Карта сайта

Это автоматически сохраненная страница от 24.12.2013. Оригинал был здесь: http://2ch.hk/b/res/59479588.html
Сайт a2ch.ru не связан с авторами и содержимым страницы
жалоба / abuse: admin@a2ch.ru

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:16:29
покажи мне Waffen SS
покажи мне Waffen SS ребята, всегда интересовала тема Waffen SS и прочая нацистская штука. Делать мне нечего и я решил захерячить в офис огромный принт какой-нибудь фашистской картинки. Фамилия у меня немецкая, работаю только с русскими, люди поймут : )

С меня фотка офиса с выбранным принтом через пару дней.


Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:17:53
Гугли плакаты

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:18:36
>>59479636
Я думаю и мне и вам будет интересней, если это выберет народ.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:18:59
Свастон на всю стену

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:20:30
Брошюра "Der Untermensch" с прилагающимся переводом

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:21:35
>>59479702
Отклеилось.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:22:38
>>59479658
Слишком жестко . Нужен черно-белый принт, чтобы был немецкий солдат и как бы не в значай у него на рукаве повязка со свастикой или где-то на заднем плане была свастика. Мой вариант не подпадает под пропаганду, а вот свастика на всю стену более чем.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:24:05
>>59479702
Эту я могу купить для тебя. Над своей кроваткой повесишь .

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:26:17
>>59479588
Принт танчика какого-нибудь. Сейчас быдло угорает по этой хуерге.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:31:52
>>59479588
>Фамилия у меня немецкая
Еврей нацист? Как это оригинально. На тебя будут смотреть, как на долбоёба, так всё понимают, что в России с немецкими фамилиями только евреи, так как немцы давно уже съебали из этой клоаки, а евреи понимают, что на тупости и беззаконии можно нажиться.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:33:37
>>59480086
Т.к я уже сформирован и в своей жизни менять ничего не собираюсь - мне похуй как на меня смотрят :) ) И да, на глупых русских шикарно можно нажиться!

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:36:49
Bump

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:37:24
>>59479658
САБАТОН НА ВСЮ СТЕНУ

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:37:45
>>59480267
Пошел нахуй.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:38:52
>>59480275
ты моих ребят не разгоняй. нищенка.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:39:00
>>59480275
ТОЛЬКО КРУГАМИ

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:39:45
>>59480275
ТОЛЬКО КРУГАМИ

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:40:24
>>59479588
> Фамилия у меня немецкая
не_жгите_меня_я_поляк.jpg

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:40:33
>>59480144
Какой же ты тупой, Либерман.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:42:44
>>59480379
Оглянись вокруг, посмотри в какой халупе ты живешь , в каком дерьмовом офисе работаешь ... ответ ты найдешь сам :)

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:54:53
>>59480471
Какой офис, что ты несешь вообще, смайлофаг?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 11:58:30
ОП, ты думаешь, что ты типа всех шокируешь. А на самом деле большинство твоих коллегг подумают, что ты долбоеб. Оно тебе надо, Гарфункель?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:00:49
>>59479731
ЛОЛ

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:05:57
>>59480962
Если бы ты читал полностью топик, ты бы понял, что мне похуй на мнение коллег. Тем более нас тут только трое. Основной офис с серыми мышками в другом месте.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:07:04
Иши в контактике по тегу # Vanila_Wallpapers

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:07:08
>>59480849

оп намекает, что ты тупое чмо, которое не работает , а если работает то в говно-конторе за 40к .

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:08:24
>>59481163
Так ты для себя украсить хочешь? А зачем ты писал
>работаю только с русскими, люди поймут
Значит не похер тебе на них.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:10:04
>>59481237

конечно для себя. русские я имел в виду клиентов. но т.к я монополист и выбора у них нету, то мне и на их мнение похуй.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:10:42
>>59479588
Вольфганг, это ты?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:11:28
>>59479588
Вальтер вон дер Вандельвейтер?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:12:14
>>59479588
Хундетвассерман?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:12:17
>>59481314
>Вальтер вон дер Вандельвейтер?
Да. А зачем ты меня сдиванонил?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:12:17
>>59481294
>>59481314

С отчеством угодали, я серьезно .

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:12:32
>>59479588
Беккер, иди нахуй!

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:15:13
>>59481277
Кокой похуист!

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:15:55
>>59481343
Я ОП, не майся хуйней.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:18:05
>>59480962
Скорее щкольником обзовут. Алсо дадут кликуху "фашист" и будут ходить посмеиваться.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:18:32
>>59479588
>ребята
>захерячить
>фашистской
>: )

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:18:53
Почему еще не зафайпали эту обезьяну ебаную? Я просто поражен высокомерным уебком ОПом, нацист он блять, да ты клоун обыкновенный, сиди в своем офисе и потей дальше, рисуя никому ненужное гавно, вроде убогих сайтиков, которые ты там рисуешь, заказчикам своим свастику прихуячь где-нибудь.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:20:18
В общем вот площадь работы .
Вместо педо-узора на стене .

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:21:21
>>59481559
ошибся ты сферой деятельности. не ИТ

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:22:12
>>59481559
и да, пошел нахуй нищеброд.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:22:12
>>59481608
>суп не обнаружен
Говна наверни.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:22:13
Почему бы не запилить?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:22:17
>>59481608
> .
> .
Идика ты нахуй отсюда, гандон штопаный.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:22:59
>>59481608
Ясно.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:23:35
>>59481671
а вот это реально хороший вариант!!
Где можно заказать , чтобы исходный файл был в разрешении 4К ?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:25:30
>>59481669
Не бедней тебя точно.
>>59481637
Я его назвал вебдизайнером, а он мне [не ИТk, ты уборщицей там устроился что ли?

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:26:03
>>59481694
>1387873218046.jpg

мне ничего не ясно : (

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:27:08
>>59481786
Блять кто нибудь, убейте его нахуй, он даже не может в поиск по картинкам блять.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:27:28
>>59481779

Я не знаю, что такое вэбдизайн и прочая херня. Для меня все те, кто работают с ПК - ИТ. Ты опять промазал !

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:28:46
>>59481827
Der Untermensch.
В сад.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:29:10
Применяю секретное оружие.
/postcount

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:31:35
/postcount

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:32:11
сУКА!
/postcount

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:32:15
>>59481786
Офисодебил.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:32:27
>>59482041
Что, сломали?
/postcount

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:32:58
>>59482056
/postcount

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:33:31
>>59481786
Проиграл со щкольника. С ОП-ом всё ясно.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:33:53
>>59482067
/postcount

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:34:23
>>59479588
Тоже очень нравится нацистская стилистика в графическом плане, но, боюсь, друзья и знакомые не поймут, так бы давно уже тоже хуйнул плакатик на стену.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:34:28
Электроника для дома и авто
Удобный и безопасный дом
Бытовая электроника
Аудио-, видеотехника
Электроника для авто
Электронные конструкторы, макетные платы
Электронные модели, игрушки
Электроустановочные изделия
Компьютерные аксессуары
Литература, CD-ROM

Приборы, инструмент,
оборудование
Паяльное оборудование
Измерительные приборы
Инструмент
Блоки и элементы питания
Организация рабочего места
Устройства охлаждения
Устройства программирования
Складское оборудование

Промавтоматика
Акустические компоненты
Датчики (промышленные)
Компоненты весовых систем
Подъемные устройства
Прожекторы, светильники
Драйверы, схемы управления

Электротехника
Реле
Переключатели
Разъемы, соединители
Соединит. шнуры, кабели
Крепежные изделия
Установочные изделия
Лампы
Устройства защиты,
предохранители
Расходные материалы

Пассивные компоненты
Конденсаторы
Резисторы
Резонаторы, генераторы, фильтры
Трансф., дроссели, ферриты
Компоненты подавления ЭМП
Акустика

Активные компоненты
Микросхемы
Транзисторы
Тиристоры
Диоды, стабилитроны, варикапы
Полупроводниковые модули
Датчики
Оптоэлектронные устройства
Светодиоды, устройства индикации



Rambler




Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:34:35
>>59482060
Тоже шикарная! Ребята, спасибо вам! Выбрал два варианта осталось получить файлы в разрешении 4К и через 2 - 5 дней принт будет готов. Ждите с отчетом .

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:34:58
Цифровой мультиметр Mastech MY60 - младший представитель профессиональной серии серии мультиметров MY от Mastech - позволяет производить измерения величин силы постоянного и переменного тока, постоянного и переменного напряжения. сопротивления, коэффициента усиления биполярных транзисторов. Высокое входное сопротивление не вносит погрешности при измерениях величин и говорит о высокой точности прибора. Выбор пределов измерения величин производится вручную путем установки нужного положения многопозиционного переключателя.

С помощью мультиметра MY60 можно проверятьполупроводниковые диоды и прозванивать электрические цепи. Результаты измерений выводятся на крупный цифровой 31/2 -разрядный ЖК-дисплей. Питание измерительного прибора осуществляется от одной батареи 9В типа "Крона". Защитный кожух из мягкого полимера, входящий в комплект поставки мультиметра Mastech MY60, сохранит прибор от поломки при падении или ударе. Рабочее положение мультиметра можно изменять с помощью упора на тыльной стороне корпуса.

В комплект поставки мультиметра Mastech MY60 входит комплект щупов и инструкция на русском языке.


Технические характеристики цифрового мультиметра Mastech MY60

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:36:10
Philosophical[edit]
The theory is based in philosophical foundations, and was founded by Ray Solomonoff around 1960.[6] It is a mathematically formalized Occam's razor.[7][8][9][10][11] Shorter computable theories have more weight when calculating the probability of the next observation, using all computable theories which perfectly describe previous observations. Marcus Hutter's universal artificial intelligence builds upon this to calculate the expected value of an action.
Mathematical[edit]
The proof of the "razor" is based on the known mathematical properties of a probability distribution over a denumerable set. These properties are relevant because the infinite set of all programs is a denumerable. The sum S of the probabilities of all programs must be exactly equal to one (as per the definition of probability) thus the probabilities must roughly decrease as we enumerate the infinite set of all programs, otherwise S will be strictly greater than one. To be more precise, for every \epsilon > 0, there is some length l such that the probability of all programs longer than l is at most \epsilon. This does not, however, preclude very long programs from having very high probability.
Fundamental ingredients of the theory are the concepts of algorithmic probability and Kolmogorov complexity. The universal prior probability of any prefix p of a computable sequence x is the sum of the probabilities of all programs (for a universal computer) that compute something starting with p. Given some p and any computable but unknown probability distribution from which x is sampled, the universal prior and Bayes' theorem can be used to predict the yet unseen parts of x in optimal fashion.
Modern Applications[edit]

Artificial Intelligence[edit]
Though Solomonoff's inductive inference is not computable, several AIXI-derived algorithms approximate it in order to make it run on a modern computer. The more they are given computing power, the more their predictions are close to the predictions of inductive inference (their mathematical limit is Solomonoff's inductive inference).[12][13][14]

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:36:30
>>59481786
Федя, уебывай отсюда нахуй.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:36:51
uring Machines[edit]
The third mathematically based direction of inductive inference makes use of the theory of automata and computation. In this context, the process of inductive inference is performed by an abstract automaton called an inductive Turing machine (Burgin, 2005). Inductive Turing machines represent the next step in the development of computer science providing better models for contemporary computers and computer networks (Burgin, 2001) and forming an important class of super-recursive algorithms as they satisfy all conditions in the definition of algorithm. Namely, each inductive Turing machines is a type of effective method in which a definite list of well-defined instructions for completing a task, when given an initial state, will proceed through a well-defined series of successive states, eventually terminating in an end-state. The difference between an inductive Turing machine and a Turing machine is that to produce the result a Turing machine has to stop, while in some cases an inductive Turing machine can do this without stopping. Kleene called procedures that could run forever without stopping by the name calculation procedure or algorithm (Kleene 1952:137). Kleene also demanded that such an algorithm must eventually exhibit "some object" (Kleene 1952:137). This condition is satisfied by inductive Turing machines, as their results are exhibited after a finite number of steps, but inductive Turing machines do not always tell at which step the result has been obtained.
Simple inductive Turing machines are equivalent to other models of computation. More advanced inductive Turing machines are much more powerful. It is proved (Burgin, 2005) that limiting partial recursive functions, trial and error predicates, general Turing machines, and simple inductive Turing machines are equivalent models of computation. However, simple inductive Turing machines and general Turing machines give direct constructions of computing automata, which are thoroughly grounded in physical machines. In contrast, trial and error predicates, limiting recursive functions and limiting partial recursive functions present syntactic systems of symbols with formal rules for their manipulation. Simple inductive Turing machines and general Turing machines are related to limiting partial recursive functions and trial and error predicates as Turing machines are related to partial recursive functions and lambda-calculus.
Note that only simple inductive Turing machines have the same structure (but different functioning semantics of the output mode) as Turing machines. Other types of inductive Turing machines have an essentially more advanced structure due to the structured memory and more powerful instructions. Their utilization for inference and learning allows achieving higher efficiency and better reflects learning of people (Burgin and Klinger, 2004).
Some researchers confuse computations of inductive Turing machines with non-stopping computations or with infinite time computations. First, some of computations of inductive Turing machines halt. As in the case of conventional Turing machines, some halting computations give the result, while others do not give. Second, some non-stopping computations of inductive Turing machines give results, while others do not give. Rules of inductive Turing machines determine when a computation (stopping or non-stopping) gives a result. Namely, an inductive Turing machine produces output from time to time and once this output stops changing, it is considered the result of the computation. It is necessary to know that descriptions of this rule in some papers are incorrect. For instance, Davis (2006: 128) formulates the rule when result is obtained without stopping as " once the correct output has been produced any subsequent output will simply repeat this correct result." Third, in contrast to the widespread misconception, inductive Turing machines give results (when it happens) always after a finite number of steps (in finite time) in contrast to infinite and infinite-time computations. There are two main distinctions between conventional Turi

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:36:53
ОП молодца, хорошо придумал. Сейчас поищу ему картинок

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:37:07
орел круче всего

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:37:14

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:37:25
>>59479588
А как же БАБКИ ВОЕВАЛЕ ДЕДЫ ПОМОГАЛИ, ЗА ГУЛАГ!!!.
И какая у тебя фамилия? Небось гоффман какой нибудь, или розенбаум.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:37:39

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:37:52
^ JJ McCall. Induction: From Kolmogorov and Solomonoff to De Finetti and Back to Kolmogorov Metroeconomica, 2004 Wiley Online Library.
Jump up ^ D Stork. Foundations of Occam's razor and parsimony in learning from ricoh.com NIPS 2001 Workshop, 2001
Jump up ^ AN Soklakov. Occam's razor as a formal basis for a physical theory from arxiv.org Foundations of Physics Letters, 2002 Springer
Jump up ^ J HERNANDEZ-ORALLO. Beyond the Turing Test from uclm.es Journal of Logic, Language, and , 2000 dsi.uclm.es
Jump up ^ M Hutter. On the existence and convergence of computable universal priors from arxiv.org Algorithmic Learning Theory, 2003 Springer
Jump up ^ Samuel Rathmanner and Marcus Hutter. A philosophical treatise of universal induction. Entropy, 13(6):10761136, 2011
Jump up ^ JJ McCall. Induction: From Kolmogorov and Solomonoff to De Finetti and Back to Kolmogorov Metroeconomica, 2004 Wiley Online Library.
Jump up ^ D Stork. Foundations of Occam's razor and parsimony in learning from ricoh.com NIPS 2001 Workshop, 2001
Jump up ^ AN Soklakov. Occam's razor as a formal basis for a physical theory from arxiv.org Foundations of Physics Letters, 2002 Springer
Jump up ^ J HERNANDEZ-ORALLO. Beyond the Turing Test from uclm.es Journal of Logic, Language, and , 2000 dsi.uclm.es
Jump up ^ M Hutter. On the existence and convergence of computable universal priors from arxiv.org Algorithmic Learning Theory, 2003 Springer
Jump up ^ J Veness, KS Ng, M Hutter. "A Monte Carlo AIXI Approximation" Arxiv preprint arXiv, 2009 arxiv.org
Jump up ^ J Veness, KS Ng, M Hutter. Reinforcement Learning via AIXI Approximation from arxiv.org Arxiv preprint arXiv:1007.2049, 2010 aaai.org
Jump up ^ S Pankov. A computational approximation to the AIXI model from agiri.org Artificial general intelligence, 2008: proceedings of , 2008 books.google.com
Jump up ^ E. Mark Gold. Language identification in the limit. Information and Control 10:447474, 1967.
Jump up ^ J. Schmidhuber (2002). "Hierarchies of generalized Kolmogorov complexities and nonenumerable universal measures computable in the limit". International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science 13 (4): 587612. doi:10.1142/S0129054102001291.
References[edit]

Angluin, D., and Smith, C. H. (1983) Inductive Inference: Theory and Methods, Comput. Surveys, v. 15, no. 3, pp. 237269
Mark Burgin (2005), Super-recursive algorithms, Monographs in computer science, Springer. ISBN 0-387-95569-0
Burgin, M. How We Know What Technology Can Do, Communications of the ACM, v. 44, No. 11, 2001, pp. 8288
Burgin, M. and Klinger, A. Experience, Generations, and Limits in Machine Learning, Theoretical Computer Science, v. 317, No. 1/3, 2004, pp. 7191
Gasarch, W. and Smith, C. H. (1997) A survey of inductive inference with an emphasis on queries. Complexity, logic, and recursion theory, Lecture Notes in Pure and Appl. Math., 187, Dekker, New York, pp. 225260.
Sanjay Jain, Daniel Osherson, James Royer and Arun Sharma, Systems that Learn: An Introduction to Learning Theory (second edition), The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1999.
Ming Li and Paul Vitanyi, An Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity and Its Applications, 2nd Edition, Springer Verlag, 1997.
Daniel Osherson, Michael Stob and Scott Weinstein, Systems That Learn, An Introduction to Learning Theory for Cognitive and Computer Scientists, Bradford The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1986.
Ray Solomonoff "Two Kinds of Probabilistic Induction, " The Computer Journal, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1999

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:38:24
Direct method of agreement[edit]
If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree, is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 454.
For a property to be a necessary condition it must always be present if the effect is present. Since this is so, then we are interested in looking at cases where the effect is present and taking note of which properties, among those considered to be 'possible necessary conditions' are present and which are absent. Obviously, any properties which are absent when the effect is present cannot be necessary conditions for the effect.
Symbolically, the method of agreement can be represented as:
A B C D occur together with w x y z
A E F G occur together with w t u v

Therefore A is the cause, or the effect, of w.
Example: Charles worked for two years at a hospital. During this time, the number of deaths increased dramatically.[further explanation needed]
Clarification: In this case, Charles would be employee A at the hospital, and the increased deaths would be outcome w. B, C, D, E, F, and G would be other employees. Any other measurement at the hospital (e.g., decreased patient wait times, fewer people entering the hospital, etc.) could be the other outcomes (t, u, v, x, y, or z).
Method of difference[edit]
If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance save one in common, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ, is the effect, or cause, or an necessary part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 455.
A B C D occur together with w x y z
B C D occur together with x y z

Therefore A is the cause, or the effect, or a part of the cause of w.
Joint method of agreement and difference[edit]

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:39:00
Method of residue[edit]
Subduct[2] from any phenomenon such part as is known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 465.
If a range of factors are believed to cause a range of phenomena, and we have matched all the factors, except one, with all the phenomena, except one, then the remaining phenomenon can be attributed to the remaining factor.
Symbolically, the Method of Residue can be represented as:
A B C occur together with x y z
B is known to be the cause of y
C is known to be the cause of z

Therefore A is the cause or effect of x.
Method of concomitant variations[edit]
Whatever phenomenon varies in any manner whenever another phenomenon varies in some particular manner, is either a cause or an effect of that phenomenon, or is connected with it through some fact of causation.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 470.
If across a range of circumstances leading to a phenomenon, some property of the phenomenon varies in tandem with some factor existing in the circumstances, then the phenomenon can be associated with that factor. For instance, suppose that various samples of water, each containing both salt and lead, were found to be toxic. If the level of toxicity varied in tandem with the level of lead, one could attribute the toxicity to the presence of lead.
Symbolically, the method of concomitant variation can be represented as (with a representing a shift):
A B C occur together with x y z
Aa B C results in xa y z.

Therefore A and x are causally connected
Unlike the preceding four inductive methods, the method of concomitant variation doesn't involve the elimination of any circumstance. Changing the magnitude of one factor results in the change in the magnitude of another factor.
See also[edit]

Controlled scientific experiments

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:39:36
>>59482176
Никогда нахуй! Моя презенация готова! ВСЕ СУКА СДЕЛАНО! И МНЕ НЕХУЙ ДЕЛАТЬ! Я устал пить кофе! ТЫ НЕ ПРОЙДЕШЬ!

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:39:36
Koch's postulates are the following:
The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.
The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.
The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
The microorganism must be reisolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.
However, Koch abandoned the universalist requirement of the first postulate altogether when he discovered asymptomatic carriers of cholera[2] and, later, of typhoid fever. Asymptomatic or subclinical infection carriers are now known to be a common feature of many infectious diseases, especially viruses such as polio, herpes simplex, HIV, and hepatitis C. As a specific example, all doctors and virologists agree that poliovirus causes paralysis in just a few infected subjects, and the success of the polio vaccine in preventing disease supports the conviction that the poliovirus is the causative agent.
The second postulate may also be suspended for certain microorganisms or entities that cannot (at the present time) be grown in pure culture, such as prions responsible for CreutzfeldtJakob disease.[3]
The third postulate specifies "should", not "must", because as Koch himself proved in regard to both tuberculosis and cholera, [4] not all organisms exposed to an infectious agent will acquire the infection. Noninfection may be due to such factors as general health and proper immune functioning; acquired immunity from previous exposure or vaccination; or genetic immunity, as with the resistance to malaria conferred by possessing at least one sickle cell allele.
In summary, a body of evidence that satisfies Koch's postulates is sufficient but not necessary to establish causation.
History[edit]

Koch's postulates were developed in the 19th century as general guidelines to identify pathogens that could be isolated with the techniques of the day.[5] Even in Koch's time, it was recognized that some infectious agents were clearly responsible for disease even though they did not fulfill all of the postulates.[4][6] Attempts to rigidly apply Koch's postulates to the diagnosis of viral diseases in the late 19th century, at a time when viruses could not be seen or isolated in culture, may have impeded the early development of the field of virology.[7][8] Currently, a number of infectious agents are accepted as the cause of disease despite their not fulfilling all of Koch's postulates.[9] Therefore, while Koch's postulates retain historical importance and continue to inform the approach to microbiologic diagnosis, fulfillment of all four postulates is not required to demonstrate causality.
Koch's postulates have also influenced scientists who examine microbial pathogenesis from a molecular point of view. In the 1980s, a molecular version of Koch's postulates was developed to guide the identification of microbial genes encoding virulence factors.[10]

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:40:45
>>59482296
О дак ты айтишник что ли? За компом там че то мутишь да? Презентации айтишные эти.
Сажи айтишнику

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:41:16
Kochs postulates for the 21st century[edit]

Kochs postulates have played an important role in microbiology, yet they have major limitations. For example, Koch was well aware that in the case of cholera, the causal agent, Vibrio cholerae, could be found in both sick and healthy people, invalidating his first postulate. Furthermore, viral diseases were not yet discovered when Koch formulated his postulates, and there are many viruses that do not cause illness in all infected individuals, a requirement of the first postulate. Additionally, it was known through experimentation that H. pylori caused mild inflammation of the gastric lining when ingested. As evident as the inflammation was, it still did not immediately convince skeptics that H. pylori was associated with ulcers. Eventually, skeptics were silenced when a newly developed antibiotic treatment eliminated the bacteria and ultimately cured the disease. Contradictions and occurrences such as these have led many to believe that a fifth postulate may be required. If enacted, this postulate would state that sufficient microbial data should allow scientists to treat, cure, or prevent the particular disease.
More recently, modern nucleic acid-based microbial detection methods have made Kochs original postulates even less relevant. These nucleic acid-based methods make it possible to identify microbes that are associated with a disease, but in many cases the microbes are uncultivable. Also, nucleic acid-based detection methods are very sensitive, and they can often detect the very low levels of viruses that are found in healthy people without disease.
The use of these new methods has led to revised versions of Kochs postulates: Fredricks and Relman[11] have suggested the following set of Kochs postulates for the 21st century:
A nucleic acid sequence belonging to a putative pathogen should be present in most cases of an infectious disease. Microbial nucleic acids should be found preferentially in those organs or gross anatomic sites known to be diseased, and not in those organs that lack pathology.
Fewer, or no, copies of pathogen-associated nucleic acid sequences should occur in hosts or tissues without disease.
With resolution of disease, the copy number of pathogen-associated nucleic acid sequences should decrease or become undetectable. With clinical relapse, the opposite should occur.
When sequence detection predates disease, or sequence copy number correlates with severity of disease or pathology, the sequence-disease association is more likely to be a causal relationship.
The nature of the microorganism inferred from the available sequence should be consistent with the known biological characteristics of that group of organisms.
Tissue-sequence correlates should be sought at the cellular level: efforts should be made to demonstrate specific in situ hybridization of microbial sequence to areas of tissue pathology and to visible microorganisms or to areas where microorganisms are presumed to be located.
These sequence-based forms of evidence for microbial causation should be reproducible.
See also[edit]

Mill's Methods
Molecular Koch's postulates
Willoughby D. Miller
References[edit]

Jump up ^ Koch, R. (1876). "Untersuchungen ¬ber Bakterien: V. Die ttiologie der Milzbrand-Krankheit, begr¬ndet auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte des Bacillus anthracis" [Investigations into bacteria: V. The etiology of anthrax, based on the ontogenesis of Bacillus anthracis]. Cohns Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen 2 (2): 277310.
Jump up ^ Koch Robert (1893). "Њber den augenblicklichen Stand der bakteriologischen Choleradiagnose". Zeitschrift f¬r Hygiene und Infectionskrankheiten (in German) 14: 319333. doi:10.1007/BF02284324.
Jump up ^ Inglis TJ (November 2007). "Principia aetiologica: taking causality beyond Koch's postulates". Journal of Medical Microbiology 56 (Pt 11): 141922. doi:10.1099/jmm.0.47179-0. PMID 17965339.
^ Jump up to: a b Koch Robert (1884). "2 Die Aetiologie der Tuberkulose". Mitt Kaiser Gesundh. pp. 188.

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:41:52
анон вешай это фото, все поймут что у тебя и чувство юмора есть

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:42:01
>>59482340

продаю только нефть. и немного газа

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:42:02
thod of difference[edit]
If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance save one in common, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ, is the effect, or cause, or an necessary part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 455.
A B C D occur together with w x y z
B C D occur together with x y z

Therefore A is the cause, or the effect, or a part of the cause of w.
Joint method of agreement and difference[edit]
If two or more instances in which the phenomenon occurs have only one circumstance in common, while two or more instances in which it does not occur have nothing in common save the absence of that circumstance; the circumstance in which alone the two sets of instances differ, is the effect, or cause, or a necessary part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 463.
Also called simply the "joint method, " this principle simply represents the application of the methods of agreement and difference.
Symbolically, the Joint method of agreement and difference can be represented as:
A B C occur together with x y z
A D E occur together with x v w also B C occur with y z

Therefore A is the cause, or the effect, or a part of the cause of x.
Method of residue[edit]
Subduct[2] from any phenomenon such part as is known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.
John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic, Vol. 1. 1843. p. 465.
If a range of factors are believed to cause a range of phenomena, and we have matched all the factors, except one, with all the phenomena, except one, then the remaining phenomenon can be attributed to the remaining factor.
Symbolically, the Method of Residue can be represented as:
A B C occur together with x y z
B is known to be the cause of y
C is known to be the cause of z

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:42:53
>>59482381 >>59482378 >>59482340 >>59482296
This page links to catalogs of libraries, booksellers, and other book sources where you will be able to search for the book with ISBN. If you arrived at this page by clicking an ISBN number link in a Wikipedia page, then the links below (those labeled "find this book") search for the specific book using that ISBN number. Enter another ISBN number in the ISBN search form to change the search links below. Spaces and dashes in the ISBN number do not matter. Note: The number starts after the colon for "ISBN-10:" and "ISBN-13:" numbers.
Notes

An ISBN identifies a specific edition of a book. Any given title may therefore have a number of different ISBNs. See xISBN below for finding other editions.
An ISBN registration, even one corresponding to a book page on a major book distributor database, is not definite proof that such a book actually exists. A title may have been cancelled or postponed after the ISBN was assigned. Both ISBN and other registration have been abused in attempted hoaxes on Wikipedia in the past, so check to see if the book exists or not.
The master copy of this page is located at Wikipedia:Book sources.
Contents [hide]
1 Notes
2 Online text
3 Online databases
3.1 Metasearch engines for online databases
4 General search engines
5 Bibliographical information
6 Libraries
6.1 Worldwide
6.2 Key national libraries
6.3 Africa
6.3.1 South Africa
6.3.2 Zimbabwe
6.4 Americas
6.4.1 Central America and the Caribbean
6.4.1.1 Barbados
6.4.1.1.1 Universities and colleges
6.4.1.2 Jamaica
6.4.1.2.1 Universities and colleges
6.4.1.3 Mexico
6.4.1.3.1 Universities and colleges
6.4.1.4 Trinidad and Tobago
6.4.1.4.1 Universities and colleges
6.4.2 North America
6.4.2.1 Canada
6.4.2.1.1 Public libraries
6.4.2.1.2 Universities and colleges
6.4.2.1.3 National / government libraries
6.4.2.2 United States
6.4.2.2.1 Public libraries by state
6.4.2.2.2 Universities and colleges
6.4.3 South America
6.4.3.1 Argentina
6.4.3.2 Brazil
6.5 Asia
6.5.1 Bangladesh
6.5.1.1 University
6.5.2 China, People's Republic
6.5.3 Hong Kong, S.A.R. of China
6.5.4 Iran
6.5.4.1 Universities and colleges
6.5.4.2 Public libraries
6.5.5 Israel
6.5.6 Japan
6.5.7 Korea
6.5.8 Macau, S.A.R. of China
6.5.9 Philippines
6.5.9.1 National libraries
6.5.9.2 Universities and colleges
6.5.9.3 Other libraries
6.5.10 Singapore
6.5.11 Taiwan, Republic of China
6.5.12 Thailand
6.6 Australasia and Oceania
6.6.1 Australia
6.6.2 New Zealand
6.6.2.1 Public libraries
6.6.2.2 Academic libraries
6.6.2.3 Special libraries (research libraries)
6.7 Europe
6.7.1 Austria
6.7.2 Belgium
6.7.3 Bulgaria
6.7.4 Bosnia and Herzegovina
6.7.5 Croatia
6.7.6 Czech Republic
6.7.7 Denmark
6.7.8 Estonia
6.7.9 Finland
6.7.10 France
6.7.11 Germany
6.7.12 Greece
6.7.13 Hungary
6.7.14 Iceland
6.7.15 Ireland
6.7.16 Italy
6.7.17 Lithuania
6.7.18 Luxembourg
6.7.19 Republic of Macedonia
6.7.20 Montenegro
6.7.21 Netherlands
6.7.22 Norway
6.7.23 Poland
6.7.24 Portugal
6.7.25 Romania
6.7.26 Russia
6.7.27 Serbia
6.7.28 Slovakia
6.7.29 Slovenia
6.7.30 Spain
6.7.31 Sweden
6.7.32 Switzerland
6.7.33 Turkey
6.7.34 United Kingdom
6.7.34.1 Public libraries
6.7.34.2 Universities
7 Book swapping websites
8 Booksellers
8.1 Price comparison sites
8.2 Search many individual booksellers
8.3 Individual online booksellers
8.4 Electronic Reference Library
9 Lists of book sources focused on other languages
10 Find other editions
11 Find on Wikipedia
12 See also
Online text

For verifying citations in Wikipedia articles, and finding more info. These sites can search within some books, and show some or all pages of some books. See digital libraries also.
Find this book at Google Book Search online database
Find this book on Amazon.com (or .ca, .cn, .de, .fr, .it, .jp, .uk)
Online databases

Find this book at WorldCat free online catalog of the world's libraries
Find this book at Internet Book Database online database
Find this book at aNobii personal library catalog
Find this book at Goodreads personal library catalog
Find this book at LibraryThing personal library catalog
Find this book at Shelfari personal library catalog
Find this book at OttoBib.com citation metasearch
Find this book at Copyright Clearance Center online rights database

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:43:36
>>59481844
Бухи тоже ИТ?
Почему не в школе, долбоебина?
ОП сегодня у мамы траль

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:44:05
модно молодежно

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:45:15
Параметры
MY-60
MY-61
MY-62
MY-63
MY-64
MY-65
MY-67
MY68
Режим выбора пределов измерения

ручной

автоматический

Количество измерений в секунду

2-3

2

Разрядность ЖКД

3 m

4 m

3 n

Постоянное напряжение U=

0, 1мВ-1000В

0, 01мВ-1000В

0, 1мВ-1000В

Переменное напряжение U~

0, 1мВ-700 В

0, 1 мВ-700 В

0, 1мВ-750В

1мВ-750В

Переменный ток I~**

0, 1мкА-10А

10 мкА-10 А

0, 1 мкА-10 А

10мкА-10А

0, 1мкА-10А

Постоянный ток I=**

0, 01мкА-10А

1 мкА-10 А

0, 1 мкА-10 А

10мкА-10А

0, 1мкА-10А

Диапазон частот по переменному току

40-400Гц

40-1000Гц

40-400Гц

40-1000Гц

Сопротивление R

0, 1 Ом-200 МОм

0, 1 Ом - 200 МОм

0, 01м-200МОм

0, 1 Ом-40 МОм

0, 1Ом-32, 6МОм

Входное сопротивление R

10 МОм

Температура t`C
(термопара типа К)

нет

-20` § +1000`

нет

-20` § +1000`

нет

Ёмкость C

нет

1 пФ - 20 мкФ

0, 1пФ-20мкФ

нет

100 пФ - 32, 6 мкФ

Память [HOLDk

нет

есть

Частота F

нет

1Гц - 20кГц

10Гц-20кГц

1Гц - 20кГц

нет

10Гц - 150кГц

Коэффициент усиления транзисторов h21э

до 1000

Режим [прозвонкаk

&t;50 Ом

25 Ом

Диод-тест

есть

Питание

9В (типа NEDA 1694, Крона ВЦ)

Габариты, мм

91 ‡ 189 ‡ 31, 5

Вес, грамм (с батареей)

310

Сервис

Индикация разряда батарейки
Индикация перегрузки [1k.



Графическая
линейная шкала

Прочее

нет

Автовыключение через ~ 40мин

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:48:15
ПОШЁЛ БЫ ХОТЬ НА ДЕМОНСТРАЦИЮ, ПРОБЗДЕЛСЯ
@
ВАНЬНА ЕРОХИН УЖЕ ДАВНО БОЛЬШЕВИК
@
А ТЫ ВСЕ В ЭСЕРАХ СИДИШЬ

Втр 24 Дек 2013 12:49:38
>>59479588
>Фамилия у меня немецкая
"Цукерман" штоле?


← К списку тредов