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Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:40:42
Очередной оцени тян тред стартует здесь.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:49:54
Годная. Хотя пикча давно протухла.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:52:39
Virtual tour
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A virtual tour is a simulation of an existing location, usually composed of a sequence of video or still images. They also may use other multimedia elements such as sound effects, music, narration, and text. The phrase "virtual tour" is often used to describe a variety of video and photographic-based media. Panorama indicates an unbroken view, since a panorama can be either a series of photographs or panning video footage. However, the phrases "panoramic tour" and "virtual tour" have mostly been associated with virtual tours created using still cameras. Such virtual tours are made up of a number of shots taken from a single vantage point. The camera and lens are rotated around what is referred to as a no parallax point (the exact point at the back of the lens where the light converges).

A video tour is a full motion video of a location. Unlike the virtual tour's static wrap-around feel, a video tour is as if you were walking through a location. Using a video camera, the location is filmed while moving from place to place. Video tours are continuous movement taken at a walking pace.

1 History
2 Methods of creation
2.1 Stitching photographs
2.2 Video-based virtual tours
2.3 Specialized software
3 Applications
3.1 Web-based
3.2 Real estate
4 See also
5 References
6 External links


The first use of a virtual tour and the derivation of the name was in 1994 as a museum visitor interpretation, providing a 'walk-through' of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550.[1] This consisted of a computer controlled laserdisc based system designed by British based engineer Colin Johnson.

One of the first users of a virtual tour was Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, when she officially opened the visitor centre in June 1994. Because the Queen's officials had requested titles, descriptions and instructions of all activities, the system was named and describes as: "Virtual Tour, being a cross between Virtual Reality and Royal Tour." Details of the original project can be viewed online.[2] The system featured in a conference held by the British Museum in November 1994 and in the subsequent technical paper.[3]
Methods of creation
Stitching photographs
Main article: Image stitching

There are three popular ways of "stitching" virtual tours together.

1.) Rectilinear stitching. This involves the rotation of a digital camera, typically in the portrait (up and down) position and centered directly over the tripod. As the operator manually rotates the camera clockwise, the camera stops or clicks into a detent such as every 30`. The rotator can be adjusted by changing the position of "detent ring or bolt," into another slot like; 40`, 60`, 90` etc.

If your camera lens supports a wider view, you could select a detent of say 60` which meant you only need to take 6 shots as opposed to 10 shots to capture the same panoramic view. The combination of a precision rotator and a digital camera allows the photographer to take rectangular "slices" of any scene (indoors or outdoors). With a typical point and shoot digital camera, the photographer will snap 8, 10, 12 or 14 slices of a scene. Using specialized "photo stitching" software such as PT Gui, Autopano or some other program the operator then assembles the "slices" into a rectangular onetypically 4,500 pixels to 6,000 pixels wide. This technique, while extremely time consuming, has remained popular even through today as the required equipment, rotator heads and software are relatively inexpensive to buy and are easy to learn. This type of stitched panoramic view is also called "cylindrical" -- as the resulting stitched panorama allows panning in a complete 360` but offers a limited look up or down of about 50` degrees above or below the horizon line.

2.) Spherical stitching. This method requires the use of a "fish eye" lens equipped digital SLR camera. The 2-shot fish eye camera system was made popular by IPiX in the mid 1990's and a two-shot rotator head that rotated and locked into 0` and 180` positions only. The camera was an Olympus or Nikon CoolPix camera and the lenses used were the Nikon FC-E8 or FC-E9 fish eye lens. The IPiX 360 camera system enabled photographers to capture a full 360 X 360 floor to ceiling view of any scene with just 4 shots as opposed to the more time consuming 8, 10, or 12-shot rectilinear produced panoramas as in technique #1 above. This type of virtual tour required more expensive virtual tour camera equipment including (for example) a Sigma 8mm f/3.5 lens which allowed photographers to set their rotator heads to 90` and capture a complete virtual tour of any scene in just 4 shots (0`, 90`, 180`, 270`).

3.) Cubical stitching. This technique was one of the first forms of immersive, floor to ceiling virtual tours and Apple Computer pioneered this with the release of Apple's QuickTime VR in the early 1990s. Free utility software such as Cubic Converter and others allowed photographers to stitch and convert their panoramas into a "cube" like box to achieve a complete 360 X 360 view. Today, this technique is considered rather "old school," and technique #2 (Spherical Stitching) has become more mainstream for producing these types of tours.

While programs such as Adobe Photoshop have new features that allow users to stitch images together, they only support "rectilinear," types of stitching and Photoshop cannot produce them as fast or as accurate as stitching software programs can such as Autodesk Stitcher. This is because there is sophisticated math and camera-lens profiles that are needed to create the desired panorama image which is based on your camera's depth of field (FOV) and the type of lens you used. Camera's such as the Nikon D3 or D700 have a full full frame digital SLR cameras, whereas the Nikon D90 or Canon T2i (Rebel line of Digital EOS cameras) have a smaller sensor. When full frame digital SLR cameras are used with a fish eye lens such as a Sigma 8mm F/3.5, you will see a full circular image. This allows you to shoot 2 or 3 shots per view to create a 360 X 360 stitched panoramic image. When used with a non full frame digital SLR camera like the Nikon D90 or Canon digital Rebel and similar cameras, typically 4-shots are required and the camera is in the portrait position. You will see the left and right sides cropped off each of the 4 images and in each of the four corners, the image is rounded.
Video-based virtual tours

With the expansion of video on the internet, video-based virtual tours are growing in popularity. Video cameras are used to pan and walk-through subject properties. The benefit of this method is that the point of view is constantly changing throughout a pan. However, capturing high-quality video requires significantly more technical skill and equipment than taking digital still pictures. Video also eliminates viewer control of the tour. Therefore the tour is the same for all viewers and subject matter is chosen by the videographer. Editing digital video requires proficiency with video editing software and has higher computer hardware requirements. Also, displaying video over the internet requires more bandwidth. Due to these difficulties, the task of creating video-based tours is often left to professionals.
Specialized software

Various software products can be used to create media rich virtual tours, and some examples include methods developed by MOVES Institute at the Naval Postgraduate School. Additionally web-based software allows users to upload any JPEG spherical image or cylindrical image and create HD (High Definition) virtual tours.

Virtual tours are used extensively for universities and in the real estate industry. Virtual Tours can allow a user to view an environment whilst on-line. Currently a variety of industries use such technology to help market their services and product. Over the last few years the quality, usability and accessibility of virtual tours has improved considerably, with some websites allowing the user to navigate the tours by clicking on maps or integrated floor plans.

For most business purposes, a virtual tour must be accessible from everywhere. The major solution is a web-based virtual tour. In addition, a rich and useful virtual tour is not just a series of panoramic pictures. A better experience can be obtained by viewing a variety of materials such as that obtained from videos, texts, and still pictures in an interactive web content. There are many ways to gather data in a mixed web content, such as using rich content builders (Java applet or Adobe Flash being two examples) or a Web content management system. Immersive rich, full screen Flash-based tours are becoming very popular today. A study done by the PEW Research Group showed that more than 5 million Americans watched virtual tours every day in 2004

PEW's research data which showed that Americans watching virtual tours rose from 54 million people in 2004 to 72 million people by August 2006. Meaning that in two yearsan increase of 18 million. Assuming the same growth rate of 18 million people every two years, this is 36 million people more than August 2006. Meaning that 108 million Americans are watching virtual tours as of August, 2010.

Thanks in part to the recent explosion of many Internet devices, such as Apple's iPad, iPhone and other tablet computing platforms powered entirely by Google's Android 3 operating systems such as Motorola's Xoom, it can be predicted that consumption of virtual tour content, through the use of Adobe Flash and HTML5/CSS3 driven virtual tours will only increase over time.
Real estate

Virtual tours are very popular in the real estate industry. Several types of such tours exist, including simple options such as interactive floor plans, and more sophisticated options such as full-service virtual tours. An interactive floor plan shows photographs of a property with the aid of a floor plan and arrows to indicate where each photograph was taken. Clicking on arrows shows the user where the camera was and which way the camera was pointing. Full service virtual tours are usually created by a professional photographer who will visit the property being sold, take several photos, and run them through stitching software. Full service virtual tours are usually more expensive than interactive floor plans because of the expense of the photographer, higher-end equipment used, such as a digital SLR camera, and specialized software. Real estate virtual tours are typically linked to the listing in the Multiple Listing Service.
See also

Travel technology applications
VR Photography


Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:52:55
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Scrapping" redirects here. Not to be confused with scraping.
"Scrap metal" redirects here. For other uses, see Scrap Metal (disambiguation).
Globe icon.
The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (December 2011)

Scraps are recyclable and other materials left over from product consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has significant monetary value.

1 How scrap is processed
2 Risks
3 Benefits of recycling scrap metals
4 Specific examples
4.1 Ship breaking
4.2 Railway locomotives
5 Role in the American economy
6 Gallery
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

How scrap is processed
Piles of scrap metal being utilized for the World War II effort, circa 1941

Scrap metal originates just as frequently between businesses and homes as well. The proper disposal and recycling of scrap metal is typically done by a business or service. Typically a "scrapper" will advertise his services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it, or need to get rid of it.

Scrap is often taken to a wrecking yard (also known as a scrapyard, junkyard, or breaker's yard), where it is processed for later melting into new products. A wrecking yard, depending on its location, may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smelters although many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap usually do not, often selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status. Customers are typically required to supply all of their own tools and labour to extract parts, and some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering. Many scrapyards also sell bulk metals (stainless steel, etc.) by weight, often at prices substantially below the retail purchasing costs of similar pieces.

In contrast to wreckers, scrapyards typically sell everything by weight, rather than by item. To the scrapyard, the primary value of the scrap is what the smelter will give them for it, rather than the value of whatever shape the metal may be in. An auto wrecker, on the other hand, would price exactly the same scrap based on what the item does, regardless of what it weighs. Typically, if a wrecker cannot sell something above the value of the metal in it, they would then take it to the scrapyard and sell it by weight. Equipment containing parts of various metals can often be purchased at a price below that of either of the metals, due to saving the scrapyard the labour of separating the metals before shipping them to be recycled. As an example, a scrapyard in Arcata, California sells automobile engines for $0.25 per pound, while aluminum, of which the engine is mostly made, sells for $1.25 per pound.[citation needed] Scrap prices are reported in a handful of U.S. publications, including American Metal Market, based on confirmed sales. Non-US domiciled publications, such as The Steel Index, also report on the US scrap price, which has become increasingly important to global export markets.

Great potential exists in the scrap metal industry for accidents in which a hazardous material, which is present in scrap, causes death, injury, or environmental damage. A classic example is radioactivity in scrap; see the Goi’nia accident and the Mayapuri radiological accident as examples of accidents involving radioactive materials, which entered the scrap metal industry and some details of the behaviour of contaminating chemical elements in metal smelters. The general nature of many of the tools used in scrapyards such as Alligator shear, which cut metal using hydraulics give themselves the need for safety.
Benefits of recycling scrap metals

According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, recycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment. Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield:[1]

75% savings in energy
90% savings in raw materials used
86% reduction in air pollution
40% reduction in water use
76% reduction in water pollution
97% reduction in mining wastes

Every tonne of new steel made from scrap steel saves:

1,115 kg of iron ore
625 kg of coal
53 kg of limestone

Energy savings from other metals include:

Aluminium savings of 95% energy
Copper savings of 85% energy
Lead savings of 65% energy
Zinc savings of 60% energy

The metal recycling industry encompasses a wide range of metals. The more frequently recycled metals are scrap steel, iron (ISS), lead, aluminium, copper, stainless steel and zinc. There are two main categories of metals: ferrous and non-ferrous. Metals which contain iron in them are known as Ferrous where metals without iron are non-ferrous. (ISRI Common non-ferrous metals are copper, brass, aluminium, zinc, magnesium, tin, nickel, and lead. Non-ferrous metals also include precious and exotic metals. Precious metals are metals with a high market value in any form, such as gold, silver, and platinum. Exotic metals contain rare elements such as cobalt, mercury, titanium, tungsten, arsenic, beryllium, bismuth, cerium, cadmium, niobium, indium, gallium, germanium, lithium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, vanadium, and zirconium. Some types of metals are radioactive. These may be naturally-occurring or may be formed as by-products of nuclear reactions. Metals that have been exposed to radioactive sources may also become radioactive in settings such as medical environments, research laboratories, or nuclear power plants. OSHA guidelines should be followed when recycling any type of scrap metal to ensure safety.
Specific examples
Ship breaking
Main article: Ship breaking
Railway locomotives

A railway locomotive typically contains around 100 tonnes of metal. In the United Kingdom, old railway locomotives are recycled by companies such as European Metal Recycling.
Role in the American economy

The scrap industry contributed $65 billion in 2006 and is one of the few contributing positively to the U.S. balance of trade, exporting $15.7 billion in scrap commodities in 2006. This imbalance of trade has resulted in rising scrap prices during 2007 and 2008 within the United States.[2] Scrap recycling also helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions and conserves energy and natural resources. For example, scrap recycling diverts 145 million short tons (129,464,286 long tons; 131,541,787 t) of materials away from landfills. Recycled scrap is a raw material feedstock for 2 out of 3 pounds of steel made in the U.S., for 60% of the metals and alloys produced in the U.S., for more than 50% of the U.S. paper industrys needs, and for 33% of U.S. aluminium. Recycled scrap helps keep air and water cleaner by removing potentially hazardous materials and keeping them out of landfills.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:53:11
VЛra Chytilov‘
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VЛra Chytilov‘
Vera Chytilova.jpg
Born 2 February 1929 (age 84)
Ostrava, Czechoslovakia
Occupation Film director
Years active 1962 - current
Spouse(s) Jaroslav Kucera

VЛra Chytilov‘ (born 2 February 1929) is an avant-garde Czech film director and pioneer of Czech cinema. Banned by the Czechoslovak government in the 1960s, she is best known for her Czech New Wave film, Sedmikr‘sky (Daisies). Her 1987 film VlЅќ bouda was entered into the 37th Berlin International Film Festival.[1] Her 1989 film A Hoof Here, a Hoof There was entered into the 16th Moscow International Film Festival.[2] Her 1992 film The Inheritance or Fuckoffguysgoodday was entered into the 18th Moscow International Film Festival.[3]

1 Early life and education
2 Career
3 Legacy
4 Personal life
5 Selected filmography
6 Awards/ Honors
7 Television (part)
8 References
9 External links
10 Further reading

Early life and education

VЛra Chytilov‘ was born in Ostrava, Czechoslovakia on February 2, 1929.[4] She had a strict Catholic upbringing, which would later come to influence many of the moral questions presented in her films.[5]

While attending college, she initially studied philosophy and architecture, but abandoned these fields. She then worked as a draftsman, fashion model and as a photo re-toucher before working as a clapper girl for the Barrandov Film Studios in Prague.[6] She then sought a recommendation from Barrandov Film Studios to study film production, but was denied. Undeterred by the rejection, she would later be accepted into the Film and TV School of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (FAMU) at the age of 28.[4][6] While attending FAMU she studied underneath renowned film director Otakar Vavra, graduating in 1962.[6]

Upon graduation from FAMU both of VЛra Chytilov‘ s short films had a theoretical release throughout Czechoslovakia. In 1963 Chytilov‘ released her first feature film entitled Something Different.[6]

VЛra Chytilov‘ is most well known for her highly controversial film Sedmikr‘sky (Daisies) - (1966). Daisies is known for its un-sympathetic characters, lack of a continuous narrative and abrupt visual style. Chytilov‘ states that she structured Daisies to restrict [the spectators] feeling of involvement and lead him to an understanding of the underlying idea or philosophy.[4] The film was banned within Czechoslovakia upon its initial release in 1966 until 1967 due to its depictions and imagery of wasting food, but in 1966 the film won the Grand Prix at the Bergamo Film Festival in Italy.[4][5] Daisies cemented Chytilov‘s career both nationally and internationally.

After VЛra Chytilov‘s 1966 film Daisies the government made it very difficult for her to find work within Czechoslovakia, even though she was never officially classified as a blacklisted director.[5] Her follow up film Ovoce strom rajsk­ch jќme (Fruit of Paradise) (1969) was her last film before the Soviet Union invasion of 1968. After the Soviet Union invasion it was virtually impossible for Chytilov‘ to find work and she resorted to directing various commercials under her husbands name, Jaroslav Kucera.[5]

In 1976, due to the low cinema attendance VЛra Chytilov‘ was approached by the government to begin directing films through one of the state run production companies, Short Film Studios. At the same time the United States was assembling a 'Year of Women' Film Festival and contacted Chytilov‘ to gain permission to screen Daisies as their opening film.[5] Chytilov‘ informed the festival that the only non-censored prints of the film could be found in Paris and Brussels. She also informed the festival that her government would not allow her to attend the festival, nor were they allowing her to direct films. The festival then began to apply international pressure upon the Czechoslovakian government by petitioning on Chytilov‘s behalf.[5]

In accordance with this international pressure VЛra Chytilov‘ wrote a letter directly to President Gustav Husak detailing her career and her personal beliefs in socialism.[4] Due to the success of the international pressure, and Chytilov‘s personal appeal to President Husak, Chytilov‘ began production of Hra o jablko" ("The Apple Game") (1976).[5] The Apple Game was completed [6] and then was screened at the Karlovy Film Festival, and won the Silver Hugo and the Chicago International Film Festival.[4][5]

After the release of The Apple Game Chytilov‘ was allowed to continue making films, but was continually met with controversy and heavy censorship by the Czechoslovakian government. VЛra Chytilov‘s latest film was released in 2006, and she has taught directing at FAMU.[5]

VЛra Chytilov‘ has described herself as a control freak and, An overheated kettle that you cant turn down.[7] Chytilov‘s overheated attitude created difficulties for her to gain work within the Soviet Union controlled film industry. She was known as being actively critical of the Soviet Union, stating that My critique is in the context of the moral principles you preach, isnt it? A critical reflection is necessary.[5] She would routinely cause havoc and hysterical scenes in order to attempt to make films that were loyal to her vision regardless of the heavy censorship that was routinely imposed.[5]

VЛra Chytilov‘ has embodied a unique cinematographic language and style that does not rely on any literary or verbal conventions, but rather utilizes various forms of visual manipulations to create meaning within her films.[8] Chytilov‘ uses observations of everyday life in accordance with allegories and surreal contexts to create a personalized film style that is greatly influenced by the French New Wave, and Italian Neo-Realism.[4] Chytilov‘ actively uses a filmic style that is similar to cinema verite in order to allow the audience to gain an outside perspective of the film.[6] Her use of cinema verite is best illustrated in her 1966 film Daises in which these techniques create a philosophical documentary, of diverting the spectator from the involvement, destroying psychology and accentuates the humor.[6] Through these manipulations Chytilov‘ has created a legacy of creating a disjunctive viewing experience for her audience forcing them to question the meaning of her films.

VЛra Chytilov‘ is cited as a militant feminist filmmaker.[9] Josef Skvorecky states that Chytilov‘ In a true feminist tradition Vera combined intensive intellectual effort with a feminine feeling for beauty and form.[9] Daises is seen as a feminist film due to its attitude and active critique of male attitudes towards sex.[6] However Chytilov‘ does not see herself as a feminist filmmaker, but rather believes in individualism, stating that if a person does not believe in a particular set of conventions or rules then it is up to that individual to break them.[7]
Personal life

VЛra Chytilov‘ was born in Ostrava

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:53:31
201011 ASB Premiership
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ASB Premiership Season 201011
Champions Waitakcolours.png Waitakere United
Matches played 28
Goals scored 92 (3.29 per match)
Top goalscorer New Zealand Allan Pearce (13)
Biggest home win ACFC 5-0 HBU (Round 9)
TW 5-0 OU (Round 9)
WU 6-1 YHM (Round 13)
WU 6-1 WFC (Round 15)
Biggest away win YoungHeart Manawatu 0-4 Waitakere United (Round 5)
Highest scoring Waitakere United 5-2 Canterbury United (Semi-final)

The New Zealand Football Championship's 201011 season (known as the ASB Premiership for sponsorship reasons) is the sixth season of the NZFC since its establishment in 2004. The home and away season began on 16 October 2010 with a kickoff between Auckland City FC and Waikato FC.[1] Auckland City and Waitakere United will represent the ASB Premiership in the 201011 OFC Champions League after finishing Premiers and Champions respectively in the 200910 competition.

1 Clubs
1.1 Stadia and locations
2 League table
3 Regular Season
3.1 Round 1
3.2 Round 2
3.3 Round 3
3.4 Round 4
3.5 Round 5
3.6 Round 6
3.7 Round 7
3.8 Round 8
3.9 Round 9
3.10 Round 10
3.11 Round 11
3.12 Round 12
3.13 Round 13
3.14 Round 14
3.15 Round 15
3.16 Round 16
4 Finals series
4.1 Semi-finals first leg
4.2 Semi-finals second leg
4.3 Final
5 Scorers
5.1 Own goals
6 References
7 External links


As in the previous season, eight clubs participated in the league.
Stadia and locations
Location of clubs and the region they represent
Team Location Stadium Stadium capacity1
Aucklandcolours.png Auckland City FC Auckland Kiwitea Street 3,000
Cantabcolours.png Canterbury United Christchurch English Park 8,000
Hawkesbaycolours.png Hawke's Bay United Napier Bluewater Stadium 4,000
Otagocolours.png Otago United Dunedin Forsyth Barr Stadium 30,748
WellingtonPhoenixColours.png Team Wellington Wellington Newtown Park 5,000
Waikatocolours.png Waikato FC Hamilton Waikato Stadium 25,800
Waitakcolours.png Waitakere United Waitakere City Fred Taylor Park 2,500
Yhmcolours.png YoungHeart Manawatu Palmerston North Memorial Park 8,000
League table

Updated at end of Round 15.
Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Premiers and Qualification
Waitakere United 14 12 0 2 39 12 +27 36 201112 OFC Champions League
Auckland City 14 9 3 2 29 12 +17 30 201112 OFC Champions League
Team Wellington 14 7 2 5 28 23 +5 23
Canterbury United 14 6 2 6 20 19 +1 20
Hawke's Bay United 14 5 4 5 18 22 -4 19
Waikato FC 14 4 3 7 21 33 -12 15
Otago United 14 3 3 8 15 30 -15 12
YoungHeart Manawatu 14 1 1 12 19 38 -19 4 Wooden Spoon
Regular Season
Round 1
October 16, 2010 Waikatocolours.png Waikato FC 2 3 Aucklandcolours.pngAuckland City FC Fred Jones Park, Hamilton [show]
October 17, 2010 Waitakcolours.png Waitakere United 2 0 WellingtonPhoenixColours.png Team Wellington Fred Taylor Park [show]
Round 2
October 30, 2010 WellingtonPhoenixColours.png Team Wellington 0 0 Aucklandcolours.png Auckland City FC David Farrington Park, Wellington [show]
October 31, 2010 Hawkesbaycolours.png Hawke's Bay United 1 3 Waitakcolours.png Waitakere United Park Island, Napier [show]
Round 3
November 7, 2010 Otagocolours.png Otago United 0 1 Waikatocolours.png Waikato FC Tahuna Park, Dunedin [show]
November 7, 2010 Yhmcolours.png YoungHeart Manawatu 0 1 Hawkesbaycolours.png Hawke's Bay United Memorial Park, Palmerston North [show]
November 7, 2010 WellingtonPhoenixColours.png Team Wellington 2 4 Cantabcolours.png Canterbury United David Farrington Park, Wellington [show]
November 7, 2010 Aucklandcolours.png Auckland City FC 1 3 Waitakcolours.png Waitakere United Kiwitea Street, Auckland [show]
Round 4
November 14, 2010 Cantabcolours.png Canterbury United 1 0 Yhmcolours.png YoungHeart Manawatu Linfield Park, Christchurch [show]
November 14, 2010 Hawkesbaycolours.png Hawke's Bay United 3 2 Otagocolours.png Otago United Park Island, Napier [show]
Round 5
November 21, 2010 WellingtonPhoenixColours.png Team Wellington 3 1 Waikatocolours.png Waikato FC David Farrington Park, Wellington [show]
November 21, 2010 Cantabcolours.png Canterbury United 0 0 Hawkesbaycolours.png Hawke's Bay United Linfield Park, Christchurch [show]
November 21, 2010 Yhmcolours.png YoungHeart Manawatu 0 4 Waitakcolours.png Waitakere United Memorial Park, Palmerston North [show]
November 21, 2010 Aucklandcolours.png Auckland City FC 0 0 Otagocolours.png Otago United Kiwitea Street, Auckland [show]
Round 6

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:53:43
Safar Hai Shart
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Wiki letter w.svg
This article is an orphan, as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; suggestions may be available. (January 2013)
Safar Hai Shart
Safar hai shart .jpg
Genre Travelogue
Starring Waqar Ahmed Malik & Mukkaram Kaleem
Country of origin Pakistan
Original language(s) Urdu
Location(s) Pakistan
Running time 38 minutes (per episode)
Original channel Express News Pakistan
Waqar Ahmed Malik Host & Producer\Director Safar Hai Shart

Safar Hai Shart was a popular travelogue television show on-aired on Express News (Pakistan). The show was hosted by Waqar Ahmed Malik & Mukkaram Kaleem. Safar hai shart was an exclusive travelogue produced by Waqar Ahmed Malik, completed on nothing else but on Motorbikes. Two guys on bikes explored the wonders of the Karakoram Highway in Pakistan. The Karakoram Highway (KKH) is the highest paved international road in the world and often known as 9th wonder of the world. The travels started from Rawalpindi and end on Khunjerab Pass (elevation 4,693 metres or 15,397 feet),the highest paved international border crossing in the world and the highest point on the Karakoram Highway. The show comprises the adventure, thrill and depiction of native culture of Kohistan, Gilgit and Hunza. Safar hai shart also showed Nanga Parbat (The killer Mountain) and the related expedition stories specially of Hermann Buhl, Reinhold Messner in 6th and 7th episodes. This program was produced with the cooperation of Frontier Works Organisation and World Wide Fund for Nature.

1 Concept
2 Credits
3 Episodes
4 External links


Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 metres and probably as many peaks above 6,000 m. There is no count of the peaks above 5,000 and 4,000 m. Five of the 14 highest independent peaks in the world (the eight-thousanders) are in Pakistan. Tourism in Pakistan has been stated by the Lonely Planet magazine as being the tourism industry's "next big thing" but after 9/11 unfortunately Pakistan,s tourism sector affected badly. Safar hai shart was an effort for revival of the tourism activities in Gilgit-Baltistan region.

Waqar Ahmed Malik Producer\Director\Writer and Anchor

Mukarram Kaleem: Anchor\Senior Associate producer

Nadeem Bhati: Cameraman

Ahmed Ali Hussain: Editor

Shoaib Sarwar: Concept

Episode 1: Travels through Taxila, Havelian, Khanpur Dam

Episode 2: Travels through Abbotabad Mansehra

Episode 3: Travels through Thakot Chattar Plains

Episode 4: Travels through Besham Patan and intro of Great Indus River and Alexander the Great

Episode 5: Travels through Dassu Nala Samar Chilas

Episode 6: Travels through Chilas, Chilas Fort, Archeological sites, Babusar Top (14000 ft above sea level)

Episode 7: Travels through the most dangerous Fairy Meadow Nanga Parbat Track

Episode 8: Travels through Fairy Meadows Nanga Parbat the killer mountain.

Episode 9: Nanga Parbat, the killer mountain.. History of expeditions.

Episode 10: Travels through Gilgit and Surroundings, culture literature

Episode 11: Travels through Gilgit and Surroundings ancient carving, education, polo match etc

Episode 12: Travels through Hunza and Surroundings Rakaposhi the most beautiful mountain of world

Episode 13: Hunza and Surroundings, the capital of this ancient state, attabad lake

Episode 14: Hunza and Surroundings upper Hunza and Khunjerab Pass (16000 ft above sea level
External links

Safar hai shart, 14 episodes
Safar hai Shart Tribune Newspaper
All Episodes at Urdu.com
Pamir Times
Express News


Pakistani television programmes
Travel television series

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:54:07
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This article is about the year 1839.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century 19th century 20th century
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1839 in other calendars Gregorian calendar 1839
Ab urbe condita 2592
Armenian calendar 1288
йю ьфси
Assyrian calendar 6589
Bah‘'ќ calendar -5-4
Bengali calendar 1246
Berber calendar 2789
British Regnal year 2 Vict. 1 3 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2383
Burmese calendar 1201
Byzantine calendar 73477348
Chinese calendar

Coptic calendar 15551556
Ethiopian calendar 18311832
Hebrew calendar 55995600
Hindu calendars
- Vikram Samvat 18951896
- Shaka Samvat 17611762
- Kali Yuga 49404941
Holocene calendar 11839
Igbo calendar
- Ёrќ gbў 839840
Iranian calendar 12171218
Islamic calendar 12541255
Japanese calendar Tenpэ 10
Juche calendar N/A (before 1912)
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4172
Minguo calendar 73 before ROC
Thai solar calendar 2382
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1839

Year 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.

January 2 First photo of the Moon taken by photographer Louis Daguerre
January 9 The French Academy of Sciences announces the Daguerreotype photography process.
January 19 The British East India Company captures Aden.
January 20 Battle of Yungay: Chile defeats the Peruvian-Bolivian confedration.
January 29 British naturalist Charles Darwin marries his cousin Emma Wedgwood.
February 11 The University of Missouri is established, becoming the first public university west of the Mississippi River.
February 24 William Otis receives a patent for the steam shovel.
March 5 Longwood University is founded in Farmville, Virginia.
March 7 Baltimore City College, the third public high school in the United States, is established in Baltimore, Maryland.
March 23 The Boston Morning Post first records the use of "OK" (oll korrect).
March 26 The first Henley Royal Regatta is held.


April Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire dies.
April 9 The world's first commercial electric telegraph line comes into operation alongside the Great Western Railway line, from Paddington Station to West Drayton.
April 19 The Treaty of London establishes Belgium as a kingdom.
June 22 Louis Daguerre receives a patent for his camera (commercially available by September at the price of 400 francs).


July 1
Slaves aboard the Amistad rebel and capture the ship.
Abd-ul-Mejid I (18391861) succeeds Mahmud II (18081839) as Ottoman Emperor.
July 23 First Anglo-Afghan War Battle of Ghazni: British forces capture the fortress city of Ghazni, Afghanistan.
August 8 The Beta Theta Pi fraternity is founded in Oxford, Ohio.
August 19 The French government gives Louis Daguerre a pension and gives the daguerreotype "for the whole world".
August 23 British forces seize Hong Kong as a base, as it prepares to wage war against Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict becomes known as the First Opium War.
August 31 The First Carlist war (Spain) ends with the Convenio de Vergara, also known as the Abrazo de Vergara ("the embrace in Vergara"; Bergara in Basque), between liberal general Baldomero Espartero, Count of Luchana and Carlist General Rafael Maroto.
September 9 In the Great Fire of Mobile, Alabama hundreds of buildings are burned.


October 3 In the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, a railway between Naples and Portici (7.4 km length) is inaugurated by H.M. King Ferdinand II of Bourbon (the first railway in the Italian peninsula).
October 15 Abd al-Kader declares a jihad against the French.
November 4 The Newport Rising is the last large-scale armed rebellion against authority in mainland Britain.
November 11 The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia.
November 17 Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, Oberto, conte di San Bonifacio, opens in Milan.
November 25 A disastrous cyclone slams India with terrible winds and a giant 40-foot storm surge, wiping out the port city of Coringa; 300,000 people die.
November 27 In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.

Date unknown

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:54:12
Ох как школьнику пукан разворошило.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:54:18
Viva Zapata!
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For the 7 Year Bitch album, see QViva Zapata!.
Viva Zapata!

Theatrical release poster
Directed by Elia Kazan
Produced by Darryl F. Zanuck
Written by John Steinbeck
Starring Marlon Brando
Jean Peters
Anthony Quinn
Music by Alex North
Cinematography Joseph MacDonald
Editing by Barbara McLean
Distributed by Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation
Release date(s)

February 7, 1952

Running time 113 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1.8 million[1]
Box office $1,900,000 (US rentals)[2]

Viva Zapata! is a 1952 fictional-biographical film starring Marlon Brando and directed by Elia Kazan. The screenplay was written by John Steinbeck, using as a guide Edgcomb Pinchon's book, 'Zapata the Unconquerable', a fact that is not credited in the titles of the film. The movie is a fictionalized account of the life of Mexican Revolutionary Emiliano Zapata from his peasant upbringing, through his rise to power in the early 1900s, to his death. To give the film as authentic a feel as possible, Kazan and producer Darryl F. Zanuck studied the numerous photographs that were taken during the revolutionary years, the period between 1909 and 1919 when Zapata led the fight to restore land taken from the people during the dictatorship of Porfirio Dќaz. Kazan was especially impressed with the Agustin Casasola collection of photographs and he attempted to duplicate their visual style in the film. Kazan also acknowledged the influence of Roberto Rossellini's Paisan.[3]

1 Plot
2 Cast
3 Awards
3.1 Academy Awards
3.2 BAFTA Awards
3.3 Cannes Film Festival
3.4 Directors Guild of America
3.5 Golden Globe Award
4 Production
4.1 Filming and casting
5 Release
5.1 Critical reception
6 References
7 External links


Zapata (Marlon Brando) is part of a delegation sent to complain about injustices to corrupt longtime President Porfirio Dќaz (Fay Roope), but Dќaz condescendingly dismisses their concerns. As a result, Zapata is driven to open rebellion, along with his brother Eufemio (Anthony Quinn). He in the south and Pancho Villa (Alan Reed) in the north unite under the leadership of naive reformer Francisco Madero (Harold Gordon).

Dќaz is finally toppled and Madero takes his place, but Zapata is dismayed to find that nothing is changed. The new regime is no less corrupt and self-serving than the one it replaced. His own brother sets himself up as a petty dictator, taking what he wants without regard for the law. The ineffectual but well-meaning Madero puts his trust in treacherous General Victoriano Huerta (Frank Silvera). Huerta first takes Madero captive and then has him murdered. Zapata himself is lured into an ambush and killed.

Zapata is depicted in the film as an incorruptible rebel leader. He is guided by his desire to return the land to the peasants, who have been robbed, while forsaking his personal interest. Steinbeck meditates in the film on power, military and political, which corrupts men.

Marlon Brando as Emiliano Zapata
Jean Peters as Josefa Zapata, his wife
Anthony Quinn as Eufemio Zapata
Joseph Wiseman as Fernando Aguirre
Arnold Moss as Don Nacio
Alan Reed as Pancho Villa
Margo as Soldadera
Harold Gordon as Francisco Indalecio Madero
Lou Gilbert as Pablo
Frank Silvera as Victoriano Huerta
Florenz Ames as SeЎor Espejo
Richard Garrick as Old General
Fay Roope as Porfirio Dќaz
Mildred Dunnock as SeЎora Espejo


Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:54:29
Baron Bayning
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Baron Bayning, of Foxley in the County of Berkshire, was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain. It was created in 1797 for the politician Charles Townshend. He was the son of William Townshend, third son of Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend (from whom the Marquesses Townshend descend) and the cousin of Thomas Townshend, 1st Viscount Sydney. Townshend descended through his mother from Anne Murray, Viscountess Bayning, and Paul Bayning, 1st Viscount Bayning, hence his choice of title. He was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Baron. He represented Truro in Parliament. In 1821 he assumed by Royal license the surname of Powlett in lieu of Townshend. He died unmarried and was succeeded by his younger brother, the third Baron. He died without surviving male issue and the barony became extinct on his death in 1866.
Barons Bayning (1797)

Charles Townshend, 1st Baron Bayning (17281810)
Charles Frederick Powlett, 2nd Baron Bayning (17851823)
Henry William Powlett, 3rd Baron Bayning (17971866)
Hon. Charles William Powlett (18441864)

See also

Marquess Townshend
Earl Sydney
Viscountess Bayning


Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages [self-published source][better source needed]


Baronies in the Peerage of Great Britain
Extinct baronies in the Peerage of Great Britain
Townshend family (English aristocracy)

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:54:49
K. T. Paul
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Kanakarayan Tiruselvam Paul (24 March 1876 to 11 April 1931) was an ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi. He was the first Indian born National General Secretary of the National Council of YMCAs of India. A Christian himself, he explored the relationship between Christianity and national identity. He held important positions like President of the Governing Council of the United Theological College, Bangalore; General Secretary of the National Missionary Society (India); and Chairman of the National Christian Council of India. Paul's lasting legacy was rural reconstruction, which he initiated through the YMCA in India.

1 Biography
1.1 Early life
1.2 K.T.Paul: A Dynamic Christian Leader
2 Indian Nationalism and Christian Leaders
2.1 K.T. Paul as the conscience of Indian Christians
2.2 K.T. Pauls concept of Nationalism
2.3 K.T. Paul as a Christian Nationalist
3 K.T Paul and the YMCA in India
3.1 Rural Reconstruction a concept developed by K.T Paul
3.1.1 Madras Christian Co-operative Bank Ltd
3.1.2 Paul's Anti-Poverty Strategy
3.2 K.T. Paul as a Social Worker
4 Conclusion
5 Bibliography
6 External links

Early life

Kanakarayan Tiruselvam Paul was born on 24 March 1876 in a Christian family at Salem in Tamil Nadu, south India. After matriculation and Intermediates studies he joined Madras Christian College in 1892, to earn his bachelor's degree.

Though after studies he got a job in the Government secretariat, he resigned from it after his marriage. He then joined the Coimbatore London Mission High School as a teacher, and later became the Headmaster of the Punganur Arcot Mission High School.

In 1902 he joined the Teacher's College at Saidepet, and the following year he made a come back to his alma-mater, Madras Christian College, as a tutor in the Department of History.
K.T.Paul: A Dynamic Christian Leader

K.T. Pauls contributions to the Church in India may be seen from his work at the National Missionary Society (NMS). In 1905 he helped Vedanayakam Samuel Azariah to establish the National Missionary Society at Serampore and became its Honorary Treasurer; the following year he became its Organizing Secretary; and from 1909 to 1914 its general secretary. In this capacity he became acutely aware of the need for unity in Christian witness and social activity. A true Churchman, as general secretary he visited churches, conducted personal interviews and organised branch meetings all over India. in north India he initiated a civic body called 'Premsabha (meaning 'Council of Love' in Hindi), which did social and religious work among poor Christians of the depressed classes. Popley, a leading L.M.S. missionary, remarked, "He has become the servant of all the churches"; and indeed he was in contact with Indian Christians and their concerns all over India. His contacts with Christian missionaries of other denominations also led Paul to think about the need of unity among Christians, and to take part in the formation of the South Indian United Church.

K.T. Paul worked for the transformation of the National Missionary Council of India into National Christian Council of India, in which the Indian churches as well as missions from overseas were members. He became the first Chairman of the National Christian Council of India. Paul also showed much interest in theological education. At the time of his death he was the President of the Governing Council of the United Theological College, Bangalore. He was also the convener of the SIUC committee on theological education. K.T Paul represented the Indian Christian community at the London Round Table Conferences in the year of 19301932 along with S.K. Datta.
Indian Nationalism and Christian Leaders

The massacre of innocent Indians by General Dyer at the Jallianwalla Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab, in 1918 had fanned the fire of anti-British feeling all over India. Mahatma Gandhi, launching his first attack on British rule using the weapon of Satyagraha, gave a call for Non Cooperation Movement in 1920. Indian Christians could not sit on the fence, and had to reveal where their sympathies lay. The leaders S. K. Datta and K. T. Paul published an article in the 'Young Men of India' in July 1920 protesting against the insensitive behaviour of the British in the Punjab. Though the massacre of Jallianwala Bagh had shocked Indian Christians, Paul had not lost his belief that India could build its future through organic links with Western Christianity and British contact. However, his hopes of transformation of the Indian polity in cooperation with the British rule strengthened by diarchy turned into dismay in 1918.

The history of India since the second half of the 19th century had been distinguished by a national movement for political independence. In its initial stages Indian Christians had seldom participated, and during the first Non-cooperation Movement of Gandhi [192023], there was hardly any Christian participation. But in the latter phases of the struggle an increasing number of Christians began to identify with the national movement, and the maintenance of a secular state especially from among the Reformed Churches: H.C. Mukherjee, Raja Sir Maharaj Singh, K.T. Paul, S.K. Datta and V.S. Azariah are examples. Between 1900 and 1930 K.T. Paul, S.K. Datta and V.S. Azariah formed a trio who instilled feelings of responsible nationalism in the Christian community despite opposition from some western missionaries as well as some Indian Christians.

In the 1930s and 40s Christians were mainly on the side of the Indian National Congress in its struggle for independence. Several Christian organisations such as Christian Patriot Group of Madras, and Indian Christian Association, were organised to express Christian views on political matters.
K.T. Paul as the conscience of Indian Christians

Paul grew to adulthood at a time when the Indian National Congress was voicing the growing demand of educated Indians for representative Government. Paul was committed to political nationalism, seeing in it also a self-awakening of India which would transform the totality of India's traditional life. Gandhi in his speech at the second session of the Round Table Conference in London ( 7 to 11 September December 1931) said of K.T. Paul, I miss as I have no doubt all of you miss, the presence in our midst of K.T. Paul. Although, I do not know, but so far as I know, though he never officially belonged to the Congress, he was a nationalist to the full.

Among Indian Christians the name of K.T. Paul needs special mention. As the secretary of the National Missionary Society, and later as the National General Secretary of the YMCA, it was he more than anybody else who prevented the Christian community from becoming a 'communal' group. He saw a 'designed place of necessity' for nationalism in the purpose of God for mankind. K.M. Panikkar's evaluation of K.T. Paul's contribution to the national movement is worth stating:

Kanakarjan Pauls famous article, Watchman, What of the night, may be considered the first call to Christian community to realize the strength and weight of the new forces. Paul, a devout Christian, was also an ardent champion of the cultural tradition of India. The alienation of the Christian community from the rich inheritance of Indias past was a matter of great concern for him. As the General Secretary of the YMCA in India, he was instrumental in publishing, under Christian auspices, a series of valuable general studies, entitled. The Heritage of India, written by Christian scholars but with deep understanding and general sympathy. This series of books, which dealt with every aspect of Indias cultural traditions, helped the Indian Christians to break away from the influence of the narrow missionary attitude of looking down upon everything which was Indian.

K. T. Paul as a nationalist recommended indigenization of even the structure of the Indian Church. He was opposed to the Western type of church structure in India, especially episcopacy. He argued that episcopacy was a product of the West, that it was foreign to the genius of India, that the prophet and not the priest would suffice for the religious life of India, that if the united church in South India fell into the clutches of episcopacy it would be fettered perpetually by western forms, since such a union would be a patched-up union, unrelated in any way to what was essentially Indian. K.T. Paul brings his nationalistic feeling in Christianity. His acts show that how he was involved in nationalism. He introduced many indigenous acts of worship in order to show that how Christianity was an Indian religion and it was not a western religion.
K.T. Pauls concept of Nationalism

Nationalism had a different meaning for K.T. Paul. According to him Indian nationalism is not Indian politics but a great social revolution of which politics is but a part. Pauls idea of nationalism was not inconsistent with the spirit of Christ. Out of his Old Testament studies, he defined nationalism as a discipline for a certain well defined purpose. To Him the secret spring of nationalism was different from unity in regard to religion, language and government, but was recognition by individual persons of something as their common interests, some great object which over-rides individual interest. Thus did he connect nationalism to Church.
K.T. Paul as a Christian Nationalist

As a Christian Nationalist and a devote Christian leader, K.T. Paul had the vision of interpreting the then arising Indian National feelings in a different dimension. In order to understand his position as a true nationalist one has to look into the then political situations from 1919 to 1930. In 1919 Mont-Ford Reforms were introduced which were not accepted by the Congress. At this time the Government also passed the Rowlatt Act in the pretext of eradicating terrorism. Most of the Indian leaders thought that these measures were against liberty and thus a betrayal. As a result the Satygraha Movement was started by Mahatma Gandhi. At first K.T. Paul did not agree with Gandhiji's policy. In the tragedy of Chauri Chaura a number of police men were brutally beaten to death by a gang of people who claimed to be Gandhi's followers. This was followed by the Bombay riot. Gandhi suspended the whole Satyagraha indefinitely. But on 10 March 1922, Gandhiji was arrested.

Immediately after this, K.T. Paul was invited by the Viceroy to become a member of the first Round Table Conference. In the Round Table Conference, K.T. Paul stood up for the Nation. As a true nationalist his main emphasis was on national unity. Unfortunately he could not make his mark much in this conference and also in the political fields of India.

With the partition of Bengal in 1905, the Swadeshi movement had been inaugurated. One way in which the Indian Christians responded to it was by developing indigenous leadership and freedom from foreign domination and dependence within the church. With this idea, the National Missionary Council was founded. It was founded on the principle that it will use only indigenous personnel, methods and money for its work. The Society was never active in politics but because it was purely Indian in its personal and management, it continued to express sympathy to the national movement. The National Missionary Council (NMC) was established in 1912 at Calcutta. NMC comprised British and Indian missionaries. K.T. Paul was one of the prominent leaders of this council for many years.
K.T Paul and the YMCA in India

The appointment of K.T Paul as the first National General Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in India, in 1916 began the process of indigenisation of the Indian YMCA. It was a pioneering step, as practically all Christian institutions were headed by Europeans, then. This made a great difference and K.T Paul was able to Indianise the policy and programs of the Indian YMCA. This led to new and innovative programmes being implemented by the YMCA for the marginalised sections of India. The Rural Reconstruction Scheme was one such programme. K.T Paul gave a new vision to the YMCA movement in India. His vision for the future of the Indian YMCA was rooted in his understanding of his own people their fears, their hopes and their desperate needs.

Paul had earlier been appointed the Joint National general secretary in 1913 and when the time came the European leaders of the YMCA did not hesitate to hand over the full fledged office of National general secretary to him. Behind this new and startling experiment was the support of none other than Dr. John R. Mott who had in fact drawn K.T Paul to the service of the YMCA.

The YMCA so far had been an urban movement with specific objectives. K.T Paul was the man who gave a new direction to the movement in India and Asia as well, keeping in view the peculiar problems of the rural Indian society as compared to the industrialised, urban and literate Western for whose specific needs the YMCA had been created. This however was a herculean task as Paul had to work out substantial details explaining why the Indian YMCA should take up the rural programme and deviate completely from its set path of working for the urban youth.
Rural Reconstruction a concept developed by K.T Paul

K.T Paul was an innovator. He was moved by the appalling conditions of poverty of the rural masses who constituted 90 percent of India's population. Thus he established Rural YMCA Centres to work for the upliftment of rural young men. At this stage, the missionaries too looked to the YMCA for help in the Mass Movement areas where a large number of Christians who were coming over to Christianity brought their problems of poverty, debt and depression with them. Such problems could not be solved in a day. The large number of such converts entering the Church proved to be a burden. Therefore it was at the urgent request of the missionaries that YMCA began to render help in the field, seeking the cooperation of the church to make it economically possible for those Christians to become honest and self-respecting citizens K.T. Paul worked for the village education scheme and rural reconstruction programme through the YMCA and the church.

By launching the Rural Work Programme, Paul had in fact opened a 'campaign against Indian poverty'. No government has so far succeeded in eliminating poverty, but K.T Paul experimented with a methodology to tackle it at its roots. As a keen student of the Indian situation he had taken note of the Co-operative Act passed by Lord Curzon in 1904, followed by another in 1912, meant to help farmers to overcome their serious financial problems. Neither the Co-operative Credit banks of the Government nor its agricultural development departments had succeeded in solving the problem of poverty in rural India.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:55:02
Kofi (album)
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Jump to: navigation, search
Studio album by Donald Byrd
Released 1995
Recorded December 16, 1969 (#1-2)
December 4, 1970 (#3-5)
A&R Studios, New York City
Genre Jazz
Length 43:37
Label Blue Note
Blue Note 31875
Producer Duke Pearson
Donald Byrd chronology
Electric Byrd
(1970) Kofi
(1969-70) Ethiopian Knights

Kofi is an album by American trumpeter Donald Byrd featuring performances by Byrd with Frank Foster, Lew Tabackin, Duke Pearson, Ron Carter, Bob Cranshaw, Airto Moreira, Wally Richardson, and Mickey Roker recorded in 1969 and 1970 and released on the Blue Note label in 1995.[1]

1 Reception
2 Track listing
3 Remix's
4 Personnel
5 References


The Allmusic review by Rob Theakston awarded the album 4 stars and stated "The playing here is no less than stellar... The subtle relaxed tones of this album make it truly one of the essential releases in Byrd's catalog". In 2013, the German House/Techno DJ SCNTST pays tribute to Donald Byrd by calling a remix of his track "Kofi" he renames "Mind What" .[2]
Professional ratings
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic 4/5 stars[2]
Track listing

All compositions by Donald Byrd except as indicated

"Kofi" - 7:46
"Fufu" - 9:39
"Perpetual Love" - 7:38
"Elmina" - 8:37
"The Loud Minority" (Frank Foster) - 9:57 Bonus track on CD


"Mind What (Kofi)" (SNCTST Remix) - 5:58

Donald Byrd - trumpet
William Campbell - trombone (track 1)
Frank Foster - tenor saxophone
Lew Tabackin - tenor saxophone, flute (tracks 1 & 2)
Duke Pearson - electric piano
Wally Richardson - guitar (tracks 3-5)
Ron Carter - bass
Bob Cranshaw - electric bass (track 2)
Airto Moreira - drums (tracks 1 & 2), percussion (tracks 3-5)
Mickey Roker - drums (tracks 3-5)
Dom Um Rom“o - percussion (tracks 3-5)


^ Donald Byrd discography accessed September 3, 2010
^ a b Theakson, R. Allmusic Review accessed September 3, 2010


Blue Note Records albums
Donald Byrd albums
1995 albums

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:55:18
Logarithmic differentiation
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For the derivative, see Logarithmic derivative.

In calculus, logarithmic differentiation or differentiation by taking logarithms is a method used to differentiate functions by employing the logarithmic derivative of a function f,[1]

[\ln(f)]' = \frac{f'}{f} \quad \rightarrow \quad f' = f \cdot [\ln(f)]'.

The technique is often performed in cases where it is easier to differentiate the logarithm of a function rather than the function itself. This usually occurs in cases where the function of interest is composed of a product of a number of parts, so that a logarithmic transformation will turn it into a sum of separate parts (much easier to differentiate). Logarithmic differentiation relies on the chain rule as well as properties of logarithms (in particular, the natural logarithm, or logarithmic to the base e) to transform products into sums and divisions into subtractions, and can also applied to functions raised to the power of variables or functions.[2][3] However, the principle can be implemented, at least in part, in the differentiation of almost all differentiable functions, providing that these functions are non-zero.

1 Overview
1.1 General case
2 Applications
2.1 Products
2.2 Quotients
2.3 Composite exponent
3 See also
4 Notes
5 External links


For a function


logarithmic differentiation typically begins by taking the natural logarithm, or the logarithm to the base e, on both sides, remembering to take absolute values[4]

\ln y = \ln f(x) \,\!

After implicit differentiation[5]

\frac{1}{y} \frac{dy}{dx} = \frac{f'(x)}{f(x)}

Multiplication by y is then done to eliminate 1/y and leave only dy/dx on the left:

\frac{dy}{dx} = y \times \frac{f'(x)}{f(x)} = f'(x).

The method is used because the properties of logarithms provide avenues to quickly simplify complicated functions to be differentiated.[6] These properties can be manipulated after the taking of natural logarithms on both sides and before the preliminary differentiation. The most commonly used logarithm laws:[3]

\log(ab) = \log(a) + \log(b), \qquad \log\left(\frac{a}{b}\right) = \log(a) - \log(b), \qquad \log(a^n) = n\log(a)

General case

Using capital pi notation,


Application of natural logarithms results in (with capital sigma notation)

\ln (f(x))=\sum_i\alpha_i(x)\cdot \ln(f_i(x)),

and after differentiation,

\frac{f'(x)}{f(x)}=\sum_i\left[\alpha_i'(x)\cdot \ln(f_i(x))+\alpha_i(x)\cdot \frac{f_i'(x)}{f_i(x)}\right].

Rearrange to get the derivative of the original function,

f'(x)=\overbrace{\prod_i(f_i(x))^{\alpha_i(x)}}^{f(x)}\times\overbrace{\sum_i\left\{\alpha_i'(x)\cdot \ln(f_i(x))+\alpha_i(x)\cdot \frac{f_i'(x)}{f_i(x)}\right\}}^{[\ln (f(x))]'}


A natural logarithm is applied to a product of two functions


to transform the product into a sum


Differentiate by applying the chain and the sum rules

\frac{f'(x)}{f(x)} = \frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}+\frac{h'(x)}{h(x)}

and, after rearranging, get[7]

f'(x) = f(x)\times \Bigg\{\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}+\frac{h'(x)}{h(x)}\Bigg\}= g(x)h(x)\times \Bigg\{\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}+\frac{h'(x)}{h(x)}\Bigg\}


A natural logarithm is applied to a quotient of two functions


to transform the division into a subtraction


Differentiate by applying the chain and the sum rules

\frac{f'(x)}{f(x)} = \frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}-\frac{h'(x)}{h(x)}

and, after rearranging, get

f'(x) = f(x)\times \Bigg\{\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}-\frac{h'(x)}{h(x)}\Bigg\}= \frac{g(x)}{h(x)}\times \Bigg\{\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}-\frac{h'(x)}{h(x)}\Bigg\}

After multiplying out and using the common denominator formula the result is the same as if after applying the quotient rule directly to f(x).
Composite exponent

For a function of the form


The natural logarithm transforms the exponentiation into a product

\ln(f(x))=\ln\left(g(x)^{h(x)}\right)=h(x) \ln(g(x))\,\!

Differentiate by applying the chain and the product rules

\frac{f'(x)}{f(x)} = h'(x) \ln(g(x)) + h(x)\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}

and, after rearranging, get

f'(x) = f(x)\times \Bigg\{h'(x) \ln(g(x)) + h(x)\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}\Bigg\}= g(x)^{h(x)}\times \Bigg\{h'(x) \ln(g(x)) + h(x)\frac{g'(x)}{g(x)}\Bigg\}.

The same result can be obtained by rewriting f in terms of exp and applying the chain rule.
See also

Calculus/More Differentiation Rules#Logarithmic differentiation at Wikibooks: see for textbook examples of logarithmic differentiation.: see for textbook examples of logarithmic differentiation.
Portal icon Mathematics portal

Darboux derivative, MaurerCartan form for generalizations to arbitrary Lie groups
List of logarithm topics
List of logarithmic identities


^ Krantz, Steven G. (2003). Calculus demystified. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 170. ISBN 0-07-139308-0.
^ N.P. Bali (2005). Golden Differential Calculus. Firewall Media. pp. 282. ISBN 81-7008-152-1.
^ a b Bird, John (2006). Higher Engineering Mathematics. Newnes. pp. 324. ISBN 0-7506-8152-7.
^ Dowling, Edward T. (1990). Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Calculus for Business, Economics, and the Social Sciences. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 160. ISBN 0-07-017673-6.
^ Hirst, Keith (2006). Calculus of One Variable. Birkh”user. pp. 97. ISBN 1-85233-940-3.
^ Blank, Brian E. (2006). Calculus, single variable. Springer. pp. 457. ISBN 1-931914-59-1.
^ Williamson, Benjamin (2008). An Elementary Treatise on the Differential Calculus. BiblioBazaar, LLC. pp. 2526. ISBN 0-559-47577-2.

External links

"Differentiation by taking logarithms Teach yourself". mathcentre.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
"Logarithmic differentiation". Retrieved 2009-03-10.
"Calculus I Logarithmic differentiation". Retrieved 2009-03-10.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:55:35
Moiya, California
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Moiya is a former Pomo settlement in Mendocino County, California.[1] It was located near Hopland; its precise location is unknown.[1]

^ a b U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Moiya, California



Municipalities and communities of Mendocino County, California, United States
County seat: Ukiah

Fort Bragg
Point Arena


Anchor Bay
Little River
Potter Valley
Redwood Valley


Bell Springs
Bowman Place
Bredehoft Place
Cape Horn
Card Place
Carpenter Place
Clare Mill
Cubbler Place
Delmonico Place
Dos Rios
Duncan Springs
Dunlap Place
El Roble
Fair Oaks
Fish Rock
Four Pines
Hales Grove
Hardy Place
Hays Place
Heath Place
Heeser Addition
Hendy Grove
Indian Springs
Jim Leggett Place
Little Penny
Marble Place
Marks Place
McClure Place
Nacomis Indian Rancheria
Old Bailey Place
Old Hopland
Old Ornbaun Hot Springs
Old Red Rock Place
O'Neil Place
Orrs Springs
Philbrick Mill
Pine Grove
Pratt Place
Ralph Leggett Place
Redwood Lodge
Reeves Place
Regina Heights
Reilly Heights
Reyes Place
Ridgewood Park
Shake City
Soda Springs (Boonville)
Soda Springs (Burbeck)
South Fork
South Leggett
Tan Oak Park
The Forks
The Oaks
Twin Rocks
Ukiah Rancheria
Underwood Park
Union Landing
Vichy Springs
Whiskey Springs


Coyote Valley Reservation
Guidiville Rancheria
Hopland Rancheria
Iverson Indian Rancheria
Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria
Pinoleville Rancheria
Potter Valley Rancheria
Sherwood Valley Rancheria
Redwood Valley Rancheria
Round Valley Indian Reservation


Christine Junction
En Cimo
Half Way
Lane Redwood Flat
Melborne Camp
Mendocino Indian Reservation
Muir Springs
North Fork House
Noyo Lodge
River Garden
Salmon Creek
Signal Port

Stub icon This Mendocino County, California-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Former settlements in Mendocino County, California
Former populated places in California
Pomo villages
Mendocino County, California geography stubs

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:55:46
List of exercise prescription software
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This list of exercise prescription software contains software packages related to the sending or printing of exercise instructions commonly used by physiotherapists.



BPM Rx[1] is an online exercise prescription program used by physical therapists/physios and personal trainers to create exercise handouts.


Exercise Prescriber [2] is an online exercise prescription software tool that allows clinicians to send narrated video clips of home exercises to their patients email or mobile phone. It also allows clinicians to send online infopgaes from a database of 60 common musculoskeletal conditions.


Mavenlive[3] is an online exercise prescription software for creating completely customized exercises programs
MediGraph[4] is a physical therapy software package which includes support for customized exercises programs
Myclinicspace[5] is an online exercise prescription tool for health professionals to deliver video and exercise images to patients. Generate PDF handouts for patients.


PacPacs[6] is an online exercise prescription and patient management package
Physiotools[7] is available both on CDROM (for Windows) and online (Windows and Mac) to generate completely customized patient handouts in paper form or digitally.
PhysioTrack[8] is web based software that works on any modern web browser. Patients can view their exercises on their phones and send feedback to the Physio. Handouts can be generated electronically, on paper or by mobile app.
PrescribeExercise.com[9] is an online exercise prescription service. No patient information. Simply manages exercise routines.


The Rehab Lab[10] is an online exercise prescription package for generating patient handouts as PDF documents


SimpleSet Pro[11] is an online tool for advanced exercise prescription - suitable for physical therapy, rehabilitation and general fitness and training


TheraVid [12] Home Exercise Redefined: Provider prescribed rehab routines that help engage patients and get them better, faster. Combine the power and simplicity of our intuitive exercise database search with our industry leading patient portal to start seeing the value that improved patient engagement brings to your clinic today.


Video Rehab Solutions[13] set out to change the way exercises are given, revolutionizing the delivery to include motion-capture animations instead of line drawings.
ViperMed[14] is a technology developed in Latin America(Uruguay) for exercise prescription. This Technology is being used by many of the most important rehab centers in Uruguay.


WebPT[15] is a web-based physical therapy software solution providing integrated exercise programs for physical therapy clinics of all sfe all.


^ http://www.webpt.com/



Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:56:05
Irene (given name)
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Eirene Ploutos Glyptothek Munich 219 n4.jpg
Eirene (Greek goddess)
Pronunciation I-reen (English); I-reen-ee (English); ee-RE-nu (German)
Gender Female
Word/Name Greek
Meaning peace
Look up Irene in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Irene (Eiq^mg Eirene), a veces written Irini, is derived from eq^mg - the Greek for "peace". Eirene was the Greek goddess of peace. Irene was also the name of an 8th century Byzantine empress, as well as the name of several saints. Irene was the sixth most popular name for girls in Spain in 2006. It was the 632nd most popular name for girls in the United States in 2007, down from 592nd place in 2006.[1]

Arina (Russian)
Arisha (Russian)
Eireen (English), Irish
Eirena (English)
Eirene (English), (Ancient Greek), Greek
Eirini (Greek)
Eraina (English)
Erayna (English)
Erene (English)
Ereni (Greek)
Ira (Russian)
Ireen (English)
Iren (English)
Ir™n (Hungarian)
Irena (Croatian), (Czech), (Dutch), (English), (Lithuanian), (Polish), (Russian), (Serbian), (Slovak), (Slovenian)
Ir™ne (French)
Irenea (Spanish)
Irenee (English)
Irenka (Czech), (Polish), (Slovak)
Iria (Galician), (Portuguese)
Iriana (English)
Iriena (English)
Irin (English)
Irina (Bulgarian), (Finnish), (Macedonian), (Romanian), (Russian)
Irine (English)
Irini (Romanian), (Russian)
Irinka (Russian)
Irinushka (Russian)
Irisha (Russian)
Irja (Finnish)
Irka (Czech)
Iryna (English), (Russian), (Ukrainian)
Jereni (Russian)
Nitsa (Russian)
Reeni (English)
Reeny (English)
Rena (English), (Greek)
Rene (English)
Reney (English)
Reni (English)
Renie (English)
Rina (Russian)
Yarina (Russian)
Yaryna (Ukrainian)
Yeran (Armenian)
Yeranouhi (Armenian)


^ Behind the Name


English given names
Feminine given names
English feminine given names

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:56:35
Jami Floyd
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Jami Floyd
Born Jami Floyd
September 10, 1964 (age 48)
New York City
Residence New York City, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Alma mater

Binghamton University
UC Berkeley School of Law
Stanford Law School


News anchor
Media personality
Legal analyst

Years active 1993 present
Known for Television series:
Jami Floyd: The Best Defense
Home town New York City
Spouse(s) Kurt Flehinger
Children 2

Jami Floyd is an American[1] attorney, journalist, network news anchor, legal and political analyst,[2] former White House Fellow,[3][4] and current host of TED Talks in NYC on NYC Life.[5]

1 Education
2 Career
2.1 Law
2.2 Washington, DC
2.3 Television
2.3.1 Filmography
2.4 Journalism
3 Recognition
3.1 Awards and nominations
4 Personal life
5 References
6 External links


While at Binghamton University as an undergraduate, Floyd worked as disc jockey at WHRW.[6] Floyd graduated in 1986 with a B.A. in political science and a concentration in Journalism.[7] She attended and graduated with honours [8] from the UC Berkeley School of Law, University of California, Berkeley,[9] where she had been an associate editor of the law review.[6] She received a Master of Laws degree in 1989 from Stanford Law School, Stanford University,[3][10] where she also worked as a teaching fellow and law professor.[10][11][12]

Floyd began working as an attorney in the California Supreme Court as a law clerk to Honorable Associate Justice Allen E. Broussard.[13]

She began practice in civil and criminal law when she entered the law firm Morrison & Foerster.[13] She left the firm in 1993 to join the San Francisco Public Defender office, where she worked as a trial attorney.
Washington, DC

Later that year, Floyd was selected as a White House Fellow and moved to Washington, DC. She was assigned first to the office of First Lady Hillary Clinton, and later to the office of Vice President Al Gore. She also worked as an assistant in the White House Budget Office.[3]

Floyd's first television broadcasting job was as reporter and legal analyst for KPIX-TV in San Francisco. In 1995, she moved to New York, joining CBS News magazine, Day & Date, as a legal analyst. She also served as a radio analyst for WNYC.[14] She was deeply involved in covering the murder case of O. J. Simpson and analysis of the nationwide response to his acquittal.[12][15]

In February 2005, Floyd joined Court TV (now truTV)[16][17] In January 2006, Court TV gave Floyd her own series, Jami Floyd: Best Defense.[18] From 2006 through 2009, Floyd offered her legal analysis and spin on topical issues, as well as coverage of major trials.[9]

Floyd has worked Court TV as news correspondent and news anchor;[19] and at ABC News,[20] where she reported for World News Tonight alongside Peter Jennings. She has contributed her legal knowledge to segments of Good Morning America and Nightline, and has co-anchored both World News Now and Early Morning News. She led the consumer reports unit for 20/20.[21][22]

Appearing as herself, Floyd has appeared on or hosted:

Disorder in the Court: The 20 Most Outrageous Courtroom Moments (2006 and 2007)
Justice (1 episode, 2006)
Quite Frankly with Stephen A. Smith (3 episodes, 2006)
The Wire: Odyssey, The Wire: The Last Word (2007)
Disorder in the Court 3, 4 and 6 (2008)
The Smoking Gun Presents: World's Dumbest (11 episodes, 2008)
The O'Reilly Factor (2 episodes, 2008)
Jami Floyd: Best Defense (53 episodes, 2006-2009)
Huckabee (2 episodes, 2010)
Ted Talks in New York (2012; also as director)


In May 2012, Floyd published a piece for Marie Claire, a women's magazine, responding toSamantha Brick's essay, "Don't Hate Me Because I'm Beautiful."[23]

Floyd has been nominated twice for an Emmy Award and has won a Gracie Award, a Telly Award, and the National Association of Black Journalists Salute to Excellence Award.[21]
Awards and nominations

1999, nominated for News and Documentary Emmy Award for 'Outstanding Coverage of a Breaking News Story' [24]
2001, won PPFA Maggie Award for 'Outstanding Coverage of Reproductive Rights and Health Issues.'[25]
2002, won CINE Golden Eagle Award for work as correspondent on ABC News 20/20.[26]
2003, won Radio and Television News Directors Association UNITY Award.[24]
2006, won National Association of Black Journalists 'Salute to Excellence Award'[24]
2007, won Gracie Award for 'Outstanding Host of a Television News Program'[27]
won Telly Award for 'Outstanding Co-Anchor'
won one US International Film & Video Festival Gold Camera Award for her news piece, "Justice Delayed", in which Floyd investigated the murder of a DNA-research-specializing scientist.[28]

Personal life

I share something in common with Halle Berry. Like Halle, I had to choose my racial identity based on how others saw me. Like Halle, I have a white mother and a black father. Like Halle, my skin is brown in a country that, until the 1990s, recognized only 'Black, White, Other'.
Jami Floyd, quoted in Glamour[4]

Floyd was born September 10, 1964,[29] and raised in New York City.[4][30] Her father formerly worked as a chief architect for restaurateur Warner LeRoy and was also keen in arts and decorating.[31] Floyd says that she is an "African American", having been born to a black father and a white mother.[1][32] Her family lived in Mitchell-Lama housing on the Lower East Side.[31]

Floyd married Kurt Flehinger, and they have two children together.[31][33] In August 2005 Floyd purchased an apartment in Manhattan, on 86th Street near Riverside Drive, where they reside.[31]
Portal icon Biography portal
Portal icon United States portal
Portal icon Law portal

^ a b Floyd, Jami (February 10, 2011). "Why One Drop Matters". WNYC. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
^ Real Times Media (2009). Who's who in Black New York City. Who's Who Publishing Company. pp. 188.
^ a b c "Largest Number of Blacks Ever Now Serve in Washington DC as White House Fellows". Jet 84 (2): 25. November 8, 1993. ISSN 0021-5996.
^ a b c Chideya, Farai (February 4, 2008). "Your Race, Your Looks". Glamour. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
^ a b Blando-George, Natalie (Winter 2005). "Jami Floyd '86". Binghamton Alumni Journal 13 (2).
^ staff. "Jami Floyd '86". Binghamton University. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
^ "Previous Competition Winners, 1988 Winner Jami Floyd". UC Berkeley School of Law. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
^ a b staff (September 18, 2011). "Nationally-Renowned Journalist Jami Floyd Joins The Global Game as Managing editor". The Global Game. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
^ a b Broadcasting & Cable, Volume 126, Issues 43-53. Cahners Publishing Company. 1996. pp. 46.
^ "Jami Floyd, Broadcast Journalist". Center for Communications. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
^ a b The O.J. Simpson murder trial: trial of the century, Volume 3. Northwestern University. 1996. pp. 98.
^ a b Floyd, Jami. "The Other Box: Intersectionality and the O.J. Simpson Trial (1995)". Hastings Women's Law Journal. HeinOnline. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
^ Allison Cerra; Christina James (2011). Identity Shift: Where Identity Meets Technology in the Networked-Community Age. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 216. ISBN 9781118228982.
^ Who's who in Black New York City. Who's Who Publishing. 2009. p. 188.
^ Robbins, Liz (January 27, 2009). "The Blagojevich TV Tour, Day Two". The New York Times. Retr

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:56:52
Dancing with the Stars (Australian TV series)
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Dancing with the Stars
Dancing with the Stars Title Logo.svg
Format Entertainment
Created by BBC
Presented by Daniel MacPherson (200812)
Sonia Kruger (200411)
Daryl Somers (200407)
Melanie Brown (2012)
Judges Todd McKenney (200412)
Helen Richey (200412)
Paul Mercurio (200407)
Mark Wilson (200410)
Joshua Horner (201112)
Country of origin Australia
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 12
No. of episodes 108
Location(s) Global Television studios, South Melbourne, Victoria
Running time approx. 90 to 150 minutes per episode
(including commercials)
Original channel Seven Network
Picture format 576i (SDTV)
Audio format Stereo
Original run 5 October 2004 present
External links

Dancing with the Stars is a Logie Award-winning, Australian light entertainment reality show airing on the Seven Network and filmed live from the HSV-7 studios (now Global Television studios) in Melbourne. The show is based on the United Kingdom BBC Television series Strictly Come Dancing and is part of BBC Worldwide's international Dancing with the Stars franchise.

The show debuted in a short run from October to November 2004, then returned the following February. The show was picked up for a ninth season by Seven Network.

The show is a ratings success averaging around 2 million viewers a week nationally during its peak which places the series number 1 of the entire day.[1]

The show pairs celebrities with professional ballroom dancers who each week compete against each other in a dance-off to impress a panel of judges and ultimately the viewing public in order to survive potential elimination. Through telephone and SMS voting, viewers vote for the duo they think should remain in the competition. Judges' scores are combined with the viewer votes when determining which duo is eliminated.

Melanie Brown and Daniel MacPherson are the current hosts, with Seven confirming that they would be returning for the twelfth season in 2012.[2]

The logo used for the first seven series of Dancing with the Stars is similar to the logo used by Strictly Come Dancing. The logo used for the eighth series and beyond is similar to that used by the US version of Dancing with the Stars.

1 Cast
1.1 Hosts
1.2 Judges
2 Series overview
2.1 Dances
3 Champion of Champions
4 Highest-scoring celebrities
4.1 Number of perfect scores
5 Ratings
6 See also
7 References
8 External links


From Seasons 1-7, entertainment legend Daryl Somers and dancer/actress/television presenter Sonia Kruger were the two primary hosts. For season 8, Somers was replaced by actor Daniel Macpherson, when Somers returned to the Nine network to host the rebooted Hey Hey, It's Saturday. Kruger continued to co-host with Macpherson, until the start of season 12, when she also defected to the Nine network. Kruger was subsequently replaced by former Spice Girl Melanie Brown.

From Seasons 1-7, the judging panel consisted of four primary judges: Todd McKenney, Helen Richey, Paul Mercurio and Mark Wilson. At the start of season 8, Mecurio left the judging panel. Before the eleventh season began, Wilson was dumped by the Seven network and replaced by Joshua Horner. McKenney, Richey and Horner have made up the primary judging panel since 2011.

Ian "Dicko" Dickson and Bruno Tonioli have also appeared as guest judges throughout the series, providing feedback and scores as part of their judging role. Pamela Anderson, Damian Whitewood, Olivia Newton-John and Dame Edna Everage have also appeared as guest judges, but providing comments and feedback only.

Key: Previous Current
Host Season
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Daryl Somers
Sonia Kruger
Daniel Macpherson
Melanie Brown

Judge Season
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Todd McKenney
Helen Richey
Paul Mercurio
Mark Wilson
Joshua Horner
Series overview
Season No. of
stars Duration
dates Celebrity honor places
Winner Second place Third place
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_1) 8 October 5, 2004 - November 23, 2004 Bec Cartwright & Michael Miziner Pauline Hanson & Salvatore Vecchio Justin Melvey & Kym Johnson
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_2) 10 February 8, 2005 - April 26, 2005 Tom Williams & Kym Johnson Ian Roberts & Natalie Lowe Holly Brisley & Mark Hodge
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_3) 10 September 6, 2005 - November 8, 2005 Ada Nicodemou & Aric Yegudkin Chris Bath & Trenton Shipley Ian "Dicko" Dickson & Leanne Bampton
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_4) 10 February 21, 2006 - May 9, 2006 Grant Denyer & Amanda Garner Kostya Tszyu & Luda Kroiter Toby Allen & Leanne Bampton
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_5) 10 October 3, 2006 - November 28, 2006 Anthony Koutoufides & Natalie Lowe Arianne Caoili & Carmello Pizzino Tamsyn Lewis & Arsen Kishishian
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_6) 10 February 20, 2007 - May 1, 2007 Kate Ceberano & John-Paul Collins Fifi Box & Paul Green Tim Campbell & Natalie Lowe
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_7) 10 September 25, 2007 - November 27, 2007. Bridie Carter & Craig Monley Anh Do & Luda Kroiter David Hobson & Karina Schembri
Dancing with the Stars (Australian_season_8) 10 September 1, 2008 November 9, 2008 Luke Jacobz & Luda Kroiter Paul Licuria & Eliza Campagna Danny Green & Natalie Lowe
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_9) 11 June 5, 2009 September 6, 2009 Adam Brand & Jade Hatcher Matt White & Ash-Leigh Hunter Kylie Gillies & Carmello Pizzino
Dancing With The Stars (Australian_Season_10) 11 June 27, 2010 - August 29, 2010 Rob Palmer & Alana Patience Tamara Jaber & Carmello Pizzino Alex Fevola & Arsen Kishishian
Dancing with the Stars (Australian_Season_11) 11 May 8, 2011 July 10, 2011 Manu Feildel & Alana Patience Haley Bracken & Aric Yegudkin Damien Leith & Melanie Hooper
Dancing with the Stars (Australian_Season_12) 11 April 15, 2012 - June 17, 2012 Johnny Ruffo & Luda Kroiter Danielle Spencer & Damian Whitewood Zoe Crammond & Aric Yegudkin


Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:57:11
Bethesda Presbyterian Church (Russellville, Tennessee)
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Bethesda Presbyterian Church
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
Bethesda Presbyterian Church (Russellville, Tennessee) is located in Tennessee
Nearest city: Russellville, Tennessee
Coordinates: 36`1451N 83`1340WCoordinates: 36`1451N 83`1340W
Area: 5 acres (2.0 ha)
Built: 1835
Governing body: Private
NRHP Reference#: 73001771[1]
Added to NRHP: April 11, 1973

Bethesda Presbyterian Church is a historic church in Russellville, Tennessee

It was built in 1835 and added to the National Register in 1973.

^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.



U.S. National Register of Historic Places

Architectural style categories
Contributing property
Historic district
History of the National Register of Historic Places
Keeper of the Register
National Park Service
Property types

Lists by states

New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
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North Carolina
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Rhode Island
South Carolina
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Lists by insular areas

American Samoa
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Lists by associated states

Federated States of Micronesia
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Category Category
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Stub icon This article about a property in Tennessee on the National Register of Historic Places is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Presbyterian churches in Tennessee
Properties of religious function on the National Register of Historic Places in Tennessee
Religious buildings completed in 1835
19th-century Presbyterian church buildings
Buildings and structures in Hamblen County, Tennessee
Tennessee Registered Historic Place stubs

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:57:21
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Look up ctp in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

CTP may refer to:


Cyclohexylthiophthalimide, important compound in production of vulcanized rubber
Coal-to-Power (in the context of Integrated gasification combined cycle technology)
Community Technology Preview, term for a software preview release, originally coined by Microsoft
Computer to plate, an imaging or prepress technology in modern lithographic printing
SNIA Conformance Testing Program, operated by the Storage Networking Industry Association
Collection Tree Protocol, a tree-based data collection protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
.ctp is a CakePHP template filetype used for view files in the CakePHP framework.


Concern Tractor Plants, a Russian machine building company
Conover Tuttle Pace, an American advertising and public relations agency
Corporation for Travel Promotion, now Brand USA

Biology and medicine

Cytidine triphosphate, a pyrimidine nucleotide
Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, also known as the Child-Pugh score


Crew Trainer's Program, McDonald's New Zealand training program
MIT Center for Theoretical Physics, research center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology


Certified Transport Planner, a designation awarded by the CTP Institute (Australia) and the Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport in the UK
Certified Treasury Professional, Corporate Treasury certification awarded by the Association for Financial Professionals
Convergence Technologies Professional


Civilization: Call to Power, is a personal computer turn-based strategy game developed by Activision


CTP is the ICAO airline designator for Tashkent Aircraft Production Corporation, Uzbekistan


ConfederaciЈn de Trabajadores del PerЄ
Republican Turkish Party (Cumhuriyet—i T¬rk Partisi)

Computer Science

Canadian traveller problem, a shortest path graph search problem

Other uses

Compulsory Third Party, a type of motor vehicle insurance
Cristian Tudor Popescu, a Romanian journalist and writer
Chinese Text Project, a digital library project
Cartoon Television Program, animation software.

Disambiguation icon This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

Disambiguation pages

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:57:48
Tea culture
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Jump to: navigation, search
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2011)
A man performs a tea ceremony

Tea culture is defined by the way tea is made and consumed, by the way the people interact with tea, and by the aesthetics surrounding tea drinking, it includes aspects of: tea production, tea brewing, tea arts and ceremony, society, history, health, ethics, education, and communication and media issues.

Tea is commonly consumed at social events, and many cultures have created intricate formal ceremonies for these events. Western examples of these are afternoon tea and the tea party. Tea ceremonies, with its roots in the Chinese tea culture, differ among eastern countries, such as the Japanese or Korean tea ceremony. However, it may also differ in preparation, such as in Tibet, where tea is commonly brewed with salt and butter. Tea also plays an important role in some countries.

The British Empire spread its own interpretation of tea to its dominions and colonies including regions that today comprise the states of India, Hong Kong, and Pakistan which had existing tea customs, as well as, regions such as East Africa (modern day Kenya. Tanzania, and Uganda), which did not have existing tea customs.

Different regions also favor different varieties of tea, black, green, or oolong, and use different flavourings, such as milk, sugar or herbs. The temperature and strength of the tea likewise varies widely.

1 East Asia
1.1 China
1.1.1 Two periods Tea brick phase Loose-leaf tea phase
1.2 Hong Kong
1.3 Japan
1.4 Myanmar
1.4.1 Social nexus
1.4.2 Lahpet
1.5 Taiwan
1.5.1 Bubble tea
1.6 Tibet
1.7 Thailand
1.8 Vietnam
2 South Asia
2.1 India
2.2 Pakistan
2.3 Sri Lanka
3 Eastern Europe
3.1 Czech Republic
3.2 Russia
3.3 Slovakia
4 Middle East and Africa
4.1 Turkey
4.2 Egypt
4.3 Iran
4.4 Morocco
4.5 Mauritius
4.6 Sahel
4.7 Somalia
5 Western Europe
5.1 France
5.2 Germany
5.3 Republic of Ireland
5.4 Portugal
5.5 United Kingdom
5.5.1 British style tea
5.5.2 Tea as a meal
5.5.3 Industrial Revolution
5.5.4 Tea cards
5.5.5 Commonwealth countries
6 Americas
6.1 United States
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

East Asia
Main article: Chinese tea culture
See also: Gongfu tea ceremony and Perennial Tea Ceremony
Turning the cups in a Chinese tea ceremony

Due to the importance of tea in Chinese society and culture, tea houses can be found in most Chinese neighbourhoods and business districts. Chinese-style tea houses offer dozens of varieties of hot and cold tea concoctions. They also serve a variety of tea-friendly and/or tea-related snacks. Beginning in the late afternoon, the typical Chinese tea house quickly becomes packed with students and business people, and later at night plays host to insomniacs and night owls simply looking for a place to relax. Formal tea houses also exist. They provide a range of Chinese and Japanese tea leaves, as well as tea making accoutrements and a better class of snack food. Finally there are the tea vendors, who specialize in the sale of tea leaves, pots, and other related paraphernalia. Tea is an important item in Chinese culture and is mentioned in the Seven necessities of (Chinese) daily life.
Two periods
See also: History of tea in China

In China, at least as early as the Tang Dynasty, tea was an object of connoisseurship; in the Song Dynasty formal tea-tasting parties were held, comparable to modern wine tastings. As much as in modern wine tastings, the proper vessel was important and much attention was paid to matching the tea to an aesthetically appealing serving vessel.

Historically there were two phases of tea drinking in China based on the form of tea that was produced and consumed, namely: tea bricks versus loose leaf tea.
Tea brick phase
A tea brick made for the Russian Imperial Army of Czar Nicholas II

Tea served prior to the Ming Dynasty was typically made from tea bricks. Upon harvesting, the tea leaves were either partially dried or were thoroughly dried and ground before being pressed into bricks. The pressing of Pu-erh is likely a vestige of this process. Tea bricks were also sometimes used as currency.[1] To improve its resiliency as currency, some tea bricks were mixed with binding agents such as blood.[citation needed] Serving the tea from tea bricks required multiple steps:

Toasting: Tea bricks are usually first toasted over a fire to destroy any mould or insects that may have burrowed into the tea bricks. Such infestation sometimes occurred since the bricks were stored openly in warehouses and storerooms. Toasting also likely imparted a pleasant flavour to the resulting tea.
Grinding: The tea brick was broken up and ground to a fine powder. This practice survives in Japanese powdered tea (Matcha).
Whisking: The powdered tea was mixed into hot water and frothed with a whisk before serving. The colour and patterns formed by the powdered tea were enjoyed while the mixture was imbibed.

The ground and whisked teas used at that time called for dark and patterned bowls in which the texture of the tea powder suspension could be enjoyed. The best of these bowls, glazed in patterns with names like oil spot, partridge-feather, hare's fur, and tortoise shell, are highly valued today. The patterned holding bowl and tea mixture were often lauded in the period's poetry with phrases such as "partridge in swirling clouds" or "snow on hare's fur". Tea in this period was enjoyed more for its patterns and less for its flavour. The practice of using powdered tea can still be seen in the Japanese Tea ceremony or Chado.
Loose-leaf tea phase

After 1391, the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming Dynasty, decreed that tributes of tea to the court were to be changed from brick to loose-leaf form. The imperial decree quickly transformed the tea drinking habits of the people, changing from whisked teas to steeped teas. The arrival of the new method for preparing tea also required the creation or use of new vessels.
Five Yixing Clay Teapots - showing a variety of styles from formal to whimsical

The tea pot was needed such that the tea leaves can be steeped separately from the drinking vessel for an infusion of proper concentration. The tea also needs to be kept warm and the tea leaves must be separated from the resulting infusion when required.
Tea caddies and containers also became necessary in order to keep the tea and conserve its flavour. This was due to the fact that tea leaves do not preserve as well as tea bricks. Furthermore, the natural aroma of tea became the focus of the tea drinking due to the new preparation method.
A change in Chinese tea drinking vessels was also evident at this point. Smaller bowls with plain or simple designs on the interior surfaces were favoured over the larger patterned bowls used for enjoying the patterns created by powdered teas. Tea drinking in small bowls and cups was likely adopted since it gathers and directs the fragrant steam from the tea to the nose and allows for better appreciation of the tea's flavour.

Teawares made with a special kind of purple clay (Zisha) from Yixing went on to develop during this period (Ming Dynasty). The structure of purple clay made it advantageous material with tiny and high density, preferred for heat preservation and perviousness. Simplicity and rusticity dominated the idea of purple clay teaware decoration art. It became soon the most popular method of performing Chinese tea ceremony, which often combines literature, calligraphy, painting and seal cutting in Chinese culture.

The loose-leaf tea and the purple clay teaware is still the preferred method of preparing tea in Chinese daily life.
Hong Kong

The English-style tea has evolved into a new local style of drink, the Hong Kong-style milk tea, more often simply "milk tea", in Hong Kong by using evaporated milk instead of ordinary milk. It is popular at cha chaan tengs and fast food shops such as Caf™ de Coral and Maxims Express. Traditional Chinese tea, including green tea, flower tea, jasmine tea and Pu-erh tea, are also common, and are served at dim sum restaurant during yum cha.
A one cup sized, glazed Japanese cast-iron teapot from the Tэhoku region, intended for collectors

Green tea's traditional role in Japanese society is as a drink for special guests and special occasions. Green tea is served in many companies during afternoon breaks. Japanese often buy sweets for their colleagues when on vacation or business trips. These snacks are usually enjoyed with green tea. Tea will also be prepared for visitors coming for meetings to companies and for guests visiting Japanese homes. A thermos full of green tea is also a staple on family or school outings as an accompaniment to bento (box lunches). Families often bring along proper Japanese teacups, to enhance the enjoyment of the traditional drink.

The strong cultural association the Japanese have with green tea has made it the most popular beverage to drink with traditional Japanese cuisine, such as sushi, sashimi and tempura. At a restaurant, a cup of green tea is often served with meals at no extra charge, with as many refills as desired. The best traditional Japanese restaurants take as much care in choosing the tea they serve as in preparing the food itself.
Cup of Matcha tea and sweet cake

Many Japanese are still taught the proper art of the centuries-old tea ceremony as well. Still, the Japanese now enjoy green tea processed using state of the art technology. Today, hand pressinga method demonstrated to touristsis taught only as a technique preserved as a part of the Japanese cultural tradition. Most of the ubiquitous vending machines also carry a wide selection of both hot and cold bottled teas. Oolong tea enjoys considerable popularity. Black tea, often with milk or lemon, is served ubiquitously in cafes, coffee shops and restaurants.

Major tea-producing areas in Japan include Shizuoka Prefecture and the city of Uji in Kyoto Prefecture.

Other infusions bearing the name cha are barley tea (mugi-cha) which is popular as a cold drink in the summer, buckwheat tea (soba-cha), and hydrangea tea (ama-cha).

Myanmar (formerly Burma) is one of very few countries where tea is not only drunk but eaten as lahpet - pickled tea served with various accompaniments.[2][3] It is called lahpet so (tea wet) in contrast to lahpet chauk (tea dry) or akyan jauk (crude dry) with which green teayeinway jan or lahpet yeijan meaning plain or crude teais made. In the Shan State of Myanmar where most of the tea is grown, and also Kachin State, tea is dry-roasted in a pan before adding boiling water to make green tea.[2] It is the national drink in a predominantly Buddhist country with no national tipple other than the palm toddy. Tea sweetened with milk is known as lahpet yeijo made with acho jauk (sweet dry) or black tea and prepared the Indian way, brewed and sweetened with condensed milk. It is a very popular drink although the middle classes by and large appear to prefer coffee most of the time. It was introduced to Myanmar by Indian immigrants some of whom set up teashops known as kaka hsaing, later evolving to just lahpetyei hsaing (teashop).
Social nexus

Burma's street culture is basically a tea culture[3] as people, mostly men but also women and families, hang out in tea shops reading the paper or chatting away with friends, exchanging news, gossip and jokes, nursing cups of Indian tea served with a diverse range of snacks from cream cakes to Chinese fried breadsticks (youtiao) and steamed buns (baozi) to Indian naan bread and samosas. Green tea is customarily the first thing to be served free of charge as soon as a customer sits down at a table in all restaurants as well as teashops.

Pubs and clubs, unlike in the West, have remained a minority pursuit so far. Teashops are found from the smallest village to major cities in every neighbourhood up and down the country.[3] They are open from the crack of dawn for breakfast till late in the evening, and some are open 24 hours catering for long distance drivers and travellers. One of the most popular teashops in Yangon in the late 1970s was called Shwe Hleiga (Golden Stairs) by popular acclaim as it was just a pavement stall, with low tables and stools for the customers, at the bottom of a stairwell in downtown Yangon. Busy bus stops and terminals as well as markets have several teashops. Train journeys in Myanmar also feature hawkers who jump aboard with giant kettles of tea for thirsty passengers.
See also: Lahpet
Lahpet served in a lacquer dish

Lahpet (pickled tea) is served in one of two ways:

A-hlu lahpet or Mandalay lahpet is served in a plate or traditionally in a shallow lacquerware dish called lahpet ohk with a lid and divided into small compartmentspickled tea laced with sesame oil in a central compartment, and other ingredients such as crisp fried garlic, peas and peanuts, toasted sesame, crushed dried shrimp, preserved shredded ginger and fried shredded coconut in other compartments encircling it. It may be served as a snack or after a meal with green tea either on special occasions or just for the family and visitors. A-hlu means alms and is synonymous with a novitiation ceremony called Shinbyu although lahpet is served in this form also at hsun jway (offering a meal to monks) and weddings. Invitation to a shinbyu is traditionally by calling from door to door with a lahpet ohk, and acceptance is indicated by its partaking.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:57:59
John (Ian) Bartholomew
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Jump to: navigation, search
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This article relies on references to primary sources. Please add references to secondary or tertiary sources. (October 2008)
John Bartholomew (1890-1962)
IanBartholomew sm.jpg
Cartographer and Geographer
Born 12 February 1890
Died 9 February 1962 (aged 71)

John Bartholomew CBE, generally known as Ian Bartholomew (12 February 1890 9 February 1962) was a Scottish cartographer and geographer.

Bartholomew studied cartography in Leipzig, Paris and at the University of Edinburgh and took over the family business John Bartholomew and Son Ltd. on the death of his father John George Bartholomew. He inherited the task from his father of completing the Times Survey Atlas of the World (1921), which was expanded into the Times Mid-Century Edition (issued in five volumes between 1955 and 1960). He introduced new cartographic techniques, modern printing and expanded the company significantly.[1]

He was awarded the Military Cross after serving with the Gordon Highlanders and General Staff during the 191418 War.

He served as Honorary Secretary and President of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (192054) and was awarded the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. In 1960 he was appointed C.B.E.

He entrusted the management of the company to his three sons, Peter, John and Robert.
See also

John Bartholomew and Son Ltd.


^ Leslie Gardiner (1976). Bartholomew 150 Years. John Bartholomew & Son Ltd. ISBN O-84152791A.

External links

Bartholomew: A Scottish Family Heritage - site maintained by the family.
Times World Atlases official website including a History and Heritage section detailing landmark Times atlases

Authority control

VIAF: 69302806


Scottish cartographers
1890 births
1962 deaths

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:58:11
Gun turret
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This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2009)
A modern gun turret allows firing of the cannons via remote control. Loading of ammunition is also often done by automatic mechanisms.
USS Monitor after the Battle of Hampton Roads (1862) showing damage from enemy cannon fire.

A gun turret is a weapon mount that protects the crew or mechanism of a projectile-firing weapon and at the same time lets the weapon be aimed and fired in many directions. The turret is also a rotating weapon platform. This platform can be mounted on a fortified building or structure such as an anti-naval land battery, or on a combat vehicle, a naval ship, or a military aircraft.

Turrets may be armed with one or more machine guns, automatic cannons, large-calibre guns, or missile launchers. It may be manned or remotely controlled, and is often armoured. A small turret, or sub-turret on a larger one, is called a cupola. The term cupola also describes rotating turrets that carry no weapons but instead sighting devices, as in the case of tank commanders. A finial is an extremely small sub-turret or sub-sub-turret mounted on a cupola turret.

The protection provided by the turret may be against battle damage, or against the weather conditions and general environment in which the weapon or its crew will be operating. The term comes from the pre-existing noun turreta self-contained protective position which is situated on top of a fortification or defensive wall, as opposed to rising directly from the ground, when it constitutes a tower.

1 Warships
1.1 History
1.2 Layout
1.2.1 Wing turrets
1.3 Modern turrets
1.4 Naming
2 Land fortifications
3 Aircraft
4 Combat vehicles
5 See also
6 References
7 External links

An animation showing gun turret operation, based on the Stark I turret of the British BL 15 inch /42 naval gun. (Click to enlarge and animate.) Compare the layout and nomenclature with the American design below.
Cutaway illustration of an American 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun gun turret
A 1,900-pound (860 kg) projectile is hoisted up to the spanning tray of the center 50 caliber Mark 7 gun in the No. 2 turret aboard the battleship USS Iowa (BB-61).

Before the development of large-calibre, long-range guns in the mid-19th century, the classic battleship design used rows of port-mounted guns on each side of the ship, often mounted in casemates. Firepower was provided by a large number of guns which could only be aimed in a limited arc from one side of the ship. Due to instability, fewer larger and heavier guns can be carried on a ship.

Also, the casemates often sat near the waterline, which made them vulnerable to flooding and restricted their use to calm seas. Turrets allowed the smaller number of guns to be aimed and fired on both sides of the ship and at the same time provided armoured protection to the gun crew.

The first naval vessel to be fitted with a turret was HMS Trusty of 1860, which was fitted with the prototype Coles turret. The first operational use was by USS Monitor of 1862, which mounted two muzzle loading cannons in a fully rotating armoured drum. An alternative at the time used a static drum, the barbette, inside which the gun mount rotatedthe gun barrel projecting over the edge of the drum. In latter designs this was developed to have an armoured portion that sat over the gun and the edge of the barbette, leading to the term "hooded barbette".

Early ships like Monitor and the converted HMS Royal Sovereign had little sea-keeping qualities being limited to coastal waters. HMS Captain of 1869 was one of the first sea-going turreted sailing ships. Poor design led to a top-heavy, low freeboard vessel and it was lost in a gale.

With the advent of the South Carolina-class battleships in 1908, main battery turrets were designed so as to superfire, to improve fire arcs on centerline mounted weapons. This was necessitated by a need to move all main battery turrets to the vessel's centerline for improved structural support. This is a stark contrast to the contemporary HMS Dreadnought which, while revolutionary in many other ways, still retained wing turrets. The superfiring or superimposed arrangement had not been proven until after South Carolina went to sea, and it was initially feared that the weakness of the previous Virginia-class ship's stacked turrets would repeat itself.

Another major advancement was in the Kongэ-class battlecruisers and Queen Elizabeth-class battleships, which dispensed with the "Q" turret amidships in favour of heavier guns in fewer mountings.

While World War I ships commonly had a twin-turret configuration, ships by World War II were commonly using triple and even quadruple turrets, which reduced the total number of mountings altogether and improved armour protection, though quad mount turrets proved to be extremely complex to arrange, making them unwieldy in practice.

The largest warship turrets were in World War II battleships where a heavily armoured enclosure protected the large gun crew during battle. The calibre of the main armament on large battleships was typically 30 to 46 centimetres (12 to 18 in) . The turrets carrying the 460 mm guns of Yamato each weighed around 2,500 tonnes. The secondary armament of battleships (or the primary armament of cruisers) was typically between 127 and 152 millimetres (5.0 and 6.0 in). Smaller ships typically mounted guns from 76 millimetres (3.0 in) upwards, although these rarely required a turret mounting.
Barbette of the Vauban

In naval terms, turret traditionally and specifically refers to a gun mounting where the entire mass rotates as one, and has a trunk that pierces the deck. The rotating part of a turret seen above deck is the gunhouse, which protects the mechanism and crew, and is where the guns are loaded. The gunhouse is supported on a bed of rotating rollers, and is not physically attached to the ship; were the ship to capsize, the turret would fall out.

Below the gunhouse there may be a working chamber, where ammunition is handled, and the main trunk, which accommodates the shell and propellant hoists that bring ammunition up from the magazines below. There may be a combined hoist (cf the animated British turret) or separate hoists (cf the American turret cutaway). The working chamber and trunk rotate with the gunhouse, and sit inside a protective armoured barbette. The barbette extends down to the main armoured deck (red in the animation). At the base of the turret sit handing rooms, where shell and propelling charges are passed from the shell room and magazine to the hoists.

The handling equipment and hoists are complex arrangements of machinery that transport the shells and charges from the magazine into the base of the turret. Bearing in mind that shells can weigh around a ton, the hoists have to be powerful and rapid; a 15 inch turret of the type in the animation was expected to perform a complete loading and firing cycle in a minute[1]

The loading system is fitted with a series of mechanical interlocks that ensure that there is never an open path from the gunhouse to the magazine down which an explosive flash might pass. Flash-tight doors and scuttles open and close to allow the passage between areas of the turret. Generally, with large-calibre guns, powered or assisted ramming is required to force the heavy shell and charge into the breech.

As the hoist and breech must be aligned for ramming to occur, there is generally a restricted range of elevations at which the guns can be loaded; the guns return to the loading elevation, are loaded, then return to the target elevation. The animation illustrates a turret where the rammer is fixed to the cradle that carries the guns, allowing loading to occur across a wider range of elevations.

Earlier turrets differed significantly in their operating principles. It was not until the last of the "rotating drum" designs described in the previous section were phased out that the "hooded barbette" arrangement above became the defining turret.
Wing turrets
The late pre-dreadnought HMS Agamemnon, with 9.2 inch secondary guns shipped in wing turrets
HMS Dreadnought had a main battery 12 inch wing turret on either beam.

A wing turret is a gun turret mounted along the side, or the wings, of a warship, off the centerline.

The positioning of a wing turret limits its arc of fire, so that it generally can contribute to only the broadside weight of fire on one side of the ship. This is the major weakness of wing turrets as broadsides were the most prevalent type of gunnery duels. Depending on the configurations of ships, such as HMS Dreadnought but not SMS Bl¬cher, the wing turrets could fire fore and aft, so this somewhat reduced the danger of crossing the T and the turrets could fire at enemies to the rear.

Attempts were made to mount wing turrets en echelon so that they could fire on either beam, such as the Invincible and SMS Von der Tann battlecruisers, but this tended to cause great damage to the ships' deck from the muzzle blast.

Wing turrets were commonplace on capital ships and cruisers during the late 19th century up until the early 1910s. In pre-dreadnought battleships, the wing turret contributed to the secondary battery of sub-calibre weapons. In large armoured cruisers, wing turrets contributed to the main battery, although the casemate mounting was more common. At the time, large numbers of smaller calibre guns contributing to the broadside were thought to be of great value in demolishing a ship's upperworks and secondary armaments, as distances of battle were limited by fire control and weapon performance.

In the early 1900s, weapon performance, armour quality and vessel speeds generally increased along with the distances of engagement; the utility of large secondary batteries reducing as a consequence. Therefore, the early dreadnought battleships featured "all big gun" armaments of 11 or 12 inches calibre, some of which were mounted in wing turrets. This arrangement was not satisfactory, however, as the wing turrets not only had a reduced fire arc for broadsides, but also because the weight of the guns put great strain on the hull and it was increasingly difficult to properly armour them.

Larger and later dreadnought battleships carried superimposed or superfiring turrets (i.e. one turret mounted higher than and firing over those in front of and below it). This allowed all turrets to train on either beam, and increased the weight of fire forward and aft. The superfiring or superimposed arrangement had not been proven until after South Carolina went to sea, and it was initially feared that the weakness of the previous Virginia-class ship's stacked turrets would repeat itself. Larger and later guns (such as the US Navy's ultimate big gun design, the 16"/50 Mark 7) also could not be shipped in wing turrets, as the strain on the hull would have been too great.
Modern turrets
The GRP gunhouse is a common feature on modern naval gun turrets, this example being on the frigate HMS Grafton.

Many modern surface warships have mountings for large calibre guns, although the calibres are now generally between 3 and 5 inches (76 and 130 mm). The gunhouses are often just weatherproof covers for the gun mounting equipment and are made of light un-armoured materials such as glass-reinforced plastic. Modern turrets are often automatic in their operation, with no humans working inside them and only a small team passing fixed ammunition into the feed system. Smaller calibre weapons often operate on the autocannon principle, and indeed may not even be turrets at all, they may just be bolted directly to the deck.

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:58:39
Fort Fairfield, Maine
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Fort Fairfield, Maine
Potato field in Fort Fairfield
Location of Fort Fairfield, Maine
Country United States
State Maine
County Aroostook
Total 78.36 sq mi (202.95 km2)
Land 76.67 sq mi (198.57 km2)
Water 1.69 sq mi (4.38 km2)
Population (2010)[2]
Total 3,496
Estimate (2011[3]) 3,477
Density 45.6/sq mi (17.6/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)

Fort Fairfield is a town in Aroostook County, Maine, United States. The population was 3,496 at the 2010 census.

1 Geography
2 Demographics
2.1 2010 census
2.2 2000 census
3 Places and events of interest
4 Education
5 Notable people
6 References
7 External links


According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 78.36 square miles (202.95 km2), of which, 76.67 square miles (198.57 km2) of it is land and 1.69 square miles (4.38 km2) is water.[1]
See also: Fort Fairfield (CDP), Maine

Agriculture, particularly potato and broccoli farming, is important to the local economy.

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 3,496 people, 1,494 households, and 952 families residing in the town. The population density was 45.6 inhabitants per square mile (17.6 /km2). There were 1,674 housing units at an average density of 21.8 per square mile (8.4 /km2). The racial makeup of the town was 96.5% White, 0.9% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population.

There were 1,494 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 36.3% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.88.

The median age in the town was 43.8 years. 22.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.8% were from 25 to 44; 30.7% were from 45 to 64; and 17.2% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.
2000 census

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 3,579 people, 1,523 households, and 1,015 families residing in the town. The population density was 46.7 people per square mile (18.0/kmb). There were 1,654 housing units at an average density of 21.6 per square mile (8.3/kmb). The racial makeup of the town was 98.35% White, 0.20% Black or African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.03% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, and 0.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population.

There were 1,523 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.86.

In the town, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, and 17.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.9 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $28,563, and the median income for a family was $33,446. Males had a median income of $28,448 versus $25,000 for females. The per capita income for the town was $14,757. About 9.8% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 25.0% of those age 65 or over.
Places and events of interest

The town contains The Blockhouse Museum, displaying artifacts from the Aroostook War. The annual State of Maine Potato Blossom Festival is held in the third week of July. The town has a venerable public library. A large Levee (dike) holds back the spring surge of waters in the Aroostook River. The nearest significant shopping center is in Presque Isle, about 11 miles away.[citation needed] The nearby Aroostook Valley Country Club straddles the Maine-New Brunswick border.[5]

Fort Fairfield is part of Maine School Administrative District #20. Marc Gendron is the Superintendent of Schools.

There are two schools in the district, Fort Fairfield Middle/High School for grades 6 to 12 and Fort Fairfield Elementary School for grades Pre-Kindergarten to 5.

For the 2011 to 2012 school year, there were approximately 600 students.[6]
Notable people

Dick Curless, country music singer
John H. Reed, 66th governor of Maine; chairman of the National Governors Association
Tim Sample, New England humorist
Carmen Towle, Miss Maine USA (1962)[citation needed]


^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16.
^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
^ Aroostook Valley Country Club, Club History
^ "Maine School Administrative District #20". Maine School Administrative District #20. Retrieved 2012-06-06.

External links

Town of Fort Fairfield
Varney, George J. (1886), Gazetteer of the state of Maine. Fort Fairfield, Boston: Russell
Map of Fort Fairfield, ca. 1870, from the Maine Memory Network
Chamber of Commerce

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:58:41
John (Ian) Bartholomew
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Question book-new.svg
This article relies on references to primary sources. Please add references to secondary or tertiary sources. (October 2008)
John Bartholomew (1890-1962)
IanBartholomew sm.jpg
Cartographer and Geographer
Born 12 February 1890
Died 9 February 1962 (aged 71)

John Bartholomew CBE, generally known as Ian Bartholomew (12 February 1890 9 February 1962) was a Scottish cartographer and geographer.

Bartholomew studied cartography in Leipzig, Paris and at the University of Edinburgh and took over the family business John Bartholomew and Son Ltd. on the death of his father John George Bartholomew. He inherited the task from his father of completing the Times Survey Atlas of the World (1921), which was expanded into the Times Mid-Century Edition (issued in five volumes between 1955 and 1960). He introduced new cartographic techniques, modern printing and expanded the company significantly.[1]

He was awarded the Military Cross after serving with the Gordon Highlanders and General Staff during the 191418 War.

He served as Honorary Secretary and President of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (192054) and was awarded the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. In 1960 he was appointed C.B.E.

He entrusted the management of the company to his three sons, Peter, John and Robert.
See also

John Bartholomew and Son Ltd.


^ Leslie Gardiner (1976). Bartholomew 150 Years. John Bartholomew & Son Ltd. ISBN O-84152791A.

External links

Bartholomew: A Scottish Family Heritage - site maintained by the family.
Times World Atlases official website including a History and Heritage section detailing landmark Times atlases

Authority control

VIAF: 69302806


Scottish cartographers
1890 births
1962 deaths

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:58:49
John Gould Anthony
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Jump to: navigation, search

John Gould Anthony (17 May 1804, in Providence, Rhode Island 16 October 1877, in Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a United States naturalist who became an expert on malacology, the study of mollusks. Anthony was in charge of the conchology (now malacology) department of Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoology for over a decade.

1 Biography
2 Writings
3 References
4 External links


His school education was slight, and was entirely discontinued when he became 12 years of age. Business pursuits then occupied his attention.[1] He probably first became a clerk for a mercantile concern. Throughout his life, his handwriting was in the classic clerk's or copperplate style. In 1832, he married Anna Whiting Rhodes of Cincinnati, and in 1835 the family moved to Cincinnati, where fossil mollusks were plentiful and accessible. He and his wife had nine children.[2]

They remained in Cincinnati for 35 years, where John Gould actively engaged in commercial occupations[1] working in a firm making silver plate, as an independent account, as a partner in a bookselling and publishing firm. The year they arrived in Cincinnati, he joined the Western Academy of Natural Sciences, a group of serious amateurs.[2] His interest in natural history developed.[1]

His publications attracted the attention of Louis Agassiz, and in 1863 he was asked to take charge of the conchological department of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, where he remained until his death. He accompanied Agassiz on the Thayer Expedition to Brazil in 1865. Anthony was recognized as an authority on the American land and freshwater mollusca.[1] He spent most of his time at Harvard sorting and mounting specimens.[2]

A New Trilobite (Ceratocephala ceralepta) (1838)
Fossil Encrinite (1838)
Description of a New Fossil (Calymene Bucklandii) (1839)
Descriptions of Three New Species of Shells (1839)
Description of Two New Species of Anculotus (1839)
Two Species of Fossil Asterias in the Blue Limestone of Cincinnati, with G. Graham and W. P. James (1846)
Description of New Fluviate Shells of the Genus Melania, Lam., from the Western States of North America (1854)
Descriptions of New Species of American Fluviate Gasteropods (1861)
Descriptions of Two New Species of Monocondytoca (1865)
Description of a New Exotic Melania (1865)
Description of a New Species of Shells (1865)
Descriptions of New American Fresh-Water Shells (1866)


^ a b c d Wikisource-logo.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Anthony, John Gould". Appletons' Cyclop–dia of American Biography. 1900.
^ a b c Henry D. Shapiro (1999). "Anthony, John Gould". American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press.

External links

Wikisource-logo.svg "Anthony, John Gould". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
Wikisource-logo.svg "Anthony, John Gould". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.


1804 births
1877 deaths
American naturalists
Harvard University staff

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:59:08
Arsin™e Khanjian
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Arsin™e Khanjian
Arsin™e Khanjian at the Third Golden Apricot Film Festival at Yerevan, Armenia.
Born September 6, 1958 (age 54)
Beirut, Lebanon
Awards Genie Award for Best Actress
2002 Ararat

Arsin™e Khanjian (in Armenian б0-& н&#&) (born 1958 in Beirut, Lebanon) is an Armenian-Canadian actress and producer. In addition to her independent work and stage roles, she is regularly cast by her husband, Canadian filmmaker Atom Egoyan, in his films. She has a bachelor's degree in French and Spanish from Concordia University and a master's degree in political science from the University of Toronto. Her husband, Egoyan, credits her for inspiring him to further explore his Armenian roots. She lives in Toronto with her husband and their son, Arshile.

She has been announced as a member of the jury for the Cin™foundation and Short Films sections of the 2012 Cannes Film Festival.[1]
Selected filmography
Year Title Role Other notes
1984 Next of Kin Azah Deryan First met Atom Egoyan
1991 The Adjuster Hera
1993 Calendar Wife/Translator
1994 Exotica Zoe
1996 Irma Vep
1997 The Sweet Hereafter Wanda
1999 Felicia's Journey Gala
2001 Fat Girl Mother
2002 Ararat Ani Genie Award winner for Best Actress
2005 Sabah Sabah Genie Award nominee for Best Actress
2007 Stone, Time, Touch Herself
La Masseria Delle Allodole Armineh
2008 Adoration Sabine

^ "The Jury for the Cin™fondation and Short Films". Cannes Film Festival. Retrieved 2012-03-29.

External links

Canadian Film Encyclopedia
Arsin™e Khanjian at the Internet Movie Database

Authority control

VIAF: 6145849


1958 births
Lebanese Armenians
Lebanese film actresses
Canadian people of Armenian descent
Lebanese emigrants to Canada
Canadian film actresses
Gemini Award winners
Genie Award winners for Best Actress
Living people
People from Beirut
Concordia University alumni
University of Toronto alumni

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:59:20
Order of Saint James of Altopascio
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Medieval painting showing the hospital of Altopascio and some patients, with the coat of arms of the order (a white cross of tau on a golden field) above.

The Order of Saint James of Altopascio (Italian: Ordine di San Giacomo d'Altopascio or Ordine dei Frati Ospitalieri di San Jacopo), also called the Knights of the Tau (Cavalieri del Tau) or Hospitallers of Saint James, was a military order, perhaps the earliest Christian institution to combine the protection and assistance of pilgrims, the staffing of hospitals, and a military wing. According to American historian Ephraim Emerton, who produced the first systematic study the Order, "the fame of the house drew visitors, both well and sick, received women in childbirth and infants . . ."[1]

1 History
1.1 Foundation
1.2 Expansion
1.3 Suppression
2 Organisation
2.1 Rule
2.2 Composition
2.3 Symbols
3 Activities
4 Primary texts
4.1 Text of the Papal bull of 1239
4.2 Selection of chapters from the Rule, 1239
4.3 An incident at Pescia in 1358
5 Secondary sources
5.1 Further reading
5.2 References
6 External links


The Order was founded by Matilda of Canossa between 1070 and 1080 at Altopascio, a town on the Via Francigena in what is now Tuscany.[2] The earliest datable reference to a hospital edificatus in locus et finibus ubi dicitur Teupascio ("built in the place called Teupascio") is from 1084.[3] Ludovico Muratori thought Teupascio to be an eighth-century corruption of the Latin Altopassus.[4] The variants Taupascio and Topascio have led some to suppose a relationship between the (alternative) name of the town and the Order sometimes known as "of the Tau", after their symbol, which would once have been a common sight in the town. This derivation is highly unlikely, however, and the name appears to be Germanic in origin.[5]

According to the Order's own tradition it was founded between the Palude di Fucecchio, the Lago di Sesto, and the forest of Cerbaie towards 1050 by twelve citizens of nearby Lucca, a tradition which is preserved in a couple of lines of poetry appended to the Italian version of its rule:

La qual casa sia questa dell' Ospitale
La quale incommincio lo Coro duodenale.[6]

That house which belongs to the hospital
Which was founded by the Choir of twelve.

Probably the "choir of twelve" refers to the founding twelve members (brethren, friars, fratres), not to twelve founders.[7] In his Memorie di Pescia, Francesco Galeotti wrote that the Order was the founded by a rich and pious personaggio (individual). The Order was dedicated to James the Greater and Egidius. Its head was initially a rector, later a grand master (magister generalis), custos (custodian), warden, and eventually even bore the title Signore d'Altopascio (Lord of Altopascio).[8]

Originally the Order was composed of a few canons charged with caring for pilgrims on their way to Rome or the Holy Land, via Italy, but later it extended its concern to the Way of Saint James.[2] Their headquarters were in the church of the same name, San Giacomo dell' Alto Passo. Their Great Hospital dedicated to Saint James at Altopascio (Domus Hospitalis Sancti Iacobi de Altopassu[9]) is first mentioned in a bull of Innocent III from 1198, though he refers to earlier grants to the hospice by the Bishops of Lucca, whose names indicate that it existed as early as the third quarter of the century.[10] In 1244 the hospice of Altopassus received a confirmation of its properties in Italy from the Emperor Frederick II as part of a program of support for institutions looking after the miserabiles (unfortunate). The emperor forbade the imposition of any tax on the Order or any interference lay or ecclesiastical with its property.[11] The movement of goods as part of the Order's regular business was to go unhindered.[12]

In time the Order came to be charged with safeguarding the roads and the bridges from brigands. The Order also had a bell named "La Smarrita" that was rung each night from a half hour before sunset to a half hour past to help guide any pilgrim wandering in the woods to safety. This custom was still reported in the time of Lami.[8] They maintained a ferry service on the Arno River:

in the territory of Florence and on the high road to Rome, where formerly a heavy tribute was exacted. This road has now been made free by members of the aforesaid Great Hospital and of other hospitals affiliated with it. So that at present all pilgrims and others freely pass there without payment.[13]

The church of Saint-Jacques-du-Hault-Pas, the first Altopascian foundation in Paris.

The lands from which the Order drew its income were found throughout Tuscany: in the Valdarno (bull of Anastasius IV of 1154), Valdinievole (bull of Alexander III of 1169), and Pistoia and Prato (aforementioned bull of Innocent III of 1198). Eventually the Order spread throughout Tuscany and Italy, reaching first Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily. The Order was eventually internationalised and had reached as far as the Rh¤ne in Provence by the end of the twelfth century. It received endowments in Bavaria, Burgundy, the Dauphin™, England, Flanders, France, Germany, Lorraine, Navarre, Portugal, and Savoy. Each separate body was called a mansio (plural mansiones) on analogy with the Roman relay stations and hospitals abiding by the Order's rule were called obedientiae. Grants to the mansiones of money and land and, in the later Middle Ages, tithes were supervised by the grand master. The heart of the Order was always in Tuscany, however, as its close relationship with the great families of the Republic of Florence shows.[14] There is evidence that in the sixteenth century the Order was exchanging lands in such a way as to build up a compact territory of holdings nearer Altopascio.[15]

The church and hospital of Saint-Jacques-du-Hault-Pas in Paris, subject to the Great Hospital, was founded by Philip IV of France.[16]

The Order was suppressed by the bull Execrabilis issued by Pius II on 18 January 1459 along with five other religiones (religious orders). Their property was transferred to the fledgling Order of Our Lady of Bethlehem founded by that same bull:

Further, we suppress and annul their former ordinances (ordines), the names of their associations, their titles of priority (priorales) and other dignities, and we decree that henceforth they shall be called, held, and named as of that military order of Saint Mary of Bethlehem. Moreover, in this order there shall be brethren and knights and priests as also in the aforesaid Order of Rhodes [Knights of Saint John], and the head of the aforesaid Hospital of Saint Mary of Bethlehem shall be the Master, elected by the brethren in the same way (pariformiter) [as in the Order of Rhodes].[17]

The suppression, however, was imperfectly carried out, or perhaps was never carried out at all.[18] The Order certainly retained some Italian property until, on 14 March 1587, Sixtus V, at the request of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, merged the Order of Altopascio with the Order of Saint Stephen. In France it was finally absorbed into the Order of Saint Lazarus in 1672.[2]

The Order's rule, the Regola dei Frati di San Jacopo d'Altopascio, was promulgated in ninety-six chapters by Gregory IX in 1239, and was based on the rule of the Knights of Saint John and, more generally, the rule of Saint Augustine.[19] The rule was requested by the brethren. It is unknown if they abided by a different rule before 1239.[20] The Latin rule is preserved in the Archives nationales on twenty-one 8m"x6" pages.[21] It was first published (in part) by the antiquarian Giovanni Lami between 1741 and 1754 and edited (entirely) by Pietro Farfani in 1864 in Italian.[22] A Pescian document of 1358 still referred to the order as "living under the Rule of Saint Augustine".[23]

By a comparison with the Hospitaller rule it is clear that the first twenty-five chapters of the Altopascian rule correspond to the first nineteen chapters from the Hospitaller rule of Raymond du Puy (from 112553).[24] Chapters 3037, which deal with the proper burial of deceased brethren, are probably adapted from the additions made by Jobert of Syria to the Hospitaller rule between 1177 and 1181. Chapters 3945 are concerned with the care for the sick and were added to the Hospitaller rule by Roger de Molins in 1181 or 1182. Chapters 4752 and 76 are derived from the later usances (customs) of the order of Saint John, with chapters 4952 prescribing the ceremonies for the initiation of brethren and confrati (affiliated persons). Chapters 5375 are a selection of later Hospitaller esgards (judgements), probably chosen for their relevance to the Altopascian situation. They deal primarily with crime. Chapters 2629, 38, 46, and 7796 are not based on the Hospitaller rule.

The Order's members appear to have been mostly laymen. References in the Order's rule to fees paid to priests for their services imply that these priests were not members, since the Order's rule elsewhere prohibits private property.[25] In 1324 Marsilius of Padua, in his Defensor pacis, criticised the Papacy for trying to classify as many persons as possible as clerici (clergy), and appears to say that the Order of Altopascio was lay, but the Pope wished to classify it as clerical.[26] Chapter 64 of the Order's rule, however, does refer to brothers who are "priest or deacon or of any other clerical order".[27] If the trend reported by Marsiglio continued, the ratio of clerical to lay brethren may have increased in the late Middle Ages. Pierre H™lyot, having seen certain tomb effigies of some brethren bearing the insignia of ordination, calls the Order the Chanoines Hospitaliers de S. Jacques du Haut-Pas ou de Lucques (canons hospitaller of Saint James of Altopascio or of Lucca).[28]

The knights (cavalieri) of the Order were established by chapter 93 of its Rule, which is an almost verbatim copy of a paragraph of a set of Hospitaller regulations drawn up at Margat in 120406.[29] The knights are only mentioned once else in the Rule, in chapter 78, where the process of electing a grand master is described. The prior of the Order is to select from the brethren a priest (frate preite), a knight, and a servitor (also sergent, servente), who will form the electorate and choose a master.[30] Emerton casts doubt on the military nature of these knights, suggesting instead that they were lay noble religious. He points out that the Rule omits all of the Hospitallers' references to horses, arms, and armour.

Besides the priest and knight there is another special position in the order, singled out for its involvement in the election of the master: the servitor, who was subordinate to the regular brother. The servitors were not allowed to fighting among themselves, to refuse work, or to spend the night in town without permission. Strict penalties were prescribed, but their pay was never withheld and they appear to have been hired workers.[31] They were under the direction of the brethren, but performed the majority of menial tasks.
An engraving of the seal of the Order, showing its "tau" symbol.
Di nero alla Tau d'argento, con il braccio verticale aguzzato e affiancata da due conchiglie di San Giacomo dello stesso ("Black, with a silver tau, with a sharpened vertical arm and flanked by two conchs of Saint James, the same").

The symbol of the order was the letter tau, usually white on a black field, the vertical arm of the tau being always pointed at the bottom and the crossbar either square at the ends or else concave or notched like a Maltese cross, the result being called a croce taumata.[12] These peculiarities have suggested to some historians that it represents an auger and an axe or hammer and thus carpentry, probably to be associated with bridge-building and road maintenance.[32] The aforementioned edict of Frederick II contains one obligation placed on the order:

It is our will and command that the hospice and its brethren build and maintain upon the public pilgrim's highway near Ficeclum on the White Arno, at the most convenient point, a bridge for the service of travellers, and this without let or hindrance from any person whomsoever. But if, in case of flood or other accident, they shall be without a bridge, it is our will that they provide a ferry-boat for the free transportation of pilgrims, and it shall be unlawful for any other person to keep any boat there for passengers, whether for hire or not.[33]

The Order's rule, however, does not mention the maintenance of bridges or roads. A similar tau-like symbol or cross was venerated at the same time by the Franciscans. It may have symbolised perfection, since taf was the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet.[34]

The care of the sick was the primary mission of the Order. The Rule required four physicians and two surgeons attached to the hospital.[35] The Rule exhibits "an enlightened conception of the needs of the sick that would do credit to any modern institution".[36] It laid down the principle of primum non nocere and even advised a "hearty diet" during Lent for the ill.[37] For "our lords (domini, signori) the sick", as the Order's patients are called in the Rule, beds must be large with separate sheets and coverlets, each patient was to have fur cloak and woolen cap for use in the commons area (per andare ad luogo commune). Cribs and cradles were to be provided for newborns.

The Order was not an order of fratres pontifices ("pontifical, i.e. bridge-building, brethren") and was not heavily involved in bridge-building.[38] H™lyot, in examining the origins of certain bridges associated with hospitallers in the Rh¤ne valley, ascribed their construction to the Order of Altopascio, whose members he calls religieux hospitaliers pontifes ("bridge-building hospitaller religious"). H™lyot went so far as to associated the famous Saint B™n™zet with the Altopascians. Henri Gr™goire, writing in 1818, cast doubt on the thesis and Emerton rejected it as groundless while admitting that the Proven—al hospitals may well have been associated with Altopascia.[39] Besides the bridge at Fucechhio which is known from the imperial edict of 1244 to have been charged to the Order's care, other bridges may have been maintained in Italy where the Via Francigena crosses the Arda, the Elsa, the Taro, and the Usciana.
Primary texts

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:59:34
Google Latitude
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Google Latitude Google Latitude logo
Developer(s) Google
Initial release February 5, 2009
Development status Beta
Operating system Cross-Platform
Available in 38 languages
Type Web application, Mobile application, Social location
License Google Latitude [1]
Website www.google.com/latitude

Google Latitude is a location-aware mobile app developed by Google as a successor to its earlier SMS-based service Dodgeball. Latitude allows a mobile phone user to allow certain people to view their current location. Via their own Google Account, the user's cell phone location is mapped on Google Maps. The user can control the accuracy and details of what each of the other users can see an exact location can be allowed, or it can be limited to identifying the city only. For privacy, it can also be turned off by the user, or a location can be manually entered. Users have to explicitly opt in to Latitude, and may only see the location of those friends who have decided to share their location with them.[2]

1 History
1.1 Dodgeball
1.2 Latitude
2 Compatibility
3 Availability
4 Privacy concerns
5 See also
6 References
7 External links


Dodgeball was founded in 2000 by New York University students Dennis Crowley and Alex Rainert. The company was acquired by Google in 2005.[3] In April 2007, Crowley and Rainert left Google, with Crowley describing their experience there as "incredibly frustrating".[4] After leaving Google, Crowley created a similar service known as Foursquare with the help of Naveen Selvadurai.[5]

Dodgeball offered a facility to users by way of SMS. Dodgeball was available for the cities of Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, San Diego, Phoenix, DallasFort Worth, Austin, Houston, New Orleans, Miami, Atlanta, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, New York City, Boston, Detroit, Chicago, Madison, MinneapolisSt. Paul and Denver.[6]

In January 2009 Vic Gundotra, Vice President of Engineering at Google, announced that the company would "discontinue Dodgeball.com in the next couple of months, after which this service will no longer be available."[7] Dodgeball was shut down and succeeded in February 2009 by Google Latitude.[8]

With Google Latitude, the service has expanded to PC browsers (it uses the Geolocation API as well as user-driven input) and automated location detection on mobile phones using cellular positioning, Wi-Fi positioning, and GPS.

In November 2009, Google announced a Latitude feature called "Location History" which stores and analyzes a user's location over time, for example attempting to identify a user's home and workplace.[9]

At the end of May 2010, Google announced an API which allows applications to make use of Latitude data, with the user's explicit consent.[10]

In February 2012 a Leaderboard feature was added that provides point scoring and score comparison with friends.[11][12]

For some reason, Google Latitude is not available in Apple's Chinese App Store for download.

Google Latitude is compatible with most devices running iOS, Android, BlackBerry OS, Windows Mobile, and Symbian S60.[13][14] Initially Google stated on the Latitude page that it would be available for Java ME phones[citation needed], but this claim was later removed from the site. On most platforms Latitude can continue to update the user's location in the background when the application is not in use, while on others it only updates the user's location when the application is in use.

The Sony Ericsson W995, C905, C903, C510, Elm and Satio mobile phones support Google Latitude as part of its built-in Google Maps application. Although this is a Java ME application, it cannot be downloaded for use with other mobile phones.

Google Latitude is currently available in the following countries/regions:[15]

Czech Republic
Hong Kong
New Zealand
South Africa
United Kingdom
United States

Google Latitude is currently available in the following languages:[15]

Chinese (Simplified and Traditional)

Privacy concerns

Amid concerns over locational privacy,[16] Google announced that Latitude overwrites a user's previous location with the new location data, and does not keep logs of locations provided to the service.[17][18]

As of early 2011, Google Latitude now optionally records a history of places visited and counts time spent at each place. This information is then used to display statistics such as "Time At Work", "Time Spent At Home" and "Time Spent Out".
See also

Втр 19 Мар 2013 11:59:54
Eileen Hiscock
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Eileen Hiscock Medal record
Women's athletics
Competitor for Great Britain
Olympic Games
Silver 1936 Berlin 4‡100 metre relay
Bronze 1932 Los Angeles 4‡100 metre relay
Women's World Games
Silver 1930 Prague 4‡100 metre relay
Bronze 1934 London 100 m
Bronze 1934 London 200 m
Competitor for England
British Empire Games
Gold 1934 London 100 yd
Gold 1934 London 220 yd
Gold 1934 London 3‡110/220 yd
Silver 1934 London 4‡110/220 yd

Eileen May Hiscock, later Wilson, (25 August 1909 3 September 1958) was an English athlete who competed for Great Britain in the 1932 Summer Olympics and in the 1936 Summer Olympics. She was born in Blackheath, London.

In 1932 she won the bronze medal with her team mates Violet Olney, Audrey Brown and Barbara Burke in the 4‡100 metre relay event. In the 100 metre competition she finished fifth. Four years later she won the silver medal with the British relay team in the 4‡100 metre contest. In the 100 metre event she was eliminated in the semi-finals.

At the 1930 Women's World Games she was a member, along with Ethel Scott, Ivy Walker and Daisy Ridgley, of the British 4‡100 metre relay team which won the silver medal.[1] In the 1934 World Women's Games, she won the bronze medals in the 100 metres and 200 metres contests.[2]

At the 1934 Empire Games she won the gold medal in the 100 yards competition as well as in the 220 yards contest. She also was a member of the English relay team which won the gold medal in the 110-220-110 yards relay contest and the silver medal in the 220-110-220-110 yards relay event.


^ Eric L. Cowe, Early women's athletics: statistics and history (Bingley: c1999), pp. 112-13.
^ British medallists in FSFI Women's World Games



Commonwealth Champions in Women's 100 m


Commonwealth Champions in Women's 200 m
Stub icon 1 Stub icon 2 This article about an Olympic medalist in athletics of the United Kingdom is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
Stub icon This biographical article relating to English athletics is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

1909 births
1958 deaths
English sprinters
Olympic athletes of Great Britain
Athletes (track and field) at the 1932 Summer Olympics
Athletes (track and field) at the 1936 Summer Olympics
Olympic silver medalists for Great Britain
Olympic bronze medalists for Great Britain
Commonwealth Games competitors for England
Athletes (track and field) at the 1934 British Empire Games
Commonwealth Games gold medallists for England
Commonwealth Games silver medallists for England
People from Blackheath, London
Olympic medalists in athletics (track and field)
British athletics Olympic medalist stubs
English athletics biography stubs

Втр 19 Мар 2013 12:00:10
Do Balutan, Izeh
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Do Balutan
Do Balutan, Izeh is located in Iran
Do Balutan
Coordinates: 32`0641N 49`4257ECoordinates: 32`0641N 49`4257E
Country Iran
Province Khuzestan
County Izeh
Bakhsh Susan
Rural District Susan-e Gharbi
Population (2006)
Total 65
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)

Do Balutan (Persian: ЯшШфшзЧц, also Romanized as Do Bal±n; also known as Dobalootan Andika,Do Bal±n-e Soleym±nvand, and Do Bal±n-e Soleym±n Vand-e Sofl‘)[1] is a village in Susan-e Gharbi Rural District, Susan District, Izeh County, Khuzestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65, in 9 families.[2]

^ Do Balutan can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3061337" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original on 2010-11-16.



Flag of Iran.svg Izeh County





Rural Districts
and villages


Ableh-ye Olya
Ableh-ye Sofla
Ali Fateh
Bi Bi Gol Mordeh-ye Olya
Bi Bi Gol Mordeh-ye Sofla
Bid Zard
Boneh-ye Rahimali
Cham Arab
Darreh-ye Gachi
Darreh-ye Karteh
Durak Zenan-e Olya
Durak Zenan-e Sofla
Eshgaft-e Baba Mir
Gomyek-e Olya
Gomyek-e Sofla
Gomyek-e Vosta
Gowd Gach-e Olya
Gowd Gach-e Sofla
Gur Khar
Kataf-e Nashalil
Malsaidi-ye Olya
Malsaidi-ye Sofla
Mani Yar
Murd-e Ghaffar
Murd-e Vali Khan
Nal Eshkanun
Nowruz-e Ali
Oshtor Gard
Par Surakh
Qaleh Sorkheh
Sar Gach
Sar Qaleh-ye Khalijan
Sarkan-e Olya
Sarkan-e Sofla
Seh Balutan
Shahrak-e Taleqani
Shirin Ab
Shur Barik
Shur Tang
Tang Andari
Tang-e Kureh
Tang-e Palangi

Howmeh-ye Gharbi
(West Howmeh)

Balutak-e Landi
Balutak-e Sheykhan
Beyzeh Tak
Kalleh Zarb
Kamar Ab
Khong Azhdar
Khong Azhdar-e Ali Ayavel
Khong Kamalvand
Khong Karam Alivand
Khong Yar Alivand
Miangaran-e Olya
Miangaran-e Sofla
Nowtarki-ye Gharibi
Nowtarki-ye Mokhtari
Nowtarki-ye Tahmasebi
Talkhab-e Ahmadi

Howmeh-ye Sharqi
(East Howmeh)

Ab Chenar
Ab Khugan
Abrak-e Azhgil
Abrak-e Do
Abrak-e Yek
Ahmad Aqa
Bard Gapi
Boneh-ye Qobad
Chahar Tang-e Olya
Chahar Tang-e Sofla
Cheshmeh Khatun
Dalu Zahra
Darreh Eshkaft-e Sarak
Darreh Khoshk
Deh Murd
Eshgaft-e Gav
Eshgaft-e Jamushi
Eshkaft-e Pahlu
Kahbad-e Do
Kahbad-e Yek
Kahshur-e Ali Nazer
Kahshur-e Davud Ali
Kahshur-e Olya
Kahshur-e Sofla
Kal Chevil
Kal Duzakh-e Do
Kal Duzakh-e Yek
Kal Karanj
Kal Narges
Kal Narges-e Karanj
Khoda Karam
Kul-e Jaz
Mahmud Khan
Parchestan-e Ali Hoseyn Molla
Parchestan-e Fazel
Parchestan-e Gurui
Parchestan-e Owrak Shalu
Pol-e Abdugh
Qaleh-ye Kazhdamak
Sar Tankal
Sarrak-e Olya
Sarrak-e Sofla
Takab Bandan


Bard Zard
Bisheh Shirin
Bon Konar
Boneh-ye Murt Lakhshak
Chahar Bisheh
Cham Reyhan
Darreh Barik
Darreh Eshgaft
Darreh Khal Kambu
Dehgah-e Lalmir
Dehgah-e Shomareh-ye Do
Didargah-e Olya
Didargah-e Sofla
Kaj Kolah
Kat Bosteh
Konar Dun-e Olya
Konar Dun-e Sofla
Nam Niha
Par Khalil
Par Siah
Pay Takht-e Varzard
Qaleh Sefid-e Olya
Qaleh Sefid-e Sofla
Sar Murd Shomareh-ye Do
Sar Murdkal
Sar Pushideh
Seyyed Karim
Seyyed Nazar
Shahrak-e Ab Zalu
Shahrak-e Bardbaran
Sheykh Kheyri
Tanbaku Kar-e Ali
Tanbaku Kar-e Ebrahim
Varzard-e Olya
Varzard-e Sofla


Ab Chal
Ab Ghar
Ab Jaz
Ab Zahli
Ali Hoseyn
Bar Aftab-e Kashkeli
Bardpareh-ye Hasan
Chahar Muran
Chal Bardar
Dam Ab-e Kashan
Darreh-ye Lebad
Dasht Mal
Deh-e Chal
Deh-e Now
Derareh-ye Fathollah
Gad-e Kuh
Galleh-ye Meshk
Gardan Taq
Guz Bilva Hajji Nasrallah
Kaft Chahvar
Kal Chenar
Khimeh Gah
Mohammad Taqi
Pian-e Olya
Pian-e Sofla
Posht-e Pian
Sar Tang
Saran Bar-e Kashkali
Sartang-e Shab Kuri
Seh Eshgaftan
Takht-e Sabz
Takht-e Sar Ab




Rural Districts
and villages


Ab Surakh
Bard-e Gap
Chehel Tanan
Darreh Gharib
Darreh Jehud
Darreh Khasi
Deh Kian
Deh Kohneh-ye Muzarm
Deh Rakhda
Deraz Darreh
Hajji Kamal
Kal Khvajeh
Kal Khvajeh-ye Sofla
Kal-e Babadi
Kal-e Boland
Kal-e Chunek
Kal-e Naqd Ali
Keli Malek
Lah Bid
Qaleh Sard-e Bala
Qalehcheh-ye Muzarm
Rakeh Owlad
Sar Masjed
Sarrag-e Khvajaveh
Sheykh Madi

Donbaleh Rud-e Jonubi
(South Donbaleh Rud)

Abu ol Kheyr
Bar Aftab-e Ali Momen
Bar Aftab-e Fazl
Bar Aftab-e Rezai
Bar Aftab-e Zafari
Boneh Balut
Darbeh-ye Gharibi
Darreh Khun-e Faleh
Darreh Sohrab
Darreh Zang
Deh Now-ye Kizavak
Deh-e Now
Gur Parviz
Howz Gel
Lirsiah-e Muzarm
Lirsiah-e Shapuri
Mir Ahmad
Par Chunak
Sar Tuf

Donbaleh Rud-e Shomali
(North Donbaleh Rud)

Ab Gonjeshki
Ab Rah
Badam Zar
Bagh-e Ebrahim
Balutak Shalu
Bar Aftab-e Sadat
Bard Zard
Boneh-ye Arun
Bozorg Shivand
Chahar Deh
Darreh Kat
Dasht Avzar
Deh Balai
Kalmat-e Shalu
Ketf-e Gusheh
Ketf-e Zeytun
Khvajeh Anvar
Murd-e Sadat
Nal-e Kanan
Posht Asiab
Qaleh Lava
Qaleh Mobarak
Rakat-e Olya
Rakat-e Sofla
Sadat-e Mohammad Ebrahim
Sar Gach
Sar Sahra
Tang-e Qaf
Zir Kuh-e Shalu




Rural Districts
and villages

Susan-e Gharbi
(West Susan)

Ab Nik
Ab Zahlu
Abbas Ali
Abu Zhidan
Adin Ali Nazri
Bar Aftab
Bar Aftab-e Amanallah
Bar Aftab-e Chah Dowpowk
Bar Aftab-e Seyyedi
Bard Zard
Boneh-ye Teymur
Chahar Qash
Chahar Qash
Chah-e Dowpowk
Chulak Rizak
Darvish Saidi
Dast Kortan
Deh-e Daran
Deh-e Howz
Deh-e Kohneh
Deh-e Miran
Deh-e Saria
Deh-e Sheykh
Do Balutan
Dupuk Ansari
Javad-e Seyyedi
Kohneh Bahrami
Kul Kharan
Mehranan-e Heydari
Mian Galalan
Ordowt-e Darvish
Ordowt-e Kal
Ordowt-e Nazer
Sar Ab
Sar Anbar
Sar Qaleh
Sar Qaleh Palmi
Sar Qaleh Zivar
Sar Tall
Sarcheshmeh-ye Talkhab
Shiman-e Zir Ab
Talkhab-e Barharva
Talkhab-e Mashqoli
Tang-e Rashid
Tang-e Zirgol Bardar
Ye Gavi

Susan-e Sharqi
(East Susan)

Ab Bid
Barreh Deh
Boneh Shanbeh
Chal Abza
Darb Kazem
Darreh Banehha
Darreh Chineh
Darreh Qobad
Darreh Zang
Deh Darbeh
Didar Qoli
Faleh-e Sarqaleh
Pas Tang
Qaryeh-ye Teymur
Sar Turehha
Sartang-e Faleh

Stub icon This Izeh County location article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Populated places in Izeh County
Izeh County geography stubs

Втр 19 Мар 2013 12:00:27
The Drouth
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For other uses, see The Drought (disambiguation).
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The Drouth is an American-format quarterly periodical published in Glasgow, Scotland. It was founded in 2001 by the artist and writer Mitch Miller and critic and writer Johnny Rodger.

Although its title is Scots (Eng: The Thirst) the magazine is published mostly in Scottish Standard English though features and fiction do regularly appear in languages such as French, Italian, Spanish, Broad Scots and Scottish Gaelic.

The Drouth works on a commissioning basis, and does not encourage unsolicited submissions. It has a particular focus on literature, visual art film and politics but also covers music, architecture, photography and comix, and occasional generous creative fiction.

The magazine sponsors a number of cultural events, mostly in Glasgow. [1], Every issue also features a guest editor (usually someone of distinction in a given field) and guest cover artist.

1 Editorial stance
2 Press Coverage and Reception
3 Guest editors
4 Guest artists
5 Books and related media
6 Notable contributors
7 See also
8 External links

Editorial stance

The Drouth's editorial stance could be described as non-aligned left with occasional anarchist and left-libertarian overtones as shown by its ties to radical online publications such as Pulse and Spinwatch, and with the author James Kelman. [2], Nevertheless, it also publishes work by more establishment figures on the left and occasionally right of the political spectrum, and editorial board members such as Owen Dudley Edwards retain links to the Scottish National Party and Plaid Cymru. The magazine is a frequent critic of the Scottish Labour Party but maintains it follows no party alignment. Its editors authored a series of essays entitled 'Suns of Scotland', which examined the development of postwar Scottish politics through literary contributions (and was published as Tartan Pimpsin 2010) in which the stance taken was broadly pro-independence. [See Miller, Rodger and Edwards, (2010) Tartan Pimps: Gordon Brown, Margaret Thatcher and the New Scotland, Glasgow, Argyll Publishing http://www.heraldscotland.com/forget-a-man-sa-man-for-a-that-burns-planned-to-make-fortune-from-slave-trade-1.828313 (full article no longer listed)], Critics such as Alan Taylor have described the magazine as 'feisty' while musician and cultural commentator Pat Kane described it as "A worthy successor to the Peter Kravitz-edited era of The Edinburgh Review of the 80's, with quite a few of the same characters writing, and with the same wilful (sic)combination of global radical theory with an immersion in the detail of Scottish society, culture and crises." .[7],
Guest editors

Since issue 6, a guest editor has been invited to contribute editorial essays and advice. There has been no guest editor for issues 9, 25, 33,39, 40 and the lineup has also included pseudonymous and spoof entries. The full list is as follows;

Issue 6:'Fact' Frank Kuppner, novelist.
Issue 7: 'Complexity' Edwin Morgan, poet.
Issue 8: 'Panegyric' Jenni Calder, writer.
Issue 10: 'Word'
Issue 11: 'Monument' Miles Glendinning, architectural critic.
Issue 12: 'Bigotry' Gowan Calder, actress.
Issue 13: 'Intelligence' Christopher Harvie, writer and academic.
Issue 14: 'Land' Ruaridh Nicoll, journalist and novelist.
Issue 15: 'Consensus and Revision', Sarah Dunnigan, expert on ballads.
Issue 16: 'Didactic', Muhammad Idrees Ahmad, media analyst.
Issue 17: 'Form', Elke Weissmann, cultural critic and researcher in television studies.
Issue 18: 'Class', Willy Maley, writer and academic.
Issue 19: 'Dialect', Carol Baranuik, expert on Ullans (Ulster Scots).
Issue 20: 'Image', John Calcutt, Lecturer at Glasgow School of art.
Issue 21: 'Document',Jonathan Murray, expert on Scottish cinema and history.
Issue 22: 'Utopia' Sheila Dickson, academic and translator.
Issue 23: 'Deviant' Mark Cousins, critic and filmmaker.
Issue 24: 'Skin', Craig Richardson, artist and academic.
Issue 26: 'Collect', Rosemary Goring, Arts Editor, The Herald.
Issue 27: 'Pure', Emily Munro, writer and film programmer.
Issue 28: 'Establishment', 'Molly Maguire', poet.
Issue 29: 'Union', Ian S. Wood, historian.
Issue 30: 'Public', Ashley Shelby Benites, author.
Issue 31: 'Rhetoric', John Knox, Reformer.
Issue 32: 'Moral', Jen Birks, media analyst.
Issue 34: 'Lost', Rhona Brown, writer and academic
Issue 35: 'Process', Simon Kovesi, critic and academic.
Issue 36: 'Decline', Miriam Ross, Lecturer in Film Studies.
Issue 37: 'Licence', Emma Lennox, Screenwriter and Journalist.
Issue 38: 'Foundation', Alan E. Williams, Composer.
Issue 41: 'Graphic', Frances Robertson, Art Historian.

Guest artists

Since issue 14, guest artists from fine art, illustration, photography and even film, have been invited to provide covers to each issue -

Issue 14: 'Land', David Shrigley, installation.
Issue 15: 'Consensus and Revision', Margaret Tait, experimental film.
Issue 16: 'Didactic', Andreas Kaiser, installation.
Issue 17: 'Form', Toby Paterson,painting.
Issue 18: 'Class', Ken Currie, painting.
Issue 19: 'Dialect', Mark Neville, fine art photography/performance.
Issue 20: 'Image', Alasdair Gray, illustration.
Issue 21: 'Document', Aaron Valdez, experimental film still.
Issue 22: 'Utopia', Stephan Klenner Otto, illustration.
Issue 23: 'Deviant', Louise Galea, mixed media photography.
Issue 24: 'Skin', Craig Richardson, installation.
Issue 25: 'Epic/Lyric', Euan Sutherland, illustration,
Issue 26: 'Collect', Andrew Lee, photography.
Issue 27: 'Pure', John Kay[disambiguation needed], illustration.
Issue 28: 'Establishment', Stuart Murray, illustration.
Issue 29: 'Union', Steve Ovett Effect, performance/illustration.
Issue 30: 'Public', Bill Breckinridge, photography.
Issue 31: 'Rhetoric', Alexandra Demenkova, documentary photography.
Issue 32: 'Moral', Stephen Healy, fine art photography.
Issue 33: 'Solution', Chris Dooks, fine art photography.
Issue 34: 'Lost', Ian McCulloch, painting.
Issue 35: 'Process', Roddy Buchanan, photography.
Issue 36: 'Decline', Graham Fagen, mixed media.
Issue 37: 'Licence', Ross Sinclair, performance/photography.
Issue 38: 'Foundation', Chris Leslie, documentary photography.
Issue 39: 'Control', Artemis Manouki, fine art.
Issue 40: 'Decade', Alasdair Gray, drawing/found object/photography.
Issue 41: 'Graphic', Graphical House, graphic design.
Issue 42: 'Strategy', Viktor Koen, illustration.
Issue 43: 'Margin', Stuart McAdam, fine art photography/performance.
Issue 44: 'Tension', Neil Clements, fine art.
Issue 45: 'Frame', Mariusz Tarkawian, drawing.

Books and related media

Втр 19 Мар 2013 12:00:42
The Once and Future Duck
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The Once and Future Duck
Story code D 95079
Story Don Rosa
Ink Don Rosa
Hero Donald Duck
Pages 24
Layout 4 rows per page
Appearances Donald Duck
Huey, Dewey and Louie
Gyro Gearloose
Little Helper
First publication Kalle Anka & C:o #1996-21-22
May 17, 1996
and #1996-23
May 31, 1996

The Once and Future Duck is a 1996 Donald Duck story by Don Rosa.

Donald Duck is testing Gyro Gearloose's new time machine. The machine is so unpredictable that Huey, Dewey and Louie warn Donald that he might end up at any time in the past, and thus advise him to do the testing at the Stonehenge, which has remained unaltered for millennia.

Donald, Gyro, and the boys travel to the United Kingdom to test the time machine at Stonehenge. The machine sends them centuries to the past, to time of sub-Roman Britain. There, the ducks meet "King Arthur"Artorius Riothamus, the last descendant of Lucius Artorius Castus, and find out that he is nowhere near the glorious benevolent ruler history has made him to be; instead, he's a common warlord without much morals to speak of. Fearing the ducks are Saxon invaders, Arthur kidnaps Donald and his nephews, and is about to execute them, but at the last moment, Gyro sounds a car horn, which scares the Britons off.

Arthur goes after Donald, intending to finish him off, but a combination of Gyro's technology and the mystical power of the Stonehenge gives Donald awesome powers. An epic duel ensues between Arthur and Donald. In the end, Arthur strikes his famous sword into a stone, but is unable to get it out. Gyro's Little Helper, imbued with the mystical power, pulls it out and drives the Britons off, giving Gyro time to transport the ducks back to the present.

This comic is based on the Pertwillaby Papers adventure Knighttime, and makes the Pertwillaby Papers adventure seem incomplete.

The story's name is a parody of T.H. White's Arthurian novel, The Once and Future King.
External links

The Once and Future Duck at the INDUCKS

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1996 in comics
Arthurian comics
Donald Duck comics by Don Rosa
Disney comics stubs

Втр 19 Мар 2013 12:27:05
есть id?

Втр 19 Мар 2013 12:28:26
USS Bruce (DD-329)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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USS Bruce (DD-329)
Career (US)
Namesake: Frank Bruce
Builder: Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, Union Iron Works, San Francisco
Laid down: 30 July 1919
Launched: 20 May 1920
Commissioned: 29 September 1920
Decommissioned: 1 May 1930
Struck: 6 November 1931
Fate: Scrapped; salvage metal sold August 1932
General characteristics
Class & type: Clemson-class destroyer
Displacement: 1,215 tons
Length: 314 feet 4 inches (95.81 m)
Beam: 31 feet 8 inches (9.65 m)
Draft: 9 feet 10 inches (3 m)
Propulsion: 26,500 shp (20 MW);
geared turbines,
2 screws
Speed: 35 knots (65 km/h)
Range: 4,900 nmi (9,100 km)
@ 15 kt
Complement: 122 officers and enlisted
Armament: 4 ‡ 4" (102 mm), 1 ‡ 3" (76 mm), 12 ‡ 21" (533 mm) torpedo tubes

USS Bruce (DD-329) was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy following World War I. She was named for Frank Bruce.

1 History
2 Fate
3 References
4 External links


Bruce was launched 20 May 1920 by Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation, San Francisco, California, sponsored by Mrs. Annie Bruce, widow of Lieutenant Bruce, and commissioned 29 September 1920, Lieutenant Commander G. N. Reeves, Jr., in command.
Bruce and Preston in the Pedro Miguel Locks, ca. 1922.

Bruce operated out of San Diego, California during her first year of service on engineering, gunnery, and torpedo exercises, and maneuvered with Squadron 5, Pacific Fleet. In November 1921 her home port was changed to Boston, Massachusetts and she reported to Division 27, Scouting Fleet. Her schedule of employment during succeeding years was the established routine of practice and fleet maneuvers. In December 1924 her commanding officer also assumed command of Destroyer Division 27. Her home yard was changed from Boston to Norfolk Navy Yard in June 1925. On 17 June, with her division, she sailed for duty with United States Naval Forces Europe. During the next year, naval forces operating in European waters cooperated with the State Department as a stabilizing influence in troubled regions and as security for American citizens living in these areas.

Upon her return to Norfolk Navy Yard she operated along the eastern seaboard and in Cuban and Haiti waters until March 1927. In March she participated in the Fleet Tactical Problem held at ColЈn, Panama, followed by the Fleet concentration along the Atlantic coast. During that summer she made training cruises with Naval Reservists along the northeastern seaboard. During 1928 and 1929 she continued to participate in fleet maneuvers and exercises along the east coast.

In September 1929 Bruce put in at Philadelphia Navy Yard, where on 1 May 1930, she was decommissioned. She was later towed to Norfolk Navy Yard where she was used for experimental strength tests, before scrapping. Her salvage metal was sold in August 1932.

As of 2005, no other ship in the United States Navy has been named Bruce.

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.

External links




Clemson-class destroyer

Clemson-class destroyers
Ships built in San Francisco, California
1920 ships

Втр 19 Мар 2013 12:28:37
Avraham Eilam-Amzallag
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Avraham (Avi) Eilam-Amzallag (Hebrew: (ЂЃ
← К списку тредов