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Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:10:08
Оцени анона (вечерний чатик) #5
Крипоты нить.


Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:11:42
>>41228002
осом.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:11:47
>>41228021
Лол, у меня ПИНК ФЛОЙД от ОП-пика.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:12:41
>>41228043
Пойду налью воды в свой графинчик, пора очищать организм, организм сам не очистится.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:13:20
>>41228021
Вовремя я вернулся с первого в жизни стриптиза

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:14:12
>>41228071
ХРАМ ЦЕРКВИ ГРАФИНЧИКА.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:14:26
>>41228087
Ну и как тебе? Крипота?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:14:48
>>41228087
И как прошло?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:15:20
>>41228087
ИТТ БЕЗNОГИМ, а ты про стриптиз.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:15:51
>>41228087
БИОПРОБЛЕМЫ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:17:30
>>41228002
Вьебите сажи, долбоёбы!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:17:59
>>41228200
Я ждал тебя.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:18:14
>>41228128
Немного охуел, там внутри прямо как в одноимённом заведении города и игры Vice City. Те же цвета, та же атмосфера, лолканул с этого.

Больше времени провёл, правда, болтая с стриптизёршой, чём пялясь на танцы, так ей и сказал, раз танцует только для меня пусть лучше сядет, поболтаем.

И всё ночь болтали, хоть она и полуголая была, лол.
Сказала, что я тот тип людей, которому можно сразу доверять, при первой встрече.

У меня чсв где-то на уровне облаков.

И потратил только 500 рублей, и то за вход.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:19:26
>>41228200
Нет.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:19:33
>>41228223
Лол, стриптиз уровня /b/

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:20:13
>>41228223
Альфач.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:20:16
>>41228212
ТЕЛЕФОН ДАВАЙ БУДЕМ ПИЗДИТЬСЯ С ТОБОЙ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:07
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:14
>>41228270
Ты же меня знаешь, говоришь. Подходи к моему дому, я выйду, отшлёпаю тебя по попке, и вернусь двачевать капчу.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:16
>>41228223
Пиздец ты уебок. Ты во френдзоне даже у стриптизершь.


Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:39
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and фывin 183вфы6 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:41
>>41228270

+79019043090
ЗВАНИ КОЛЬ НЕ БОИШЬСЯ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:45
>>41228253
Двачую.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:21:58
>>41228293
А где Солома? Я же вас двоих вызывал на дуэль.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:22:16
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, aasdnd in asd1836 declarasded in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:22:41

сейчас я буду разговаривать с собой!>>41228223
ЛОЛ.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:22:42
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1asd836 declared inasdher presadsence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:22:44
>>41228312
Вот это арт-хаусное чудовище - Солома.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:23:19
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1asd836 declared in her prasdesence that he wanted to live until Victoria's asd18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:23:32
>>41228303
А вот и Солома.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:23:40
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchesasds's capacity to be regent, and in 1836asd declared asdin her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:23:42
>>41228303
ЗВАНИ ДАВАЙ ПИЗДИЦА БУДЕМ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:24:02
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died whiasdle Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Wiladsliam distrusasdted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:24:21
>>41228376
В голос.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:24:21
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoriasda was still a minor.[5] King William distrusasdted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:24:36
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willasdiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted asdthe Duchess's capacity to be regent,asd and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:24:46
>>41228376
СЛЫШ Я НЕ ОДИН ПРИДУ ТЫ ЗАССЫШ СРАЗУ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:24:49
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declareasdd in heasdr presence that he wanted to live untasdil Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:25:09
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusteasdd the Ducasdhess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:25:22
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Viasdctoria was still a minor.[5] King William diasdstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and iasdn 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:25:34
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disasdtrusted tasdhe Duchasdess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:25:46
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilasdliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King asdWilliam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, ansadd in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:00
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Ducheasdss's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in hasder presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birasdthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:10
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in casasde Wilasdliam dasdied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:21
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in caasdse William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King asdWilliam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and iasdn 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:32
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williasdam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distruasdsted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 18asd36 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:43
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilasdliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Wasdilliam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and asdin 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:51
>>41228445
СЛЫШ ПОДТЯГИВАЙСЯ В НАШ МАХАЧ ПИЗДИТЬСЯ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:26:57
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williaasdm distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 183asd declaredasd in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:27:08
>>41228415
ДАВАЙ ЗВАНИ СУКА! Я ВЕСЬ РАЁН САБИРУ!!! ПИЗДЫ ОГРЕБЕШ!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:27:12
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William asddistrusted the Duchasdess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declsadared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:27:18
>>41228402
Че в голос ебанат? Давай номер бля. Нас тут таких много кто хочет пизды тебе вломить!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:27:29
>>41228295

Идите нахуй, альфачи.

Девушка танцует с 10, в зале только один я. Да и не дрочить я пришел, а дождаться, когда откроется метро. Мило поболтали, так что никакого баттхёрта ну и на сиськи попялился, тоже неплохо

Или вы думали я пошел туда номера брать у голых девушек, лал?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:27:32
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William dadsistrasdted the Duasdhess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:27:54
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoriaasd was still asda minor.[5] King William disasdtrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:05
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision forsd the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williaasdm died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williasdam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, anasdd in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:06
>>41228496
Я ссусь! Так что давай дасвидания!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:09
>>41228507
ДА СЛЫШ БРАТАН Я НИЧО НЕ ХОТЕЛ ВСЕ ПРОБЛЕМ ТА НЕТ БОЛЬШЕ МОЖНО Я ПОЙДУ ДА?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:19
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died whasdile Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted theasd Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 decasdlared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:32
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special proasdvision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wiasdlliasdam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diasdstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:42
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Ducheasdss of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victasdoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Ducasdhess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her pasdresence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:28:47
>>41228537
Ты, случаем, не внебрачный сын Наримана?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:01
>>41228540
НЕТ СНАЧЛА БУДЕШ СОСАТЬ НАМ ПО ОЧЕРЕДИ ПОНИЛ ОК ДА?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:02
>>41228507
Фу блять унтерменш ебаный, такого даже бить противно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:22
>>41228561
Нет, я ВИПдаг05

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:34
>>41228567
СЪЕБАЛ В ХУЙ ГРИБАЧ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:49
>>41228540
ЛАДНО БРАТ! НЕ ВОЛНУЙСЯ, ТЫ ХОРОШИЙ ЧЕЛОВЕК ТОЛЬКО МАТЬ НЕ ТРОГАЙ.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:56
>>41228580
А похож ведь.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:29:56
>>41228585
>ГРИБАЧ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:30:07
>>41228518
морозно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:31:04
>>41228596
Я сексуальнее и правовернее.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:31:27
Блядь, унтерменши сраные. Почему вы не съебёте в /soc? Мне даже вайпать надоело таких уёбков, как вы. Адиос.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:31:33
>>41228630
Лолка

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:32:24
>>41228642
Этот вайпер сломался, несите следующего!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:32:40
>>41228597
БУДИШ ПИЗДИТСЯ?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:33:06
>>41228642
Сказ о том как камхоры унижают вайперов.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:33:25
>>41228683
ПРИХОДИ ПОНИЛ БУДИМ ДРАЦА ДО ПЕРВОЙ КРОВИ ОДИН НА ОДИН ОК ДА?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:33:37
>>41228642
Доведи дело до конца, сохрани честь блять.


Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:34:23
>>41228674
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:34:35
>>41228702
НА ПЕТРОВСКО РАЗУМОВСКОЙ СУКА ПРИХОДИ В ШЕСТЬ Я ТЕБЯ УБЬЮ НАХУЙ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:34:36
>>41228674
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:




Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:34:45
>>41228722
А вот и следующий пожаловал.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:34:47
>>41228708
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:34:58
>>41228747
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и отта на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:09
>>41228747
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении дух можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:18
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William dieфывd while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrustedфыв the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live untilфыв Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:19
>>41228740
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однакто не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:21
>>41228740
НУ ВСЕ ДЕРЖИСЬ Я ПОЗОВУ БРАТУХУ БОРЦУХУ ОН ПИКРЕЛЕЙТЕД ПИЗДЫ ТЕБЕ ДАСТ ПОНИЛ ОК ДА?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:29
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in caфывse William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and фывin 1836 declared iфывn her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:33
>>41228747
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные заод на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту,днако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:39
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilфывliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrфывusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th фывbirthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:45
>>41228769
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[пра]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:49
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provфывision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Willфывiam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:35:55
>>41228769
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собза вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:00
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William фывdied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted thфывe Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th bфывirthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:05
>>41228769
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонап однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:11
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willывфiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distфывrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 фывdeclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:21
>>41228769
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, стособрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:21
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in caseфыв William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrustфывd the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her prфывsence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:31
>>41228747
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным раод на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:31
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special proviывsion for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williaфывm died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, aфывnd in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:42
>>41228769
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапартветствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:42
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special prывфvision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrфывusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:48
Лоллирую с вайперов. Как цыплята. Им пшена кинешь - сразу толпа петушков бежит.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:52
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilфывliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in фыв1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:54
>>41228708
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно к в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:36:56
>>41228803
Ты же уже сдулся, что ты тут еще делаешь?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:05
>>41228827
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:06
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williaфывm disфывtrusted the фывDuchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:16
>>41228827
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и жthe journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:20
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distruфвыsted the Ducфывhess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declaredфывin her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:30
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William фывdistrusted thфывDuchess's capacфывty to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:31
>>41228831
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечат
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:40
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrфывusted tфывe Duchфывess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:48
>>41228831
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч ч
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:






































Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:53
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williamфыв died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrustedфыв the Duchфывess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:37:59
>>41228831
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793






















(1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:04
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted thфывe Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 183фыв6 decыфвlared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:10
>>41228831
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]













Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:17
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusфывted the Dфывuchess's cфвыapacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:23
>>41228868
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч чел










ить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:29
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wыфвilliam diedфыв while Victфывoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:34
>>41228868
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:






приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для раom the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
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Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
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Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:39
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Wilыфвliam distфывrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 deфывclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:45
>>41228868
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам






Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:50
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williaфывm distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in фыв1836 dфвыeclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:56
>>41228868
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать












). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:38:58
>>41228868
Как земля вобщем-то.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:00
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williaыфвm distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1фыв836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoфывria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:02
>>41228868
Да вроде ничего.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:08
>>41228903
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, в








кст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:10
>>41228868
Шалом. Да нормально, вот, вайпают.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:21
>>41228903
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (ан
















Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:22
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williфывam died while Victoria фывwas still a minor.[5] King William distrustedфыв the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:33
>>41228905
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]




















Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:35
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disывфtrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 18фыв36 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoriфывa's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:45
>>41228911
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от стол










ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечен
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:47
Вайперы-просветители какие-то.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:47
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died whiфывle Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disфывrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and iыфвn 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:58
>>41228868
Привет. Сегодня у нас атмосфера крипоты.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:58
>>41228911
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]




























Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:39:59
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Vicыфвtoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess'фывs capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so tфывhat a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:40:12
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in casфывe William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Willыфвiam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and iфывn 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:40:18
Вайпер-кун ты жалок. Вчера мы видели настроящего про вайпера не то что ты.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:40:22
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William dieфывd while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williamфыв distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, andфыв in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:40:39
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William diыфвed while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusфывted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declфывared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:40:50
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilфывliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disфывtrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 фывdeclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:40:58
Ирокез-кун
>>41228947
Да еще и неймфаг, иронично, да?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:00
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusфвted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declaфывred in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th biфывrthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:04
>>41228947
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, влы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:13
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special proviвфsion for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William diфывed while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Dфывuchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:15
>>41228947
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журналланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:25
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrustedфыв the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declarфывed in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18thфыв birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:26
>>41228947
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.





































Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:35
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William dieфывd while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the фывDuchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in фывher presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:38
>>41228932
Ну это всегда у нас так

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:46
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provisiфывon for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrфывusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:54
>>41228977
Лол.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:41:59
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William ывфdied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrфывusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declфывared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:42:12
>>41228977
У них целая команда крутых хакеров-олдфагов, даже сайт свой есть, где они координируют действия.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:42:21
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special proviфывsion for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williфывam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:42:42
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williфывam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and iфывn 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Viфывctoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:42:56
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William выdied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrustфывed thфывe Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:43:07
>>41229029
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [пок


































































Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:43:19
>>41229029
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы











































и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:43:31
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilвыliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williфывam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and iфывn 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:43:38
Ирокез-кун
>>41229012
Охуеть, что я пропустил?

Кстати, получили моё единственное сообщение без фото, которое я недавно отправлял, вчера еще.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:43:41
>>41229029
> У них целая команда крутых хакеров-олдфагов, даже сайт свой есть, где они координируют действия
DERP

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:43:56
>>41228947
Если ты про того поехавшего графомана, то да, он великолепен.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:44:15
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williaфывm died whывile Victфывoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:44:27
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distruыфвsted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 18фыв36 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Vicфывфыtoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:44:34
>>41229082
Да, я помню его.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:44:38
>>41229090
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверен



















































































































Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:44:38
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam dфывied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusteфывd the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:44:52
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disфывtrusted the Ducфывhess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:45:02
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wiфывlliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Wilфывliam фывdistrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:45:13

Я предлагаю в музаче посадить попугая, которого выучить одной фразе, чтоб он на все посты отвечал "господа, но ведь это же неприкрытое говноедство! господа, но ведь это же неприкрытое говноедство!". А другого к вам засунуть, чтоб молитву про христа распевал. Меня тоесть.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:45:13
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distфывrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victфывorфывia's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:45:31
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provisфвion for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Willфывiam distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:45:42
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wфывilliam фывdied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrustфывed the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:45:57
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William dфывistrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 18фыв36 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoriaфыв's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:46:11
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special proviфывsion for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:46:24
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchesфывs's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared iфывn her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:46:26
>>41229139
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]









































































































сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:46:36
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disфывtrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 18фыв36 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:46:40
>>41229139
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источн






































































































хоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:46:50
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special proviфывsion for the Duchыфвess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilфывliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:02
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William фывdistrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in фыв1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoriaфыв's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:03
>>41229139
В музаче таких полно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:15
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 фывdeclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18thфыв birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:26
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willфывiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 18фыв36 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:36
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William dфывied while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duфывchess's capacity to be regent, aфывnd in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:48
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William dфывied while Viфывtoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchesфывs's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:47:50
>>41229139
В голос.
У меня брат такой же как вы. Заходит ко мне в комнату и говорит, дескать, на два месяца в москву еду, давай прощаться. И картину н ахуй на стене обронил, разбил. Я говорю, скотина ты, встану сейчас и в морду плюну. Какие тридцать лет? Мне 22 года! 22! Я мальчик ещё маленький, титьку мамкину изо рта не вынул! Не надену советской формы, не желаю быть такой паскудой! Перестанбь таблетки жрат ь, дурак, итак печень чуть не отказала, ты же здоровье нахуй загубил. Ну и что? Я гений, блядь, мне можно. Я первые признаки своей гениальности ещё в яслях в себе обнаружил! Я ещё в детсаду курить начал впервые, за верандой. В дырку выползал и курил, пока сосу нки с сосками по песочнице ползали.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:48:12
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was sфывtill a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declфывared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birtфывhday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:48:23
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victфывoria was still a minor.[5] King William distфывrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and фывin 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:48:36
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wiфывlliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distruфывsted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18фывth birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:48:46
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williфывam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disфывtrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declфывared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:48:50
Я полгода, блядь, в лицее преподавал! Полгода! Носил детям чай на уроке, пить разрешал, они в такой атмосфере думают лучше! Остава йся, говорит, мы тебе зарплату по высшей категории начислять будем! А я говорю нет, у вас Путина портрет на стене, он пускай пре подает, пиздеть он мастер. А я своими работами занимаюсь, у меня заказов на тексты, на сценарии сколько? Много! Сейчас сижу, сцена рий пишу. Там человек ходит с "Вишневым садом" в подмышечной области, рассуждает незлобиво. Через две недели уже акт должен быть г отов, ставить идти надо! У меня там тоже дети почти, одна актриска влюбилась по уши, ходит за мной по пятам, врет, что нам домой е хать одной дорогой. А я не говорю, что знаю. Сердце разбивать нехочу, но придется.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:48:57
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William dыфвistrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 183фыв6 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]фыв

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:49:12
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williamфыв died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1фыв836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[фыв6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:49:26
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williывфam diedфыв while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted thфывe Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:49:37
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williфывam distrфывusted tфывhe Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:49:50
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrфывusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 decфывlared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthфывday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:50:02
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wiфывlliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declareфывd in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:50:16
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wiфывlliam died wфывhile Victoriвфыa was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:50:34
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wilыфвliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diыфвstrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 dфывeclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:50:48
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William dфывistrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 dфывeclared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthфвыday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:00
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in caseфыв William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William diфывstrustedфыв the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:12
>>41229325
И глаза твои проступают сквозь текст, лол.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:13
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williaфывm died whiыфвle Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Ducфывhess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:26
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Williaвфыm died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disфывtrusted фывthe Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:32
>>41229238
Хорошо, что схоронил, у меня только 3 было.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:39
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrыфвusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declыфвared in her pфывresence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:51:54
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Williamфыв distrusteфвыd the Duchess's capacity to be regent, anфывd in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:52:09
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William dфывistrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in фывher presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so tфывhat a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:52:21
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Wiфывlliam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and inфыв 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Vicфывtoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:52:34
>>41229386
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.




































































































































вания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:52:36
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William disыфвtrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declфывared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th bфывirthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:52:49
Queen Victoria
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Queen Victoria (disambiguation).

Victoria

Victoria wearing her small diamond crown
Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882
Queen of the United Kingdom
Reign 20 June 1837 22 January 1901
Coronation 28 June 1838
Predecessor William IV
Successor Edward VII
Prime Ministers See list
Empress of India
Reign 1 May 1876 22 January 1901
Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877
Predecessor Title created
Successor Edward VII
Viceroys See list
Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Detail Issue
Victoria, Princess Royal, German Empress
Edward VII
Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse
Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany
Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg
Full name
Alexandrina Victoria
House House of Hanover
Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
Born 24 May 1819
Kensington Palace, London
Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81)
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Burial 4 February 1901
Frogmore, Windsor
Signature
Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 22 January 1901) was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India.
Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke of Kent and the King died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died leaving no legitimate, surviving children. The United Kingdom was already an established constitutional monarchy, in which the Sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Publicly, she became a national icon, and was identified with strict standards of personal morality.
Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration.
Her reign of 63 years and seven months, which is longer than that of any other British monarch and the longest of any female monarch in history, is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, cultural, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father.
Contents [hide]
1 Birth and family
2 Heiress presumptive
3 Early reign
4 Marriage
5 18421860
6 Widowhood
7 Empress of India
8 Later years
8.1 Golden Jubilee
8.2 Diamond Jubilee
8.3 Death and succession
9 Legacy
10 Titles, styles, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
10.2 Arms
11 Issue
12 Ancestry
13 Notes and references
13.1 Bibliography
13.2 Published primary sources
14 Further reading
15 External links
Birth and family



Victoria, aged four
Painting by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823
Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis in the United Kingdom that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818, the Duke married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a German princess whose brother Leopold was the widower of Princess Charlotte. The Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] The Duchess of Kent already had two children Prince Carl of Leiningen (18041856) and Princess Feodora of Leiningen (18071872), by her first marriage to Prince Emich Carl of Leiningen (17631814). In her later life, Victoria enjoyed a close relationship with her half-sister.
Princess Alexandrina Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[2] She was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parentsGeorgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte and Augustawere dropped on the instructions of the Duke's elder brother, the Prince Regent (later George IV).[3]
At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after her father and his three older brothers: the Prince Regent, the Duke of York, and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV).[4] The Prince Regent and the Duke of York were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further children. The Dukes of Kent and Clarence married on the same day 12 months before Victoria's birth, but both of Clarence's daughters (born in 1819 and 1820 respectively) died as infants. Victoria's grandfather and father died in 1820, within a week of each other, and the Duke of York died in 1827. On the death of her uncle George IV in 1830, Victoria became heiress presumptive to her next surviving uncle, William IV. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for the Duchess of Kent to act as regent in case Willваiam died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King Willываiam distruфываsted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6]

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:53:08
>>41229386
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответст













































































































нгл.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:53:37
>>41229367
Своя атмосфера же.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:53:43
Короче ща в маршрутке тетка говорит - подвиньтесь молодой человек, ну мне то выходить, я встал, чтобы она свои телеса пропихнула на второе место, а она туда поставила свои сумки, а сама села на мое место. На миг я потерял чувство реальности, пространство сжалось в точку, я достал нож и нанес ей 25 ударов в область шеи, ровно по числу сказанных ею букв. Фонтан крови ударил в открытый лючок и потолок маршрутки. Толпа, опьяненная кровью и жаждой мести начала рвать ее на части, старухи отгрызали ляжки на холодец, молодые викинги обмазывались ее кровью и чертили руны на стенах и окнах. Водитель попросил прекратить безобразие и мы выпихнули ее изуродованное тело на сфетофоре, где на нее тут же слетелась туча воронья, расклевывая глазницы и унося свежие куски мяса своим вороньим детям.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:54:49
Тот тред затогул.
Рест ин пис.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:55:09
>>41229459
Блядь, он - гений просто, надо же так словом владеть.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:55:27
>>41229459
Сегодня я вам расскажу историю о том, как я перестал быть 23-летним девственником. Итак :
1. Пошел в ночной говноклуб.
2. Взял выпить, сидел один и пил, смотрел на бармена или в одну точку.
3. Долго сидел, взял еще выпить - мыслей не было.
4. Люди ходят мимо меня.
5. Рядом села какая-то шлюха.
6. Стала пялиться на меня, спросила: "Можешь мне взять выпить?".
7. Я сказал: "Конечно!".
8. Взял две рюмки лимонной водки - выпили.
9. Еще раз.
10. Еще раз.
11. Еще раз.

12. Каждый раз становились все пьянее.
13. Наконец-то я решился спросить у нее поедет ли она продолжать ко мне на квартиру.
14. Поехали пьяные ко мне, говорили о самой тупой хуйне, о которой вообще можно говорить.
15. Приехали домой, я старался себя отрезвить; ЕБЛЯ - как долго я этого ждал.
16. Ей кто-то позвонил.
17. Она ответила на звонок, стала пиздеть с кем-то.
18. Я нетерпеливо ждал.
19. Она сказала, что ей нужно срочно уйти и быстро ушла даже дверь нормально не закрыв.
20. Я посмотрел на часы, было 00:43, 14 ноября 2012 года, день рождения у меня сегодня => теперь мне 24. И я больше не 23-летний девственник.


Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:56:08
>>41229508
Двачую.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:56:20
>>41229519
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2





























































































Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:56:33
>>41229541
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что











) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:56:47
>>41229541
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: вс

















































Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:01
>>41229541
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко пред
ставить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, влад, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:09
>>41229519
Морозно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:13
>>41229541
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.



ния
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:18
>>41229508
Сегодня перечитываю, только сейчас дошло, как шикарно же.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:27
>>41229575
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представ


























ут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:44
>>41229541
> Хороший был тред.
Да, атмосферный такой тред был.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:57:46
Спокойного утра вам, няши.
Добра~
боюсьтемноты-тян перекатилась сюда, чтобы попрощаться

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:58:03
>>41229595
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.



Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:58:11
>>41229596
Еще заходи.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:58:53
>>41229613
Обязательно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 07:59:03
>>41229596
Давай, приятных снов, лапочка :3 Ждём вечером на огонёк.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:00:02
>>41229644
Лол, мы прямо таки островок доброты посреди моря говна и вайперов.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:00:33
>>41229675
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко пред






































Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:00:47
>>41229675
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем оста








































Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:01:00
>>41229675
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщ









, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:01:29
>>41229675
Ветераны добротредов, последняя надежда двачеров.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:01:35
>>41229675
Вайперы не могут в ДУХ РОЖДЕСТВА.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:02:56
>>41229720
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]
[править]
Примечания
Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокга









































































Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:03:04
>>41229724
Надо было накатить.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:03:11
>>41229720
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]


























































Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:03:28
>>41229773
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы






















































Этот поступок в некоторых источниках приписывают приписывают Наполеону Бонапарту, однако это не соответствует действительности
Norwich Duff Extract from the journal of Norwich Duff (6 July 1819).(недоступная ссылка история) Проверено 24 июля 2007.
[править]
Литература
Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:03:58
>>41229773
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать


































































Бланшар, Франсуа // Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:04:17
>>41229773
Это точно. Вон я накатил и какой добрый стал.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:04:42
>>41229811
В 1809 год Бланшар перенёс сердечный приступ во время полёта на воздушном шаре в Гааге. Он упал с воздушного шара и умер несколько недель спустя от серьёзных травм. Его вдова продолжала показательные полёты, пока также не погибла.

6 июля 1819 года Норидж Дафф, морской офицер, родившийся в Эдинбурге, путешествовавший в то время по Западной Европе, описывал её смерть так:

приехал к Гранд Фете в Садах Тиволи (Жарден де Тиволи, Париж), где [он] засвидетельствовал весьма печальный несчастный случай: среди других развлечений вечером Мадам Бланшар должна была подняться из сада в воздушном шаре, и когда она поднялась на некоторую высоту, начался фейерверк; воздушный шар задел несколько деревьев во время подъёма, некоторый ракеты от фейерверка полетели не в том направлении, что планировалось, и одна из них подожгла воздушный шар, [который] в результате разорвался на части, и бедная Мадам Бланшар упала со своей гондолой с высоты нескольких тысяч футов на Рю Прованс, где она попала на крышу дома и оттуда на землю, где она разбилась к части. Впечатление от столь ужасного несчастного случая на глазах нескольких тысяч человек, собравшихся для развлечения, и в праздничном расположении духа, можно легко представить: всем остальным развлечениям положили конец, владельцы объявили, что все деньги, собранные за вход на шоу будут преданы детям бедной женщины, и женщины, и мужчины стояли у ворот, чтобы собрать подписку для её семейства'.
Оригинальный текст (англ.) [показать]



























































Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона: В 86 томах (82 т. и 4 доп.). СПб., 18901907.
[править]
Ссылки и источники Фото на Викискладе?

Братья Икара, сыны Марса//Всеобщая История 44, 45
История воздухоплавания (англ.)
Журнал Жан-Пьера Бланшара о 45-го подъёме в США 9 января 1793 (1918)
Категории:

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:04:51
я вам тест принес, если делать все равно нечего.
http://psylist.net/test/552.htm

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:06:23
>>41229811
так православно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:06:37
>>41229724
Точно, Рождество же. Сегодня Иисус родился, покайтесь, вайперы. Что же вы делаете, братцы! Опомнитесь, как Иисус, голенький, бегал по райским пажитям еще тогда, в сорок девятом. А вы бы так смогли? Смогли бы так? Как Пушкин, не испугался - позвал француза стреляться, он не зассал тогда, Пушкин-то. А вы - боитесь, всего боитесь. Сел в маршрутку - а там мужик с попугаем ехал, с большим таким, красным. А он орёт, попугай-то - "вайпер пидарас! вайпер пидарас!". Прямо так и орал, как резаный, пришлось высадить мужика. А судьи кто? Вы? Вы, я спрашиваю? Пидарасы вы, а не судьи.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:06:38
УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!УМРИТЕ!!!














































































































































































Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:08:08
>>41229880
Весьма-весьма.
я узнал, я узнал.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:08:24
>>41229880
Щито?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:09:42
>>41229827
Вам больше 35 лет! Вы не слишком отягощены жизненными проблемами, однако заботы и стрессы наложили на вас определенный отпечаток, лишили вас чрезмерного оптимизма, но зато научили серьезности и ответственности.
Такие дела.


Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:10:04
Ирокез-кун
>>41229644
Блеадь, как же мне доставляет солома, он охуенен, ну правда.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:10:21
>>41229882
Вайпер не выдержал.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:11:17
>>41229988
Тебя то мы целый день и ждали.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:11:54
>>41229988
молитесь на меня, у меня трипл из даблов - гет взял считайте

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:12:10
>>41229988
боль и страдания.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:13:09
>>41229988
А то. Тебя и ждали всю ночь, Одесса-кун.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:13:10
>>41230026
Старые мы стали.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:14:01
В общем, пойду-ка я спать. Свидимся ещё.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:14:06
>>41230062
Да ты не ХИККА, ты нам врал всё!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:14:20
>>41230062
а чего ждали то?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:14:30
>>41230081
Нас не проведешь.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:14:36
>>41230081
Я тоже тогда сваливаю.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:15:03
да вы охуели, я только пришел

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:15:28
>>41230105
Лол, ну может не всех.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:15:38
>>41230105
Всем поняшных итт.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:16:22
>>41230083
Сам в шоке. Всю жизнь думал, что хикка, а тест на woman.ru сказал, что я не хикка. Пойду друзьям расскажу. Oh shi~ У меня же нет друзей.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:16:23
>>41230105
Не надо постить мои фоточки же. Зойчем?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:16:26
Солома
>>41230136
Хорошо, я сделаю так. Так виднее, лолки?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:17:03
>>41230156
ДРАТЬСЯ ЗАССАЛ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:17:25
Солома
>>41230153
Лол, рассказал же уже нам. Пошли теперь в клуб тянок цеплять.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:17:27
>>41230117
я остаюсь не ссы анон. моар фото только пости

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:17:37
>>41230167
В голос.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:18:01
>>41230167
Ничего я не зассал. Я просто занят.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:18:11
Солома
>>41230167
ОПЯТЬ ТЫ СДЕСЬ! НУ ВСЁ ПОЛУЧИШЬ ПО ЕБАЛУ СУКА!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:18:18
>>41230062
я, кстати, не 40 вешу, и даже не 60
все 70 при мне
спокойно 35 раз отжимаюсь, 15 на брусьях, 8 на турнике узким

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:18:32
>>41230181
Мы будем в клубе, как хикки уровня /b.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:18:52
>>41230217
У тебя рубашка из колинс?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:19:16
>>41230224
где все хикканы ракуют?
у нас в клубе
где тяны камвхоруют?
у нас в клубе

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:19:24
>>41230181
за ламповыми няшами?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:19:29
>>41230217
Мужик, мужик. Рост-то какой?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:19:37
>>41230213
ИДИ СПИ НАХУЙ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:19:46
>>41230233
ебать, как?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:19:52
Солома
>>41230224
Лол, в каком-нибудь нижегородском клубешнике.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:20:05
>>41230217
Попов?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:20:18
>>41230258
182
мужик, а тяны еще не дали(

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:20:22
>>41230224
Нам нужен хикке-клуб для труе хикканов

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:20:40
>>41230268
У меня такая же.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:20:44
Солома
>>41230263
СУКА ЕЩЕ РАЗ ТЕБЯ СДЕСЬ УВИЖУ ПОЛУЧИШЬ ТАК ЧТО МАТЬ РОДНАЯ НЕ УЗНАЕТ ПИДАР!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:21:13
>>41230302
город какой?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:21:31
>>41229827
>Вам около 25 лет! Вы преисполнены жизненных сил и веры в себя! Вы общительны, оптимистичны, доброжелательны. Старение грозит вам нескоро!
Тест сделал мое утро.
Семнадцать зим, семнадцать лет.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:21:40
>>41230288
только для девственников?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:21:43
>>41230317
Махачкала.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:21:56
Солома
>>41230317
> город какой?
ДРАЦА БУДИМ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:21:56
>>41230307
НУ ВСЕ СУКА ТЫ ОГРАБАЕШ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:22:36
>>41230334
Одесса, я ее по скидке еще купил

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:22:36
Солома
>>41230343
НУ ДАВАЙ ЗВАНИ МНЕ МЫ С ПАЦАНАМИ ТЕБЯ ОТПИЗДОШИМ!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:22:40
>>41230342
ВАЩЕ ЗАМЕС УТРОИМ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:23:13
>>41230270
Тогда нам нужен клуб уровня /b.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:23:14
>>41230371
ОДИН НА ОДИН
УЛИЦА ПУШКИНА ДОМ КОЛОТУШКИНА ПРИХОДИ ПИДАР Я ТЕБЯ ТАМ И ВЫЕБУ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:23:16
>>41230286
> мужик, а тяны еще не дали(
это еще к чему?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:23:28
>>41230370
По скидочке от джинс, не? Диск дали?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:24:02
>>41230383
ну 20 это же мало
я 3 месяца назад 5 раз не мог отжаться

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:24:42
>>41230386
ПИЗДИТЬСЯ БУДЕШ СО МНОЙ?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:24:52
Солома
>>41230384
СУКА ЖДИ ЗАВТРА ПИЗДЫ ПОЛУЧИШЬ МУДАК!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:26:01
>>41230409
Я на себя 12 кг вешаю, понимаешь, в чем суть? С таким весом нет смысла делать много повторений в подходе.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:26:32
расскажите
стори.



>>41230386
и я тоже!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:26:41
>>41230438
Я ТЕБЯ ДУБИНОЙ СУКА ЗАШИБУ ГОВНО ТЫ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:27:36
Солома
>>41230492
ПОТЯВКАЙ МНЕ ТУТ ЕЩЕ ЩЕНОК БЛЯТЬ!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:27:37
Ирокез-кун
>>41230081
я тоже, всем пока.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:27:54
Но ведь охуенная идея аватарками показывать свои эмоции. А остальные пускай и дальше боятся деанона, на который всем похуй Нахуй сагать?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:27:57
>>41230521
УЕБЫВАЙ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:28:24
Солома
>>41230522
Давай, спокойного утра.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:29:10
>>41230472

а потом тебя в физаче вспоминать будут как того армянина из Австралии, не помню как его зовут.


Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:29:14
>>41230472
лучше бы в зал ходил

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:29:18
Ирокез-кун
>>41230543
Госпади, какой же ты охуенный, солома. Я приеду в москву, напою тебя, и выебу. Слово хиккана.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:29:21
>>41230386
До обеда еще полчаса, так что утро.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:29:31
Солома
>>41230533
Ну они же олдфаги, понимаешь? Они борются за двач.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:29:55
>>41230570
А Я ПРИЕДУ И ЕБАЛО ОТОРВУ ЕМУ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:30:25
>>41230582
СПИ НАХУЙ ЧЕРТ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:30:30
Солома
>>41230570
Не, ну я с тобой теперь пить не буду, лолка.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:30:32
>>41230570
Хикканы находят свою любовь только на сосаче.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:30:43
>>41230569
Я же хикка, мне дома удобнее.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:31:02
Солома
>>41230609
ЗАВТРА МЕРТВЫМ СНОМ ЗАСНЕШЬ СУКА!

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:31:27
>>41230626
ЕБУЧИЙ ШАКАЛ

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:32:46
>>41230617
и что?
я даже на бокс пошел за бесплатно же

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:32:50
Солома
>>41230635

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:33:15
>>41230617
самой смешно.
Почему это меньше всех?
сейчас вспомню что.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:33:27
>>41230665
Все, мне надоело толстить.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:34:20
Солома
>>41230678
Мне кстати тоже. Очень сложно так писать, лол.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:35:01
>>41230701
И не говори.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:35:45
>>41230701
А ты думал, быть писателем очень сложно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:36:15
>>41230727
>

тайских для лохов и омег же

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:36:51
>>41230734
> тайских для лохов и омег же
Ну, так я лох и омега, как раз, самое то для меня.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:37:11
>>41230662
Долго занимаешься?
Хикка?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:37:24
>>41230750
Чому на всех фотках лыбишься?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:37:35
>>41230727
Лол, не хотел бы я такое произведение читать.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:38:20
>>41230750
это ты так думаешь

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:38:28
>>41230769
Олдфаг в треде.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:39:00
>>41230758
в меру социоблядсвую
не долго - пара месяцев

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:39:30
>>41230796















это мое

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:39:32
>>41230791
Я думаю, что моя улыбка намекает на то, что я думаю.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:39:48
>>41230826
одесса кун

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:40:57
>>41230783
А вот безумного вайпера я бы почитал с удовольствием за любые деньги.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:41:53
Солома
>>41230865
Ну такое то и я бы почитал. И автограф бы попросил.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:43:17
>>41230891
Такой-то талант пропадает на дваче, в то время, как сумерки расходятся миллионными тиражами, даже обидно за него.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:43:21
Лол мы в самом верху на нулевой котаны

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:43:43
>>41230812
Ну и как? Чувствуешь в себя альфычем? Чему вообще за пару месяцев научился? Думаю вот тоже записаться. Хотя я лошара-домосед и предвижу что это закончиться эпическим фейлом.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:43:57
Лолки, делать вам нехуй с утра пораньше чем раковать и хуйней страдать.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:44:25
>>41230865
"Мы с друзьями, Ильей Подоконниковым и Женей Андрехиным, создали стихотворный клуб "Спокойный песик" , пришли как-то в магазин на акцию протеста против белого хлеба, ну правда же белый хлеб заебал и толстеют от него :c вот. Прочитали несколько четверостиший и тут приходят менты И ГРЕБУТ ПИЗДЕЦ ЗА РУКИ ЗА НОГИ ВООБЩЕ В ЩЕПКИ ВСЕ ПЛОХО ГОВОРЯТ ПОСАДЯТ, ну мы сразу на очко встали с пацами и говорим, да не не мы не против белого хлеба это мы против доширака зачитывали! Доширак же реально плохо, да? Ну нас многие поддержали, плакатики там типо "Доширак для уебков" и все такое, но менты нам не поверили, да и свидетели распизделись типо "Ой это был такой удар для всех нас, мой внутренний мир был просто уничтожен в ту самую минуту когда я услышал этот стих, он ужасен и аморален, так нельзя" , долго шло разбирательство, проверяли все улики, делали психологические тесты, а потом я проснулся и понял что ебанулся"


а такое? слог школьника детектед?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:45:59
Солома
>>41230952
А что еще делать?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:46:08
>>41230952
еще не утро же? нет же, нет?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:47:02
Дело было так. В очередной раз застукав меня за еблей полуразмороженной курицы, родители выдали мне невероятно обогащенных пиздюлей и заперли в комнате. Я бился как лев, кричал, орал чтобы они хотя бы курицу мне оставили, но все впустую. Да похуй, позлятся как обычно пару часов, да и выпустят. Но время шло, я уже трижды накакал на балконе, а они все равно не желали меня выпускать. Случайно подслушав их разговор за дверью я понял, почему они так злятся. Эту курицу они размораживали специально к семейному ужину, в честь какого то праздника, а я взял ее и выебал.
Тут то я и начал осознавать свою вину. Ведь действительно, за такие дела меня стоило четвертовать на месте и скормить Петровичу. И я решил исправлять положение. Нужно выбраться из комнаты и нарыть где-нибудь курицу. Я побежал на балкон.
Лучше бы я не бежал, но было уже поздно что то менять. Наступив в собственные каки я проскользил по полу и въебавшись в перилла кубарем перелетел их и начал свое падение. Оря я падал вниз, наблюдая на балконе охуевшее лицо соседа снизу. К счастью, наш двор плотно зарос всякими деревьями, чьи ветки неслабо смягчили моё падение. С глухим стуком, как мешок с говном я упал на землю. Отдохнув пару минут я встал и начал думать. Искать курицу нужно в магазине или курятнике. Курятника поблизости я не замечал, а вот магазинов-тьма. И я направился в ближайший. Блядь, надеюсь сосед не побежит рассказывать о увиденном родителям. Хотя наврядли. Он знает, что я ебанутый и уже привык.Ближайшим магазином был супермаркет Пятерочка. Туда я и направился. Вошел внутрь, взял с собой корзинку, похлопал по лысине охранника и отправился на поиски искомого. Долго искать не пришлось. Моим глазам предстал огромный горизонтальный холодильник, в который можно было бы поместить десять Гуфов. Но наполнен он был здоровенными бройлерными курами. Заебись. Взяв в руки и крепко прижав к груди самую здоровенную курицу, я попердывая под шум зала направился к выходу.Прошел отдел с овощами, прошел отдел с пивом, с хлебом, наебнул еще пару кругов по старому маршруту, пробежался потом ещё раз поперек зала и ударив головой в грудь лысеватого охранника бросился съебывать через кассы. Мой удар нанес больший урон мне, а не охраннику, он всего лишь упал на пол и обосрался ,а я теперь я видел перед глазами только разноцветные круги, а уже сквозь них окружающий мир. На кассе меня попыталась задержать продавщица, но была оглушена кастрюлей для борща, которую я прихватил с собой. Кое-как маневрируя, шатаясь как пьяный матрос во время 7 бального шторма с землетрясением, я выбежал из магазина и отправился домой. По пути всё-таки пару раз струганул, уж сильно видимо голову ужиб об того жлобы лысого.
Родители охуели, увидев меня с курицей за дверью, как я и ожидал, сосед снизу ни слова им не сказал. Батя долго думал, дать мне пизды или не нужно, но в итоге похвалил, правда ебанутым все равно назвал. Я спас вечер. А в пятерочку ходить больше не буду. Вредно.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:47:43
>>41230929
Так мы же хикки уровня /b же.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:48:51
>>41231043
ту пасту какую-нибудь кидаешь? а я нет, это мне в личку вконтактика пришло.(что странно)

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:49:54
>>41228002
Привет, двач, я твоя новая камхора :3

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:50:27
>>41230941
я не признаю твою систему "альфа-омега"
каждый может быть тем, кем захочет
мне приятнее находитьтся самому, хотя да часто зовут погулять
но я больше люблю одеть наушники, сесть на велик и поехать рано рано утром летом послушать музыку и посмотреть на восход солнца, искупяться в море и приехать обратно, принять душ и лечь проваляться до обеда. потом сходить с друзьями на море и потренироваться на турниках но это летом

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:50:44
>>41230952
Да.

Хикканы, какого цвета у вас волосы? на вебках не видать же
У меня, вроде, тёмно-каштановые, на солнце какие-то медно-рыжие.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:50:44
>>41231126
Пидор-морячек

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:51:07
>>41231126
У нас только Ч/Б фото же

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:51:46
>>41231126
Ну, привет, рассказывай, как к нам попал, как в первый раз поебался.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:52:25
>>41231013
Ну смотря где ты живешь. Может у тебя еще вечер, кто же тебя знает.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:53:21
>>41231099
Охуенная история, сейчас пойду стены ебать.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:53:26
Солома
>>41231204
Так мы круглосуточно двачуем.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:54:21
>>41231160
У меня такие же, только чуть потемнее.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:54:35
>>41231204
а я всю ночь ждала кулсторей, а ты так поступаешь.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:54:54
>>41231151
Че несешь вообще? Похуй мне на систему. Ты лучше скажи быдла там много? Хиккана вытерпят?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:55:59
>>41231190
Ну как все, пришел к девушке, помог ей решать математику, слово за слово, сломали кровать.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:56:34
>>41231303
да во тебе же видно, что ты под хвост баловаться любишь

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:56:35
>>41231278
лол какое быдло?
я в "илитарном" зале у меня там тренажерка, бассейн, всякие груповые занятия, включая бокс, там нет быдла

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:56:42
>>41231303
> фотошопа
Виндопроблемы.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:57:12
>>41231231
Вот и самой нравится.

дискриминация по уровню владения кулсторями итт.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:57:22
>>41231319
кроме меня конечно

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:57:43
>>41231267
Запилю тебе историю, так и быть, жди.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:58:08
>>41231303
Гонза, уходи.

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:58:42
>>41231303
У меня тоже, я просто настройки камеры на ноутбуке меняю

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:59:44
>>41231360
Чому я Гонза?

Пнд 07 Янв 2013 08:59:51