зацикливаться на одном моменте и пытаться его многократно проигрывать.Алсо, покури как-нибудь шалфея предсказателей, многие после него пить-курить бросают.
жЕНА ТВОЯ ЩЛЮХА И ЕБЕТСЯ НА СТОРОНЕ УЖЕ ДАВНО ИБО ТЫ ВЯЛОХУЙ-ТРАВОЖОР!
Тогда почему ты ответил ОП-у?
Я имею в виду сахарную зависимость, т.е. диабет, уеба. Если много жрать сахара, станешь диабетиком, станешь дибетиком - разовьётся сахарная зависимость, тогда и с сахаром и без сахара пиздец.
Мне тогда 19-20 было. И я ни на чём не зацикливаюсь. Я просто хотел этим сказать что то что так люто некоторые здесь не любят может нихуёво доставлять кому то.
Ты чому такой грубый, смерд? :(
Про сахарный диабет знаю не по твоим ахуительным историям.
Доставлять?Ебать ты дебил ограниченный!Да она заебать должна уже по идее давно и надо упарываться герычем,только хардкор!
ты уебок,я не пью 2 года, моя девушка сидит на низгоуглеводной диете уже 4 месяца и не ест сахар ВООБЩЕ, какие блять смертельные ломки, пизда просто какой же ты уебан как же я хочу тебе наебать как у меня горит зад от того что я не могу тебе въебать
Травожор это веган, да? Растолкуй, а то мой упоротый мозг невытачковывает? И почему вдруг мы перешли к личности моей супруги, она то здесь причём? ОП
Видимо ты постом ошибся. И не стоит так выражаться, я ведь не оскорблял тебя. Я уже давно не курю и ни сколько не нуждаюсь в веществах
Кому ты это пишешь, они же просто агрессию выблёвавают. ОП
Странные они какие-то.
Они просто именно за этим здесь по кнопочкам стучат, меня уже давно ничего не оскорбляет. Забей. ОП
Сдохни, пидор! Нет у тебя никакой девушки, школьник-ебанат. Клоун.
Хуй, я бросил курить, потом пить, потом дрочить и моя жизнь от этого стала только лучше. Идея борьбы с привычками одна - по Алену Карру, изучи природу зависимости и поймешь что все на самом деле хуйня, внушение, самовнушение и стереотипы. алсо поговори с женой, скажи что понимаешь что зависим, моральная поддежка необходима
как я заебался вводить капчу сегодня
Атмосферно то как! Особенно сдохни пидор. Чем ещё порадуешь? Есть может новые какие у тебя ходы? ОП
Принимают грузина в партию. Ну, комиссия заседание, все дела. Решили проверить товарища на верность ленинским заветам.
-- Товарищи Арагвелидзе, вы курите?
-- Если партия вам прикажет бросить курить, бросите?
-- Кашэшна брошу!
-- А вино пьете?
-- Какой грузын нэ пьют вино и не поет пэстни? Канэшна, пью!
-- Если партия вам прикажет бросить пить, бросите?
-- Ну, если партыя скажит, то брошу, -- буркнул грузин.
Глава комиссии осторожно продолжил:
-- Товарищ Арагвелидзе, вы женщин любите?
-- Канэшна, люблю!
-- Если партия вам скажет перестать любить, перестанете? -- вошел в раж партиец.
-- Слово партыи для меня -- закон! Скажут пэрэстат любит женщин, пэрэстану!
Ну, думают коммуняки, в КПСС таких как этот грузин точно не хватает. И тут контрольный выстрел -- последний вопрос:
-- Товарищ Арагвелизде, а если партия вам прикажет жизнь отдать, отдадите?!
-- Канэшна отдам! На х*й она минэ такая нужна!
Она знает всё, тут уже не скроешь. И про привычки я в курсе.Только вот представь ситуацию когда абсолютно параллельно на всё (себя имею ввиду), но в моменты прозрения (сегодня это связано с 5-ю бутылками пива) я реально хочу измениться, но к сожалению это длится недолго, в конце побеждает химическое дерьмо. У неё позиция простая-сохранить семью, вот и борется со мной как может. А я в моменты просветления тоже хочу завязать, но не получается и всё тут. ОП
>>40655042> в моменты прозрения (сегодня это связано с 5-ю бутылками пива) >>40655137
И что такого? Я когда пил тоже как никогда осознавал свои недостатки.
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