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Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:09:21
Ну что, товарищи маргиналы, анархисты, коммунисты, завсегдатаи битардск-тредов, маньяки, мечтающие о матановской капче, все те, кто не дропнул Эврику после первого сезона и просто мамкины умницы. Теперь у вас появилась возможность самим стать у истоков нового дивного мира и внедрять в жизнь свои самые смелые мечты, будь то свой уютный домик на берегу океана или город со своими правилами и целями, не подчиняющийся мировой элите и ее деньгам. Для этого нужно определиться, какими заслугами вы обеспечите место в столь немногочисленном обществе и, собственно, пройти все тесты.
http://star-over-off.ru/about.html



Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:12:50
Бамп 1/5.


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:13:10
Толще.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:15:01
Бамп 2/5


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:17:59
Бамп 3/5.


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:21:58
Бамп 4/5.


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:25:08
Последний бамп.
Вестимо, для питурда мечтать - не мешки ворочать.
Deal with it.


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:27:21
И в чём профит этого мудаёбства?

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:28:35
>>62983223
Никому нахуй не нужна ваша криптовалюта, уёбуйте с моих двачей.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:29:05
Собирут интеллектуалов и заставят плясать под дудку какого-нибудь фашиста.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:30:23
>>62984268
ЭЛИТА11! Что интересно, для гражданства нужно пройти IQ тест, что уже как бы говорит о недалекой политике дифференцирования.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:31:11
>>62984268
Очевидно же, создать свой Битардск, с шахматами и 2d-богинями. Не об этом ли мечтает анон, расспрашивая в тредах тех, кто починил свой трактор и сейчас купается в океанских волнах?

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:31:25
>>62983941

что за игра?

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:33:35
>>62984481
>недалекой политике дифференцирования.
Прошлый век же. Сейчас уже не имеет значения, какой у тебя цвет кожи, какой ты культуры и откуда ты. Если ты достаточно умен, а для этого и нужны тесты, то для тебя в человеке важны только его личностные качества.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:36:16
>>62984691
Но нигеры съедят все мои арбузы и всю курицу из кфс.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:36:42
Не нашел ничего подобного в англоязычном сегменте, новости о покупке островов отсутствуют, сайт сделан довольно неплохо, но на этом все заканчивается. Больше пруфов


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:37:48
>>62984872
А вот купи-ка нашей криптовалюты и будут пруфы тебе.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:38:12
>>62983223
> группа финансистов, программистов и интернет-инвесторов, участвовавших в реализации самых успешных интернет-проектов Силиконовой долины

> приобрела несколько островов

> .ru

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:38:24
Трата времени на тест не окупается причастностью к какой-то школоигре. Платите деньги.
>в процессе экзаменов наивысший уровень интеллектуального психологического и эмоционального развития.
Лал.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:38:55
>>62984843
Не переживай, нигеры завалят первый же тест как и ты.
>>62984550
Black Mesa.


Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:41:00
>>62984944
Это не ты в одном из недавних тредов просрал 500 баксов на биткоинах? Не удивлюсь, если тебе до сих пор припекает.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:42:18
>>62983223
Оставил парочку заявок от имени "питурдов", спаленых на ловушке впараше. к сожалению мыльца их не знаю, поэтому писал свое. Глядишь пройду тест и получат гражданство, лол.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:42:30
>>62984987
>ищут интеллектуалов
>пропустили очевидную запятую

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:42:39
На словах звучит неплохо. Посмотрим как все выйдет.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:43:59
>>62985257
>придираться к переводу

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:44:24
>>62985150
Не-а, вообще не связывался с криптовалютой.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:45:25
>>62985240

> получат спам рассылку с ниграми и дилдаками

пофиксил тебя

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:45:44
>>62985351
А ну-ка запили нам ориджинал сайт.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:46:13
>>62985264
Сёма, твоя безграмотность тебя выдаёт.

Уёбывай.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:46:22
>>62985375
Ну да, а сажа у тебя просто так приклеилась, видать.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:46:40
>>62985509
Нет, ты.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:48:00
>>62985523
Разве жалко сажи для нового, свободного государства?

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:48:02
побампаю вам, ретарды
Составляющие интеллекта и его роль

Интеллект — это, прежде всего, основа целеполагания, планирования ресурсов и построение стратегии достижения цели. Есть основания полагать, что зачатками интеллекта обладают животные, и уже на этом уровне их интеллект посредством механизмов целеполагания и достижения целей влиял и влияет на эволюцию животных[3]. Изучением интеллекта животных занимается сравнительно молодая область науки, когнитивная этология.

Влияние интеллекта выходит за пределы жизни одного человека. Развитие интеллекта у человека выделило его из животных и стало началом развития общества, а затем и человеческой цивилизации.

Интеллект как способность обычно реализуется при помощи других способностей. Таких как: способности познавать, обучаться, мыслить логически, систематизировать информацию путем её анализа, определять её применимость (классифицировать), находить в ней связи, закономерности и отличия, ассоциировать её с подобной и т. д.

К параметрам, формирующим отличительные особенности интеллектуальной системы человека относят:

объём рабочей памяти, способность к прогнозированию, бескорыстной помощи, орудийной деятельности, логике[4],
многоуровневую (6 слоев нейронов) иерархию системного отбора ценной информации[5],
сознание[6],
память[7].

Выделяются биофизические параметры «интеллектуальной энергетики»: количество информации, ускорение (частота, скорость) и расстояние её передачи, - с объединением их в «формулу интеллекта»[8].

Существенными качествами человеческого интеллекта являются пытливость и глубина ума, его гибкость и подвижность, логичность и доказательность:

любопытство — стремление разносторонне познать то или иное явление в существенных отношениях, лежащее в основе активной познавательной деятельности;
глубина ума — способность отделять главное от второстепенного, необходимое от случайного;
гибкость и подвижность ума — способность человека широко использовать имеющийся опыт, оперативно исследовать предметы в новых связях и отношениях, преодолевать шаблонность мышления;
логичность мышления — способность соблюдения строгой последовательности рассуждений, с учётом всех существенных сторон в исследуемом объекте, всех возможных его взаимосвязей;
доказательность мышления — способность к использованию в нужный момент фактов и закономерностей, подтверждающих правильность суждений и выводов;
критичность мышления — способность строгой оценки результатов мыслительной деятельности для отбрасывания неправильных суждений, выводов и решений (способность отказываться от начатых действий, если они противоречат требованиям задачи);
широта мышления — способность к всестороннему охвату объекта мыслительной деятельности с учётом исходных данных задачи и многовариантности её решений[источник не указан 1156 дней].

Различное содержание деятельности требует развития определённых интеллектуальных способностей индивида. Но во всех случаях необходима чувствительность индивида к новому, актуальным проблемам, к тенденциям возможного развития ситуации. Показателем развития интеллекта является несвязанность субъекта внешними ограничениями, отсутствие у него ксенофобии — боязни нового, непривычного.

Существенное качество ума индивида — предвидение возможных последствий предпринимаемых им действий, способность предупреждать и избегать ненужных конфликтов. Одной из основных особенностей развитого интеллекта является способность к интуитивному решению сложных проблем.

Развитие отдельных качеств интеллекта определяется как генотипом данного индивида, так и широтой его жизненного опыта. В тоталитарных социальных режимах у конформных индивидов формируется так называемое целевое мышление — сфера мышления индивида сужается до крайне ограниченных житейских пределов, широко распространяется интеллектуальный инфантилизм, а в среде интеллектуалов — созерцательность. В групповом мышлении начинают преобладать расхожие стереотипы, шаблонные ориентации, схематизированные матрицы поведения. Возникают деформации в содержании интеллекта. Возможны деформации и в структуре интеллекта, в его организации. Негативным качеством интеллекта является ригидность мышления — его негибкость, предвзятое отношение к явлению, преувеличение чувственного его впечатления, приверженность к шаблонным оценкам.
Различные взгляды на интеллект

Согласно Линде Готтфредсон интеллект — это весьма общая умственная способность, которая включает возможность делать заключения, планировать, решать проблемы, абстрактно мыслить, понимать сложные идеи, быстро обучаться и учиться на основании опыта. Это не просто изучение книг, узкие академические знания или навыки проходить тесты. Напротив, по мнению учёного, интеллект отражает более широкую и глубокую способность познавать окружающий мир, понимать суть вещей и соображать, что делать в той или иной ситуации[9].

Ф. Н. Ильясов определяет интеллект как «способность системы создавать в ходе самообучения программы (в первую очередь эвристические) для решения задач определенного класса сложности и решать эти задачи».

В начале XX века Чарльз Спирман показал, что если человек хорошо решает одни задачи, то он успешен и в решении других, то есть, что все интеллектуальные способности статистически связаны. Спирман ввёл «фактор g» общего интеллекта, показывающий эффективность выполнения всех познавательных задач[10]. На практике оказалось, что «фактор g» трудно измерить напрямую. Однако на его основе удалось сформулировать величины, которые измерить возможно и которые представляют собой приблизительные меры g. Одним из таких параметров является коэффициент интеллекта (IQ). Психолог Джеймс Флинн первый провел обширные исследования в области динамики IQ в разных странах мира за длительный период и показал, что этот коэффициент непрерывно возрастал в течение 50 лет (Эффект Флинна).

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:48:40
Составляющие интеллекта и его роль

Интеллект — это, прежде всего, основа целеполагания, планирования ресурсов и построение стратегии достижения цели. Есть основания полагать, что зачатками интеллекта обладают животные, и уже на этом уровне их интеллект посредством механизмов целеполагания и достижения целей влиял и влияет на эволюцию животных[3]. Изучением интеллекта животных занимается сравнительно молодая область науки, когнитивная этология.

Влияние интеллекта выходит за пределы жизни одного человека. Развитие интеллекта у человека выделило его из животных и стало началом развития общества, а затем и человеческой цивилизации.

Интеллект как способность обычно реализуется при помощи других способностей. Таких как: способности познавать, обучаться, мыслить логически, систематизировать информацию путем её анализа, определять её применимость (классифицировать), находить в ней связи, закономерности и отличия, ассоциировать её с подобной и т. д.

К параметрам, формирующим отличительные особенности интеллектуальной системы человека относят:

объём рабочей памяти, способность к прогнозированию, бескорыстной помощи, орудийной деятельности, логике[4],
многоуровневую (6 слоев нейронов) иерархию системного отбора ценной информации[5],
сознание[6],
память[7].

Выделяются биофизические параметры «интеллектуальной энергетики»: количество информации, ускорение (частота, скорость) и расстояние её передачи, - с объединением их в «формулу интеллекта»[8].

Существенными качествами человеческого интеллекта являются пытливость и глубина ума, его гибкость и подвижность, логичность и доказательность:

любопытство — стремление разносторонне познать то или иное явление в существенных отношениях, лежащее в основе активной познавательной деятельности;
глубина ума — способность отделять главное от второстепенного, необходимое от случайного;
гибкость и подвижность ума — способность человека широко использовать имеющийся опыт, оперативно исследовать предметы в новых связях и отношениях, преодолевать шаблонность мышления;
логичность мышления — способность соблюдения строгой последовательности рассуждений, с учётом всех существенных сторон в исследуемом объекте, всех возможных его взаимосвязей;
доказательность мышления — способность к использованию в нужный момент фактов и закономерностей, подтверждающих правильность суждений и выводов;
критичность мышления — способность строгой оценки результатов мыслительной деятельности для отбрасывания неправильных суждений, выводов и решений (способность отказываться от начатых действий, если они противоречат требованиям задачи);
широта мышления — способность к всестороннему охвату объекта мыслительной деятельности с учётом исходных данных задачи и многовариантности её решений[источник не указан 1156 дней].

Различное содержание деятельности требует развития определённых интеллектуальных способностей индивида. Но во всех случаях необходима чувствительность индивида к новому, актуальным проблемам, к тенденциям возможного развития ситуации. Показателем развития интеллекта является несвязанность субъекта внешними ограничениями, отсутствие у него ксенофобии — боязни нового, непривычного.

Существенное качество ума индивида — предвидение возможных последствий предпринимаемых им действий, способность предупреждать и избегать ненужных конфликтов. Одной из основных особенностей развитого интеллекта является способность к интуитивному решению сложных проблем.

Развитие отдельных качеств интеллекта определяется как генотипом данного индивида, так и широтой его жизненного опыта. В тоталитарных социальных режимах у конформных индивидов формируется так называемое целевое мышление — сфера мышления индивида сужается до крайне ограниченных житейских пределов, широко распространяется интеллектуальный инфантилизм, а в среде интеллектуалов — созерцательность. В групповом мышлении начинают преобладать расхожие стереотипы, шаблонные ориентации, схематизированные матрицы поведения. Возникают деформации в содержании интеллекта. Возможны деформации и в структуре интеллекта, в его организации. Негативным качеством интеллекта является ригидность мышления — его негибкость, предвзятое отношение к явлению, преувеличение чувственного его впечатления, приверженность к шаблонным оценкам.
Различные взгляды на интеллект

Согласно Линде Готтфредсон интеллект — это весьма общая умственная способность, которая включает возможность делать заключения, планировать, решать проблемы, абстрактно мыслить, понимать сложные идеи, быстро обучаться и учиться на основании опыта. Это не просто изучение книг, узкие академические знания или навыки проходить тесты. Напротив, по мнению учёного, интеллект отражает более широкую и глубокую способность познавать окружающий мир, понимать суть вещей и соображать, что делать в той или иной ситуации[9].

Ф. Н. Ильясов определяет интеллект как «способность системы создавать в ходе самообучения программы (в первую очередь эвристические) для решения задач определенного класса сложности и решать эти задачи».

В начале XX века Чарльз Спирман показал, что если человек хорошо решает одни задачи, то он успешен и в решении других, то есть, что все интеллектуальные способности статистически связаны. Спирман ввёл «фактор g» общего интеллекта, показывающий эффективность выполнения всех познавательных задач[10]. На практике оказалось, что «фактор g» трудно измерить напрямую. Однако на его основе удалось сформулировать величины, которые измерить возможно и которые представляют собой приблизительные меры g. Одним из таких параметров является коэффициент интеллекта (IQ). Психолог Джеймс Флинн первый провел обширные исследования в области динамики IQ в разных странах мира за длительный период и показал, что этот коэффициент непрерывно возрастал в течение 50 лет (Эффект Флинна).
В религии

Православные отцы церкви термин ум (греч. ????), близкий по значению к интеллекту, иногда заменяли термином дух (греч. ??????)[источник не указан 668 дней].
Недостаточность интеллекта
Основная статья: Расстройство интеллекта
Социальный интеллект

Социальный интеллект – способность правильно понимать поведение людей. Эта способность необходима для эффективного межличностного взаимодействия и успешной социальной адаптации. Сам термин «социальный интеллект» был введен в психологию Э. Торндайком в 1920 году для обозначения «дальновидности в межличностных отношениях». Многие известные психологи внесли свою лепту в интерпретацию этого понятия. В 1937 году Г. Оллпорт связывал социальный интеллект со способностью высказывать быстрые, почти автоматические суждения о людях, прогнозировать наиболее вероятные реакции человека. Социальный интеллект, по мнению Г. Оллпорта, – особый «социальный дар», обеспечивающий гладкость в отношениях с людьми, продуктом которого является социальное приспособление, а не глубина понимания. Затем способности социального интеллекта многие известные ученые раскрывали в структурах общего интеллекта. Среди них наиболее ярко представлены модели интеллекта, предложенные Д. Гилфордом, Г. Айзенком. Среди психологов до последнего времени ведутся дискуссии вокруг определения интеллекта, данного Э. Борингом: интеллект есть то, что измеряется тестами интеллекта. Имеются различные точки зрения на оценку данного высказывания. По мнению Б.Ф. Анурина, оно достаточно тавтологично, тривиально и прямо напрашивается на критику. Другие исследователи считают такое определение рекурсивным, что является чрезвычайно распространенным в математике, информатике, компьютерном программировании, искусственном интеллекте. Г. Айзенк не согласен с определением Э. Боринга: тесты интеллекта, утверждает он, составляются не случайным образом и опираются

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:49:07
>>62985471
Оставь свое фейкомыльце.
Я ведь не даю никаких гарантий, просто делюсь ссылкой на случай, если кого-то заинтересует. Если очередная наебка, скажешь вслух "а я же говорил" и дропнешь это говно. Сейчас же от тебя никто ничего не требует.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:49:10
Составляющие интеллекта и его роль

Интеллект — это, прежде всего, основа целеполагания, планирования ресурсов и построение стратегии достижения цели. Есть основания полагать, что зачатками интеллекта обладают животные, и уже на этом уровне их интеллект посредством механизмов целеполагания и достижения целей влиял и влияет на эволюцию животных[3]. Изучением интеллекта животных занимается сравнительно молодая область науки, когнитивная этология.

Влияние интеллекта выходит за пределы жизни одного человека. Развитие интеллекта у человека выделило его из животных и стало началом развития общества, а затем и человеческой цивилизации.

Интеллект как способность обычно реализуется при помощи других способностей. Таких как: способности познавать, обучаться, мыслить логически, систематизировать информацию путем её анализа, определять её применимость (классифицировать), находить в ней связи, закономерности и отличия, ассоциировать её с подобной и т. д.

К параметрам, формирующим отличительные особенности интеллектуальной системы человека относят:

объём рабочей памяти, способность к прогнозированию, бескорыстной помощи, орудийной деятельности, логике[4],
многоуровневую (6 слоев нейронов) иерархию системного отбора ценной информации[5],
сознание[6],
память[7].

Выделяются биофизические параметры «интеллектуальной энергетики»: количество информации, ускорение (частота, скорость) и расстояние её передачи, - с объединением их в «формулу интеллекта»[8].

Существенными качествами человеческого интеллекта являются пытливость и глубина ума, его гибкость и подвижность, логичность и доказательность:

любопытство — стремление разносторонне познать то или иное явление в существенных отношениях, лежащее в основе активной познавательной деятельности;
глубина ума — способность отделять главное от второстепенного, необходимое от случайного;
гибкость и подвижность ума — способность человека широко использовать имеющийся опыт, оперативно исследовать предметы в новых связях и отношениях, преодолевать шаблонность мышления;
логичность мышления — способность соблюдения строгой последовательности рассуждений, с учётом всех существенных сторон в исследуемом объекте, всех возможных его взаимосвязей;
доказательность мышления — способность к использованию в нужный момент фактов и закономерностей, подтверждающих правильность суждений и выводов;
критичность мышления — способность строгой оценки результатов мыслительной деятельности для отбрасывания неправильных суждений, выводов и решений (способность отказываться от начатых действий, если они противоречат требованиям задачи);
широта мышления — способность к всестороннему охвату объекта мыслительной деятельности с учётом исходных данных задачи и многовариантности её решений[источник не указан 1156 дней].

Различное содержание деятельности требует развития определённых интеллектуальных способностей индивида. Но во всех случаях необходима чувствительность индивида к новому, актуальным проблемам, к тенденциям возможного развития ситуации. Показателем развития интеллекта является несвязанность субъекта внешними ограничениями, отсутствие у него ксенофобии — боязни нового, непривычного.

Существенное качество ума индивида — предвидение возможных последствий предпринимаемых им действий, способность предупреждать и избегать ненужных конфликтов. Одной из основных особенностей развитого интеллекта является способность к интуитивному решению сложных проблем.

Развитие отдельных качеств интеллекта определяется как генотипом данного индивида, так и широтой его жизненного опыта. В тоталитарных социальных режимах у конформных индивидов формируется так называемое целевое мышление — сфера мышления индивида сужается до крайне ограниченных житейских пределов, широко распространяется интеллектуальный инфантилизм, а в среде интеллектуалов — созерцательность. В групповом мышлении начинают преобладать расхожие стереотипы, шаблонные ориентации, схематизированные матрицы поведения. Возникают деформации в содержании интеллекта. Возможны деформации и в структуре интеллекта, в его организации. Негативным качеством интеллекта является ригидность мышления — его негибкость, предвзятое отношение к явлению, преувеличение чувственного его впечатления, приверженность к шаблонным оценкам.
Различные взгляды на интеллект

Согласно Линде Готтфредсон интеллект — это весьма общая умственная способность, которая включает возможность делать заключения, планировать, решать проблемы, абстрактно мыслить, понимать сложные идеи, быстро обучаться и учиться на основании опыта. Это не просто изучение книг, узкие академические знания или навыки проходить тесты. Напротив, по мнению учёного, интеллект отражает более широкую и глубокую способность познавать окружающий мир, понимать суть вещей и соображать, что делать в той или иной ситуации[9].

Ф. Н. Ильясов определяет интеллект как «способность системы создавать в ходе самообучения программы (в первую очередь эвристические) для решения задач определенного класса сложности и решать эти задачи».

В начале XX века Чарльз Спирман показал, что если человек хорошо решает одни задачи, то он успешен и в решении других, то есть, что все интеллектуальные способности статистически связаны. Спирман ввёл «фактор g» общего интеллекта, показывающий эффективность выполнения всех познавательных задач[10]. На практике оказалось, что «фактор g» трудно измерить напрямую. Однако на его основе удалось сформулировать величины, которые измерить возможно и которые представляют собой приблизительные меры g. Одним из таких параметров является коэффициент интеллекта (IQ). Психолог Джеймс Флинн первый провел обширные исследования в области динамики IQ в разных странах мира за длительный период и показал, что этот коэффициент непрерывно возрастал в течение 50 лет (Эффект Флинна).
В религии

Православные отцы церкви термин ум (греч. ????), близкий по значению к интеллекту, иногда заменяли термином дух (греч. ??????)[источник не указан 668 дней].
Недостаточность интеллекта
Основная статья: Расстройство интеллекта
Социальный интеллект

Социальный интеллект – способность правильно понимать поведение людей. Эта способность необходима для эффективного межличностного взаимодействия и успешной социальной адаптации. Сам термин «социальный интеллект» был введен в психологию Э. Торндайком в 1920 году для обозначения «дальновидности в межличностных отношениях». Многие известные психологи внесли свою лепту в интерпретацию этого понятия. В 1937 году Г. Оллпорт связывал социальный интеллект со способностью высказывать быстрые, почти автоматические суждения о людях, прогнозировать наиболее вероятные реакции человека. Социальный интеллект, по мнению Г. Оллпорта, – особый «социальный дар», обеспечивающий гладкость в отношениях с людьми, продуктом которого является социальное приспособление, а не глубина понимания. Затем способности социального интеллекта многие известные ученые раскрывали в структурах общего интеллекта. Среди них наиболее ярко представлены модели интеллекта, предложенные Д. Гилфордом, Г. Айзенком. Среди психологов до последнего времени ведутся дискуссии вокруг определения интеллекта, данного Э. Борингом: интеллект есть то, что измеряется тестами интеллекта. Имеются различные точки зрения на оценку данного высказывания. По мнению Б.Ф. Анурина, оно достаточно тавтологично, тривиально и прямо напрашивается на критику. Другие исследователи считают такое определение рекурсивным, что является чрезвычайно распространенным в математике, информатике, компьютерном программировании, искусственном интеллекте. Г. Айзенк не согласен с определением Э. Боринга: тесты интеллекта, утверждает он, составляются не случайным образом и

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:49:19
Это же Пукин выискивает остатки умных людей среди долбоебов-пидорашек. Чтобы собрать их всех в одном месте и сжечь

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:49:50
Составляющие интеллекта и его роль

Интеллект — это, прежде всего, основа целеполагания, планирования ресурсов и построение стратегии достижения цели. Есть основания полагать, что зачатками интеллекта обладают животные, и уже на этом уровне их интеллект посредством механизмов целеполагания и достижения целей влиял и влияет на эволюцию животных[3]. Изучением интеллекта животных занимается сравнительно молодая область науки, когнитивная этология.

Влияние интеллекта выходит за пределы жизни одного человека. Развитие интеллекта у человека выделило его из животных и стало началом развития общества, а затем и человеческой цивилизации.

Интеллект как способность обычно реализуется при помощи других способностей. Таких как: способности познавать, обучаться, мыслить логически, систематизировать информацию путем её анализа, определять её применимость (классифицировать), находить в ней связи, закономерности и отличия, ассоциировать её с подобной и т. д.

К параметрам, формирующим отличительные особенности интеллектуальной системы человека относят:

объём рабочей памяти, способность к прогнозированию, бескорыстной помощи, орудийной деятельности, логике[4],
многоуровневую (6 слоев нейронов) иерархию системного отбора ценной информации[5],
сознание[6],
память[7].

Выделяются биофизические параметры «интеллектуальной энергетики»: количество информации, ускорение (частота, скорость) и расстояние её передачи, - с объединением их в «формулу интеллекта»[8].

Существенными качествами человеческого интеллекта являются пытливость и глубина ума, его гибкость и подвижность, логичность и доказательность:

любопытство — стремление разносторонне познать то или иное явление в существенных отношениях, лежащее в основе активной познавательной деятельности;
глубина ума — способность отделять главное от второстепенного, необходимое от случайного;
гибкость и подвижность ума — способность человека широко использовать имеющийся опыт, оперативно исследовать предметы в новых связях и отношениях, преодолевать шаблонность мышления;
логичность мышления — способность соблюдения строгой последовательности рассуждений, с учётом всех существенных сторон в исследуемом объекте, всех возможных его взаимосвязей;
доказательность мышления — способность к использованию в нужный момент фактов и закономерностей, подтверждающих правильность суждений и выводов;
критичность мышления — способность строгой оценки результатов мыслительной деятельности для отбрасывания неправильных суждений, выводов и решений (способность отказываться от начатых действий, если они противоречат требованиям задачи);
широта мышления — способность к всестороннему охвату объекта мыслительной деятельности с учётом исходных данных задачи и многовариантности её решений[источник не указан 1156 дней].

Различное содержание деятельности требует развития определённых интеллектуальных способностей индивида. Но во всех случаях необходима чувствительность индивида к новому, актуальным проблемам, к тенденциям возможного развития ситуации. Показателем развития интеллекта является несвязанность субъекта внешними ограничениями, отсутствие у него ксенофобии — боязни нового, непривычного.

Существенное качество ума индивида — предвидение возможных последствий предпринимаемых им действий, способность предупреждать и избегать ненужных конфликтов. Одной из основных особенностей развитого интеллекта является способность к интуитивному решению сложных проблем.

Развитие отдельных качеств интеллекта определяется как генотипом данного индивида, так и широтой его жизненного опыта. В тоталитарных социальных режимах у конформных индивидов формируется так называемое целевое мышление — сфера мышления индивида сужается до крайне ограниченных житейских пределов, широко распространяется интеллектуальный инфантилизм, а в среде интеллектуалов — созерцательность. В групповом мышлении начинают преобладать расхожие стереотипы, шаблонные ориентации, схематизированные матрицы поведения. Возникают деформации в содержании интеллекта. Возможны деформации и в структуре интеллекта, в его организации. Негативным качеством интеллекта является ригидность мышления — его негибкость, предвзятое отношение к явлению, преувеличение чувственного его впечатления, приверженность к шаблонным оценкам.
Различные взгляды на интеллект

Согласно Линде Готтфредсон интеллект — это весьма общая умственная способность, которая включает возможность делать заключения, планировать, решать проблемы, абстрактно мыслить, понимать сложные идеи, быстро обучаться и учиться на основании опыта. Это не просто изучение книг, узкие академические знания или навыки проходить тесты. Напротив, по мнению учёного, интеллект отражает более широкую и глубокую способность познавать окружающий мир, понимать суть вещей и соображать, что делать в той или иной ситуации[9].

Ф. Н. Ильясов определяет интеллект как «способность системы создавать в ходе самообучения программы (в первую очередь эвристические) для решения задач определенного класса сложности и решать эти задачи».

В начале XX века Чарльз Спирман показал, что если человек хорошо решает одни задачи, то он успешен и в решении других, то есть, что все интеллектуальные способности статистически связаны. Спирман ввёл «фактор g» общего интеллекта, показывающий эффективность выполнения всех познавательных задач[10]. На практике оказалось, что «фактор g» трудно измерить напрямую. Однако на его основе удалось сформулировать величины, которые измерить возможно и которые представляют собой приблизительные меры g. Одним из таких параметров является коэффициент интеллекта (IQ). Психолог Джеймс Флинн первый провел обширные исследования в области динамики IQ в разных странах мира за длительный период и показал, что этот коэффициент непрерывно возрастал в течение 50 лет (Эффект Флинна).
В религии

Православные отцы церкви термин ум (греч. ????), близкий по значению к интеллекту, иногда заменяли термином дух (греч. ??????)[источник не указан 668 дней].
Недостаточность интеллекта
Основная статья: Расстройство интеллекта
Социальный интеллект

Социальный интеллект – способность правильно понимать поведение людей. Эта способность необходима для эффективного межличностного взаимодействия и успешной социальной адаптации. Сам термин «социальный интеллект» был введен в психологию Э. Торндайком в 1920 году для обозначения «дальновидности в межличностных отношениях». Многие известные психологи внесли свою лепту в интерпретацию этого понятия. В 1937 году Г. Оллпорт связывал социальный интеллект со способностью высказывать быстрые, почти автоматические суждения о людях, прогнозировать наиболее вероятные реакции человека. Социальный интеллект, по мнению Г. Оллпорта, – особый «социальный дар», обеспечивающий гладкость в отношениях с людьми, продуктом которого является социальное приспособление, а не глубина понимания. Затем способности социального интеллекта многие известные ученые раскрывали в структурах общего интеллекта. Среди них наиболее ярко представлены модели интеллекта, предложенные Д. Гилфордом, Г. Айзенком. Среди психологов до последнего времени ведутся дискуссии вокруг определения интеллекта, данного Э. Борингом: интеллект есть то, что измеряется тестами интеллекта. Имеются различные точки зрения на оценку данного высказывания. По мнению Б.Ф. Анурина, оно достаточно тавтологично, тривиально и прямо напрашивается на критику. Другие исследователи считают такое определение рекурсивным, что является чрезвычайно распространенным в математике, информатике, компьютерном программировании, искусственном интеллекте. Г. Айзенк н

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:50:48
>>62985718
Их, походу, не осталось. Или они что-то знают, но не палятся.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:51:05
Интеллект (от лат. intellectus — понимание) — качество психики, состоящее из способности адаптироваться к новым ситуациям, способности к обучению на основе опыта, пониманию и применению абстрактных концепций и использованию своих знаний для управления окружающей средой.[1] Общая способность к познанию и решению трудностей, которая объединяет все познавательные способности человека: ощущение, восприятие, память, представление, мышление, воображение[2].

Содержание

1 Составляющие интеллекта и его роль
1.1 Различные взгляды на интеллект
1.1.1 В религии
1.2 Недостаточность интеллекта
2 Социальный интеллект
3 Эмоциональный интеллект
4 См. также
5 Примечания
6 Ссылки
7 Литература

Составляющие интеллекта и его роль

Интеллект — это, прежде всего, основа целеполагания, планирования ресурсов и построение стратегии достижения цели. Есть основания полагать, что зачатками интеллекта обладают животные, и уже на этом уровне их интеллект посредством механизмов целеполагания и достижения целей влиял и влияет на эволюцию животных[3]. Изучением интеллекта животных занимается сравнительно молодая область науки, когнитивная этология.

Влияние интеллекта выходит за пределы жизни одного человека. Развитие интеллекта у человека выделило его из животных и стало началом развития общества, а затем и человеческой цивилизации.

Интеллект как способность обычно реализуется при помощи других способностей. Таких как: способности познавать, обучаться, мыслить логически, систематизировать информацию путем её анализа, определять её применимость (классифицировать), находить в ней связи, закономерности и отличия, ассоциировать её с подобной и т. д.

К параметрам, формирующим отличительные особенности интеллектуальной системы человека относят:

объём рабочей памяти, способность к прогнозированию, бескорыстной помощи, орудийной деятельности, логике[4],
многоуровневую (6 слоев нейронов) иерархию системного отбора ценной информации[5],
сознание[6],
память[7].

Выделяются биофизические параметры «интеллектуальной энергетики»: количество информации, ускорение (частота, скорость) и расстояние её передачи, - с объединением их в «формулу интеллекта»[8].

Существенными качествами человеческого интеллекта являются пытливость и глубина ума, его гибкость и подвижность, логичность и доказательность:

любопытство — стремление разносторонне познать то или иное явление в существенных отношениях, лежащее в основе активной познавательной деятельности;
глубина ума — способность отделять главное от второстепенного, необходимое от случайного;
гибкость и подвижность ума — способность человека широко использовать имеющийся опыт, оперативно исследовать предметы в новых связях и отношениях, преодолевать шаблонность мышления;
логичность мышления — способность соблюдения строгой последовательности рассуждений, с учётом всех существенных сторон в исследуемом объекте, всех возможных его взаимосвязей;
доказательность мышления — способность к использованию в нужный момент фактов и закономерностей, подтверждающих правильность суждений и выводов;
критичность мышления — способность строгой оценки результатов мыслительной деятельности для отбрасывания неправильных суждений, выводов и решений (способность отказываться от начатых действий, если они противоречат требованиям задачи);
широта мышления — способность к всестороннему охвату объекта мыслительной деятельности с учётом исходных данных задачи и многовариантности её решений[источник не указан 1156 дней].

Различное содержание деятельности требует развития определённых интеллектуальных способностей индивида. Но во всех случаях необходима чувствительность индивида к новому, актуальным проблемам, к тенденциям возможного развития ситуации. Показателем развития интеллекта является несвязанность субъекта внешними ограничениями, отсутствие у него ксенофобии — боязни нового, непривычного.

Существенное качество ума индивида — предвидение возможных последствий предпринимаемых им действий, способность предупреждать и избегать ненужных конфликтов. Одной из основных особенностей развитого интеллекта является способность к интуитивному решению сложных проблем.

Развитие отдельных качеств интеллекта определяется как генотипом данного индивида, так и широтой его жизненного опыта. В тоталитарных социальных режимах у конформных индивидов формируется так называемое целевое мышление — сфера мышления индивида сужается до крайне ограниченных житейских пределов, широко распространяется интеллектуальный инфантилизм, а в среде интеллектуалов — созерцательность. В групповом мышлении начинают преобладать расхожие стереотипы, шаблонные ориентации, схематизированные матрицы поведения. Возникают деформации в содержании интеллекта. Возможны деформации и в структуре интеллекта, в его организации. Негативным качеством интеллекта является ригидность мышления — его негибкость, предвзятое отношение к явлению, преувеличение чувственного его впечатления, приверженность к шаблонным оценкам.
Различные взгляды на интеллект

Согласно Линде Готтфредсон интеллект — это весьма общая умственная способность, которая включает возможность делать заключения, планировать, решать проблемы, абстрактно мыслить, понимать сложные идеи, быстро обучаться и учиться на основании опыта. Это не просто изучение книг, узкие академические знания или навыки проходить тесты. Напротив, по мнению учёного, интеллект отражает более широкую и глубокую способность познавать окружающий мир, понимать суть вещей и соображать, что делать в той или иной ситуации[9].

Ф. Н. Ильясов определяет интеллект как «способность системы создавать в ходе самообучения программы (в первую очередь эвристические) для решения задач определенного класса сложности и решать эти задачи».

В начале XX века Чарльз Спирман показал, что если человек хорошо решает одни задачи, то он успешен и в решении других, то есть, что все интеллектуальные способности статистически связаны. Спирман ввёл «фактор g» общего интеллекта, показывающий эффективность выполнения всех познавательных задач[10]. На практике оказалось, что «фактор g» трудно измерить напрямую. Однако на его основе удалось сформулировать величины, которые измерить возможно и которые представляют собой приблизительные меры g. Одним из таких параметров является коэффициент интеллекта (IQ). Психолог Джеймс Флинн первый провел обширные исследования в области динамики IQ в разных странах мира за длительный период и показал, что этот коэффициент непрерывно возрастал в течение 50 лет (Эффект Флинна).
В религии

Православные отцы церкви термин ум (греч. ????), близкий по значению к интеллекту, иногда заменяли термином дух (греч. ??????)[источник не указан 668 дней].
Недостаточность интеллекта
Основная статья: Расстройство интеллекта
Социальный интеллект

Социальный интеллект – способность правильно понимать поведение людей. Эта способность необходима для эффективного межличностного взаимодействия и успешной социальной адаптации. Сам термин «социальный интеллект» был введен в психологию Э. Торндайком в 1920 году для обозначения «дальновидности в межличностных отношениях». Многие известные психологи внесли свою лепту в интерпретацию этого понятия. В 1937 году Г. Оллпорт связывал социальный интеллект со способностью высказывать быстрые, почти автоматические суждения о людях, прогнозировать наиболее вероятные реакции человека. Социальный интеллект, по мнению Г. Оллпорта, – особый «социальный дар», обеспечивающий гладкость в отношениях с людьми, продуктом которого является социальное приспособление, а не глубина понимания. Затем способности социального интеллекта многие известные ученые раскрывали в структурах общего интеллекта. Среди них наиболее ярко представлены модели интеллекта, предложенные Д. Гилфордом, Г. Айзенком. Среди психологов до последнего времени ведутся дискуссии вокруг определения интеллекта, данного Э. Борингом: интеллект есть то, что измеряется тестами интеллекта. Имеются различные точки зрения на оценку

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:51:57
>>62985704
А может лучше Настя съебешь вбыдлятню, там даунов много.
e863870@drdrb.com

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:52:23
>>62985837
Как активно отрабатываешь свои 15 рублей, молодец.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:52:28
Psychology
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Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

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Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches.[35]
Humanistic

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:53:18
>>62985895
Почему бы тебе не съебнуть?

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:54:29
Psychology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Phycology, Physiology, or Psychiatry.
Page semi-protected
Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

Outline

History
Subfields

Basic types

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Comparative
Cultural
Differential
Developmental
Evolutionary
Experimental
Mathematical
Personality
Positive
Quantitative
Social

Applied psychology

Applied behavior analysis
Clinical
Community
Consumer
Educational
Environmental
Forensic
Health
Industrial and organizational
Legal
Military
Neuro
Occupational health
Political
Religion
School
Sport

Lists

Disciplines
Organizations
Psychologists
Psychotherapies
Publications
Research methods
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Timeline
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Portal icon Psychology portal

v
t
e

Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches.[35]

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:56:38
Ну что, агрессивный школьник уже успокоился?

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:58:03
>>62986182
Ориджинал сайт на почту e863870@drdrb.com

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:58:28
>>62986182
Увы, нет.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 22:59:39
Psychology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Phycology, Physiology, or Psychiatry.
Page semi-protected
Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

Outline

History
Subfields

Basic types

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Comparative
Cultural
Differential
Developmental
Evolutionary
Experimental
Mathematical
Personality
Positive
Quantitative
Social

Applied psychology

Applied behavior analysis
Clinical
Community
Consumer
Educational
Environmental
Forensic
Health
Industrial and organizational
Legal
Military
Neuro
Occupational health
Political
Religion
School
Sport

Lists

Disciplines
Organizations
Psychologists
Psychotherapies
Publications
Research methods
Theories
Timeline
Topics

Portal icon Psychology portal

v
t
e

Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches.[35]
Humanist

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:00:25
>>62986274
Вбросил мыльце. Авось, что и вбросят.
Не терпится? Сам спроси у них.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:01:30
>>62986295
Вот странно же, откуда такой бугурт. Просто сагануть и скрыть уже мало, надо посагать.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:03:54
Psychology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Phycology, Physiology, or Psychiatry.
Page semi-protected
Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

Outline

History
Subfields

Basic types

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Comparative
Cultural
Differential
Developmental
Evolutionary
Experimental
Mathematical
Personality
Positive
Quantitative
Social

Applied psychology

Applied behavior analysis
Clinical
Community
Consumer
Educational
Environmental
Forensic
Health
Industrial and organizational
Legal
Military
Neuro
Occupational health
Political
Religion
School
Sport

Lists

Disciplines
Organizations
Psychologists
Psychotherapies
Publications
Research methods
Theories
Timeline
Topics

Portal icon Psychology portal

v
t
e

Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm:

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:06:48
Да, школьник никак не успокоится. Еще и пятница, на ночной надежды никакой.
Пересоздам на следующей неделе.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:23:07
http://widestat.ru/star-over-off.ru

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:27:20
>>62987905
Ну что ты такой глупый. Очевидно, что сайт создан для русскоязычной аудитории и нужен лишь как буфер. Таких сайтов на разных языках могут быть десятки.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:31:24
>>62988189
А то, что на том же IP сервис смс-рассылок никого не должно смущать!

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:34:20
>>62988443
Скажешь, когда придет смска.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:39:50
>>62988618
Какую вообще криптовалюту толкать будете? Расскажи поподробнее о вашей хуйне и не буду трогать будущие треды.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:42:10
>>62988950
Если тебя интересуют криптовалюты - проходи на /cc, не задерживайся.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:43:16
>>62989089
Не хочешь, твои проблемы тащемта.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:43:47
Psychology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Phycology, Physiology, or Psychiatry.
Page semi-protected
Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

Outline

History
Subfields

Basic types

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Comparative
Cultural
Differential
Developmental
Evolutionary
Experimental
Mathematical
Personality
Positive
Quantitative
Social

Applied psychology

Applied behavior analysis
Clinical
Community
Consumer
Educational
Environmental
Forensic
Health
Industrial and organizational
Legal
Military
Neuro
Occupational health
Political
Religion
School
Sport

Lists

Disciplines
Organizations
Psychologists
Psychotherapies
Publications
Research methods
Theories
Timeline
Topics

Portal icon Psychology portal

v
t
e

Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches.[35]
Humanistc

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:46:05
>>62989160
Какой грозный. Баюс баюс.


Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:55:04
>>62989325
Однако, хватило 2х адекватных анонов, чтобы засагать твои треды к ебеням.

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:56:28
Psychology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Phycology, Physiology, or Psychiatry.
Page semi-protected
Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

Outline

History
Subfields

Basic types

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Comparative
Cultural
Differential
Developmental
Evolutionary
Experimental
Mathematical
Personality
Positive
Quantitative
Social

Applied psychology

Applied behavior analysis
Clinical
Community
Consumer
Educational
Environmental
Forensic
Health
Industrial and organizational
Legal
Military
Neuro
Occupational health
Political
Religion
School
Sport

Lists

Disciplines
Organizations
Psychologists
Psychotherapies
Publications
Research methods
Theories
Timeline
Topics

Portal icon Psychology portal

v
t
e

Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive approaches.[35]
Humanis

Птн 21 Фев 2014 23:57:47
>>62989897
>хватило 2х адекватных анонов
Ты и...снова ты?

Суб 22 Фев 2014 00:03:58
>>62990089
Но в таком случае получается, что твои говнотреды засагал всего-лишь 1 анон.

Суб 22 Фев 2014 00:06:53
Psychology
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with Phycology, Physiology, or Psychiatry.
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Psychology
The Greek letter 'psi', a symbol for psychology

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Further information: Outline of psychology and Index of psychology articles

Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.[1][2] Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases,[3][4] and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society.[5][6] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors.

Psychologists explore concepts such as perception, cognition, attention, emotion, phenomenology, motivation, brain functioning, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas. Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.[7] Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science",[8] with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, and the humanities, such as philosophy.

While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. The majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, and typically work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings (e.g., medical schools, hospitals). Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas[9] such as human development and aging, sports, health, and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law.

Contents

1 Etymology
2 History
2.1 Structuralism
2.2 Functionalism
2.3 Psychoanalysis
2.4 Behaviorism
2.5 Humanistic
2.6 Gestalt
2.7 Existentialism
2.8 Cognitivism
3 Subfields
3.1 Biological
3.2 Clinical
3.3 Cognitive
3.4 Comparative
3.5 Developmental
3.6 Educational and school
3.7 Evolutionary
3.8 Industrial–organizational
3.9 Personality
3.10 Social
3.11 Positive
4 Research methods
4.1 Qualitative and quantitative research
4.2 Controlled experiments
4.3 Survey questionnaires
4.4 Longitudinal studies
4.5 Observation in natural settings
4.6 Qualitative and descriptive research
4.7 Neuropsychological methods
4.8 Computational modeling
4.9 Animal studies
5 Criticism
5.1 Theory
5.2 Practice
5.3 Ethical standards
5.4 Systemic bias
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

Etymology

The word psychology literally means, "study of the soul" (????, psukh?, meaning "breath", "spirit", or "soul"; and -????? -logos, translated as "study of" or "research").[10] The Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Maruli? in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century.[11] The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats of the Body, and Psychology, which treats of the Soul."[12]
History
Main article: History of psychology
Wilhelm Wundt (seated) with colleagues in his psychological laboratory, the first of its kind. Wundt is credited with setting up psychology as a field of scientific inquiry independent of the disciplines philosophy and biology.

The study of psychology in a philosophical context dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. Historians point to the writings of ancient Greek philosophers, such as Thales, Plato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise),[13] as the first significant body of work in the West to be rich in psychological thought.[14] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders were of a physical, rather than divine, nature.[15]
Structuralism
Main article: Structuralism (psychology)

German physician Wilhelm Wundt is credited with introducing psychological discovery into a laboratory setting. Known as the "father of experimental psychology",[16] he founded the first psychological laboratory, at Leipzig University, in 1879.[16] Wundt focused on breaking down mental processes into the most basic components, motivated in part by an analogy to recent advances in chemistry, and its successful investigation of the elements and structure of material. Although Wundt, himself, was not a structuralist, his student Edward Titchener, a major figure in early American psychology, was a structuralist thinker opposed to functionalist approaches.
Functionalism
Main article: Functional psychology

Functionalism formed as a reaction to the theories of the structuralist school of thought and was heavily influenced by the work of the American philosopher, scientist, and psychologist William James. James felt that psychology should have practical value, and that psychologists should find out how the mind can function to a person's benefit. In his book, Principles of Psychology,[17] published in 1890, he laid the foundations for many of the questions that psychologists would explore for years to come. Other major functionalist thinkers included John Dewey and Harvey Carr.

Other 19th-century contributors to the field include the German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer in the experimental study of memory, who developed quantitative models of learning and forgetting at the University of Berlin,[18] and the Russian-Soviet physiologist Ivan Pavlov, who discovered in dogs a learning process that was later termed "classical conditioning" and applied to human beings.[19]

Starting in the 1950s, the experimental techniques developed by Wundt, James, Ebbinghaus, and others re-emerged as experimental psychology became increasingly cognitivist—concerned with information and its processing—and, eventually, constituted a part of the wider cognitive science.[20] In its early years, this development was seen as a "revolution,"[20] as cognitive science both responded to and reacted against then-popular theories, including psychoanalytic and behaviorist theories.
Psychoanalysis
Main article: Psychoanalysis

From the 1890s until his death in 1939, the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, which comprised a method of investigating the mind and interpreting experience; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict.[21] Freud's psychoanalytic theory was largely based on interpretive methods, introspection and clinical observations. It became very well known, largely because it tackled subjects such as sexuality, repression, and the unconscious mind as general aspects of psychological development. These were largely considered taboo subjects at the time, and Freud provided a catalyst for them to be openly discussed in polite society. Clinically, Freud helped to pioneer the method of free association and a therapeutic interest in dream interpretation.[22][23]
Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Carl Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, S?ndor Ferenczi.

Freud had a significant influence on Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, whose analytical psychology became an alternative form of depth psychology. Other well-known psychoanalytic scholars of the mid-20th century included psychoanalysts, psychologists, psychiatrists, and philosophers. Among these thinkers were Erik Erikson, Melanie Klein, D.W. Winnicott, Karen Horney, Erich Fromm, John Bowlby, and Sigmund Freud's daughter, Anna Freud. Throughout the 20th century, psychoanalysis evolved into diverse schools of thought, most of which may be classed as Neo-Freudian.[24]

Psychoanalytic theory and therapy were criticized by psychologists such as Hans Eysenck, and by philosophers including Karl Popper. Popper, a philosopher of science, argued that psychoanalysis had been misrepresented as a scientific discipline,[25] whereas Eysenck said that psychoanalytic tenets had been contradicted by experimental data. By the end of 20th century, psychology departments in American universities had become scientifically oriented, marginalizing Freudian theory and dismissing it as a "desiccated and dead" historical artifact.[26] Meanwhile, however, researchers in the emerging field of neuro-psychoanalysis defended some of Freud's ideas on scientific grounds,[27] while scholars of the humanities maintained that Freud was not a "scientist at all, but ... an interpreter."[26]
Behaviorism
Main article: Behaviorism
Skinner's teaching machine, a mechanical invention to automate the task of programmed instruction.

In the United States, behaviorism became the dominant school of thought during the 1950s. Behaviorism is a discipline that was established in the early 20th century by John B. Watson, and embraced and extended by Edward Thorndike, Clark L. Hull, Edward C. Tolman, and later B.F. Skinner. Theories of learning emphasized the ways in which people might be predisposed, or conditioned, by their environments to behave in certain ways.

Classical conditioning was an early behaviorist model. It posited that behavioral tendencies are determined by immediate associations between various environmental stimuli and the degree of pleasure or pain that follows. Behavioral patterns, then, were understood to consist of organisms' conditioned responses to the stimuli in their environment. The stimuli were held to exert influence in proportion to their prior repetition or to the previous intensity of their associated pain or pleasure. Much research consisted of laboratory-based animal experimentation, which was increasing in popularity as physiology grew more sophisticated.

Skinner's behaviorism shared with its predecessors a philosophical inclination toward positivism and determinism.[28] He believed that the contents of the mind were not open to scientific scrutiny and that scientific psychology should emphasize the study of observable behavior. He focused on behavior–environment relations and analyzed overt and covert (i.e., private) behavior as a function of the organism interacting with its environment.[29] Behaviorists usually rejected or deemphasized dualistic explanations such as "mind" or "consciousness"; and, in lieu of probing an "unconscious mind" that underlies unawareness, they spoke of the "contingency-shaped behaviors" in which unawareness becomes outwardly manifest.[28]

Notable incidents in the history of behaviorism are John B. Watson's Little Albert experiment which applied classical conditioning to the developing human child, and the clarification of the difference between classical conditioning and operant (or instrumental) conditioning, first by Miller and Kanorski and then by Skinner.[30][31] Skinner's version of behaviorism emphasized operant conditioning, through which behaviors are strengthened or weakened by their consequences.

Linguist Noam Chomsky's critique of the behaviorist model of language acquisition is widely regarded as a key factor in the decline of behaviorism's prominence.[32] Martin Seligman and colleagues discovered that the conditioning of dogs led to outcomes ("learned helplessness") that opposed the predictions of behaviorism.[33][34] But Skinner's behaviorism did not die, perhaps in part because it generated successful practical applications.[32] The fall of behaviorism as an overarching model in psychology, however, gave way to a new dominant paradigm: cognitive ap

Суб 22 Фев 2014 00:11:56
>>62990489
Меня это должно сильно расстроить?
Пересоздам тред пару раз. Если анона таки не заинтересует, ну что же, так тому и быть.


← К списку тредов