Суп , Антоны .
Та самая тян которой 13, алгебра успешно просранна , а как ваши дела ?
[email: sage] >>80816272
Нахуй пошла, вниманиеблядь!
Привет, толстая сестричка.
В аду гори, говно.
[email: sage] >>80816272
А зачем в 13 проёбывать алгебру? Ты дохуя умная? Или, наоборот, не понимаешь ничего?
Сагайте эту гниду, идиоты.
[email: sage] >>80816272
Не понимаю + контрольная .
Но я ее пробала случайно ;(
[email: sage] >>80817033
Мне это ни о чём не говорит.
У тебя и алгебры не было
все еще впереди.
MKb.42(W) (нем. MaschinenKarabiner-42 (Walther) — автоматический карабин 42 года фирмы Walther) — прототип автомата, созданный компанией Walther во время Второй мировой войны.
Основная статья: StG-44#История создания
В конце 1940 года фирма Walther под руководством Эриха Вальтера присоединилась к конкурсу на создание автомата под разработанный фирмой Polte промежуточный патрон 7,92x33 мм. Первый прототип был испытан в 1941 году и показал удовлетворительные результаты, но его доводка продолжалась до конца года.
В 1943 году представлен прототипы MKb.42 фирм Walther и Haenel проходят войсковые испытания на Восточном фронте, по результатам которых было установлено, что MKb.42(H) хотя и уступает образцу фирмы Walther по массо-габаритным показателям и сбалансированности, но является более надёжным и простым оружием. Предпочтение было отдано образцу фирмы Haenel, а производство MKb.42(W) было прекращено.
В автомате применена газоотводная система, при которой часть пороховых газов, выталкивающих пули отводится из канала ствола через два отверстия в специальный кожух. Эти газы давят на кольцеобразный газовый поршень, который размещается вокруг ствола и втулки, осуществляющей поступательное движение затвора в отличие от предыдущих конструкций Walther, в которых для этих целей использовался поршень. Запирание канала ствола производится поворотом затвора, в передней части которого находятся боевые упоры.
Флажковый переводчик режимов стрельбы выведен на обе стороны ствольной коробки. Прицельное приспособление смонтировано на высоком основании из-за использования «линейной» схемы (приклад и подвижные части автоматики находятся на одной оси со стволом) и состоит из мушки с намушником и секторного прицела.
Приклад деревянный. При изготовлении автомата широко использовалась штамповка.
Го в скайпы , а то мне скучно
[email: sage] >>80817260
Видеосвязь есть, дитё?
Тян создает тред? И еще внимание блядский...Уууу чмо убери это говно!
[email: sage] >>80817260
Я тебе что, персональный клоун?
Аммосов, Максим Кирович — советскай государственнай уонна партийнай деятель, Сибииргэ Сэбиэскэй былаа?ы олохтуур и?ин охсу?уу кыттыылаа?а. М. К. Аммосов П. А. Ойуунускайдыын уонна И. Н. Бараховтыын, 1922 с. муус устарыгар Саха АССР тэрийсибит ки?инэн буолар. Ахсынньы 10 (22) к?н?гэр 1897 с. Нам улуу?ун Хатырык на?илиэгэр Анастасия Леонтьевна уонна Кир Васильевич Аммосовтар дьиэ кэргэннэригэр т?р??б?т. Дьоно быстар дьада?ы буолан 4 саа?ыттан таайыгар (убайыгар, аба?атыгар?) Д. М. Аммосовка иитиллибит. Дьокуускайдаа?ы куорат училищетын, Дьокуускайдаа?ы учуутал семинариятын, Москватаа?ы Институт Красной профессуры б?тэрбитэ.
Какая алгебра? Ну и что дальше?
За это тебя нужно растлить.
[email: sage] >>80817328
Сколько в тебе роста?
The Canadian Citizenship Test is a test, administered by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC), that is required for all applicants for Canadian citizenship who are aged between 18 and 54 and who meet the basic requirements for citizenship. The test is available in both French and English, the official languages of Canada.
1 The test
1.1 Content of the test
2 Failure rate
3 After passing
4 After failing
5 See also
7 External links
The test lasts for 30 minutes and contains 20 multiple choice questions. Applicants for citizenship must answer at least 15 questions correctly in order to pass the test.
Content of the test
The test contains questions drawn from a pool of around 200, and is based on the content of the official guide "Discover Canada (The Rights and Responsibilities of Citizenship)". The test asks questions on the following subject matters:
Rights and responsibilities of a Canadian citizen - (e.g. "Name three legal rights protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.")
Canadian history - (e.g. "Who were the United Empire Loyalists?")
Canadian political systems - (e.g. "How are members of Parliament chosen?")
Canadian physical and political geography - (e.g. "Where are the Parliament buildings located?")
Specific questions about the applicant's region - (e.g. "What is the name of the premier of your province or territory?")
Canadian values, such as democracy, gender equality, and human rights, are much more emphasized in this new edition. Canada's native roots and population are also much better portrayed.
The test also assesses language abilities. In order to pass the test, the applicant must understand simple statements and questions and communicate simple information to CIC staff in either French or English.
On March 15 2010, a new and more thorough test was introduced. This test is based on a longer 63-page guide called Discover Canada. This gives immigrants a richer picture on Canada's history, culture, law and politics. At the same time, immigrants are required to memorize more facts for the test.
The failure rate on the citizenship test has been low until recently; in 2008, approximately 4% of the 145,000 test takers failed.
However, the failure rate for the new citizenship test is much higher. When it was first introduced on March 15, 2010, the failure rate rose to 30%. Later on, a reworked version of the test introduced on October 14, 2010 brought the national failure rate down to around 20%, but the rate was still significantly higher than that of the old test.
When the applicant meets the standard of 15 correct answers and the citizenship judge deems that the applicant meets all requirements for citizenship, the applicant will either be invited to attend a citizenship ceremony within six months or receive a residency questionnaire requesting further evidence of living in Canada.
If the English or French language requirement is in doubt for the applicant then a hearing with a Citizenship judge is scheduled.
The applicant is required to swear or affirm an oath and will be presented with a Citizenship Certificate.
Should the applicant fail to meet the standard, he or she will be scheduled for a second time to take the multiple-choice written test. Should they again be unsuccessful they will be required to have an 15 to 20 minute interview with a citizenship judge. The judge will ask the applicant 20 questions that may be multiple choice, true or false or question and answer. The judge will assess whether or not the applicant has correctly answered 15 questions and demonstrated the necessary knowledge to be granted citizenship. In 2008, approximately 20% of the interviewees were refused citizenship.
[email: sage] >>80817460
[email: sage] >>80817499
Вот весь и иди нахуй.
Оп, тебя случайно не Ксенией зовут? Только честно
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2013)
Sir Howard George Frank, 1st Baronet GBE KCB (1871–10 January 1932) was an English estate agent and public servant.
Frank was born in Blackhurst, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. He was educated at Marlborough College and then entered the estate agency profession, in which he remained all his life, eventually becoming recognised as the "head" of the profession in Britain. He was head of the firms of Knight, Frank & Rutley of London and Walton & Lee of Edinburgh and was president of the Estate Agents' Institute from 1912 to 1914.
In 1916 he was appointed honorary adviser to the Ministry of Munitions on land valuation. The following year he became Director-General of Lands to the War Office and Air Ministry as well as the Ministry of Munitions, holding the post until 1922. After the First World War he also served as deputy chairman and then chairman of the Disposals Board, which was charged with disposing of surplus war materiel. He served on a number of public committees and Royal Commissions in the 1920s and 1930s.
Frank was knighted in 1914 and created a baronet in the 1920 Birthday Honours for his wartime services. He was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) in the 1924 Birthday Honours.
He died suddenly of a heart attack after dinner at his home in Cheyne Walk, London. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eight-year-old son, also called Howard (born 5 April 1923). Later that year, his widow Nancy Muriel (n?e Brooks) married Wing Commander (later Air Marshal Sir) Arthur Coningham. Lieutenant Sir Howard Frank was killed in action while serving with the Grenadier Guards on 10 September 1944 at the age of 21, and was succeeded by his younger brother, Robert (born 16 March 1925)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Kristin Lavransdatter (The Wreath, Wife, the Cross)
Covers of Penguin edition
Original title\tKristin Lavransdatter (Kransen, Husfrue, Korset)
Translator\tCharles Archer (first edition), Tiina Nunnally
Cover artist\tMatthew Joseph Peak
1920, 1921, 1922
Followed by\tThe Master of Hestviken
Kristin Lavransdatter is a trilogy of historical novels written by Nobel laureate Sigrid Undset. The individual novels are Kransen (The Wreath), first published in 1920, Husfrue (The Wife), published in 1921, and Korset (The Cross), published in 1922. Kransen and Husfrue were translated from the original Norwegian as The Bridal Wreath and The Mistress of Husaby, respectively, in the first English translation by Charles Archer and J. S. Scott.
This work formed the basis of Undset receiving the 1928 Nobel Prize in Literature, which was awarded to her "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages". Her work is much admired for its historical and ethnological accuracy.
1.1 The Wreath
1.2 The Wife
1.3 The Cross
1.4 Related Works
2 Characters in Kristin Lavransdatter
3 Literary significance and criticism
3.1 English translations
4 Portrayal of 14th century Norway
5 Awards and nominations
6 Film, TV or theatrical adaptations
7 Cultural impact
9 External links
The cycle follows the life of Kristin Lavransdatter, a fictitious Norwegian woman living in the 14th century. Kristin grows up in Sil in Gudbrandsdalen, the daughter of a well-respected and affluent farmer. She experiences a number of conflicts in her relationships with her parents, and her husband Erlend, in medieval Norway. She finds comfort and conciliation in her Catholic faith.
Kristin Lavransdatter is the daughter of Lavrans, a charismatic, respected nobleman in a rural area of Norway, and his wife Ragnfrid, who suffers from depression after the loss of three infant sons and the crippling of her younger daughter Ulvhild in an accident. Raised in a loving and devoutly religious family, Kristin develops a sensitive but willful character, defying her family in small and large ways. At an early age, she is exposed to various tragedies. After an attempted rape raises questions about her reputation, she is sent to Nonneseter Abbey, a Benedictine nunnery in Oslo, which proves to be a turning point in her life.
Despite being betrothed since childhood to a neighboring landowner's son, Simon Darre, Kristin falls in love with Erlend Nikulauss?n, from the estate of Husaby in Tr?ndelag. Erlend has been excommunicated by the Roman Catholic Church for openly cohabitating with Eline, the wife of a prominent judge; she left her elderly husband to live with him, flouting both religious and social law. They have had two children together, Orm and Margret, who have no legal rights since they were born of an adulterous relationship.
Erlend and Kristin begin a passionate romance which is sealed with Erlend's seduction of Kristin and their eventual complicity in Eline's death, both grievous sins in the eyes of Church and State. Lavrans forbids their relationship, but after three years of Kristin's defiance and the death of Ulvhild, he no longer has the strength to oppose Kristin. He consents to her marriage to Erlend. Erlend and Kristin are formally betrothed, but she becomes pregnant before the wedding. Out of shame, she keeps this a secret from everyone, including Erlend, and is wed with her hair loose and wearing the family bridal crown —- privileges reserved for virgin brides.
This section of the trilogy is named for the golden wreath Kristin wears as a young girl, which is reserved for virgins of noble family. It symbolizes her innocent life before she meets Erlend; after he seduces her, she is no longer entitled to wear it, but does so out of fear of her sin coming to light.
The second book opens with Kristin's arrival at Husaby. She is suffering from remorse for her sins and fears for her unborn child. Her relationship with Erlend is no longer the careless one of days past, as she can see that he is impetuous and wasteful of his possessions although his passion for her is unchanged. She gives birth to a son, Nikulaus (Naakkve for short), who to her surprise is healthy and whole in spite of the circumstances of his conception.
After confessing to her parish priest, Kristin undertakes a pilgrimage to St. Olav's shrine in Trondheim to do penance and give thanks for her son's birth. She donates her golden wreath, which she wore undeservedly after her seduction by Erlend, to the shrine.
Over the following years, Kristin and Erlend have six more sons together and Kristin becomes the head of the household. She must deal with her husband's weaknesses while running the estate, raising her children as well as those of Erlend's former mistress, and trying to remain faithful to her religion. During these years, her parents die and her remaining sister Ramborg is married to Simon Darre, although he secretly still loves Kristin. Ramborg is only fourteen when she is married, but has pushed for this wedding as she has loved Simon since her childhood. She understands little about what marriage means, particularly to a man who has been in love with someone else for many years.
Erlend, impulsive to the point of recklessness, runs foul of the political powers of his time and is imprisoned. Through the efforts of Kristin's former fianc?, Simon, his life is spared but his property must be forfeited to the crown. Husaby is lost to them. The only property left to the family is Kristin's childhood farm, J?rundg?rd.
Kristin, Erlend, and their children return to J?rundg?rd but fail to gain the acceptance of the community. Hardship forges strong family bonds and highlights Kristin's sense of obligations to her family and her faith. However, she and Erlend become estranged from Simon and Ramborg after Erlend and Ramborg become aware that Simon has never ceased to love Kristin.
Kristin becomes increasingly concerned about the future of her sons now that Erlend has lost their inheritance. After a fierce argument on this subject in which she compares him unfavorably with her father, who had preserved his estate and inheritance even as more and more farmers around him were taking on debts and losing their land to the crown. Erlend leaves the manor and settles at Haugen, the former home of his aunt Aashild and the place where she was murdered by her husband.
He and Kristin reunite there briefly during his absence after the dying Simon extracts a promise from Kristin to ask Erlend's forgiveness for her harsh words. They conceive an eighth son together, but Erlend refuses to return to the manor, instead insisting Kristin must move to Haugen to be with him. Kristin is very angry and hurt, and when she gives birth, she names her son Erlend. This is a terrible breach of custom, as local superstition maintains that children must not be named after living relatives or one of the two will die. In this way, she demonstrates that she considers her husband dead to her. The superstition is borne out, as the child weakens from the time he is given his father's name and soon dies.
Due to the jealousy of her foreman's estranged wife, Kristin is publicly accused of adultery and complicity in the death of her child. Her sons rally around her, and Lavrans rides to inform Erlend. Erlend immediately sets out for Jorundg?rd, but upon his return to the farm he is accidentally slain in a confrontation with the locals and dies, without a confession to the priest, in Kristin's arms after asserting her innocence.
After handing the farm over to her third son and his wife, Kristin returns to Trondheim, where she is accepted as a lay member of Rein Abbey. When the Black Death arrives in Norway in 1349, Kristin dedicates herself to nursing the ill after she learns that her two eldest sons have succumbed to the plague. Shortly afterwards she herself succumbs to the plague, but not before performing a final good deed which allows her to die in peace.
Undset wrote a tetralogy, "The Master of Hestviken", which takes place around the same time as Kristin Lavransdatter. Kristin's parents make a brief appearance in this book, near the end of the part called "The Snake Pit". They are depicted as young married people, playing with their baby son. They are a happy and prosperous couple at their first home in Skog, before Kristin's birth. The unfortunate life of Olav, the main character of "The Master of Hestviken", stands in stark contrast to the happiness and good fortune of the young couple, though Kristin's parents eventually lose all their sons in infancy, and suffer many other misfortunes and sorrows.
Characters in Kristin Lavransdatter
Fictional characters in Sigrid Undset's Kristin Lavransdatter
Kings of Norway and historical characters in Sigrid Undset's Kristin Lavransdatter
Kristin Lavransdatter, the protagonist
Lavrans Bj?rgulfsson, her father (also referred to as Lavrans Langmandsson)
Ragnfrid Ivarsdatter, Kristin's mother
Simon Darre (also called Simon Andresson), initially engaged to Kristin, later her brother-in-law
Erlend Nikulausson, the reckless and handsome man who seduces and marries Kristin
Ulvhild Lavransdatter, Kristin's younger sister, left chronically ill and unable to walk after an accident
Ramborg Lavransdatter, Kristin's youngest sister, eventual wife of Simon Darre
?ashild Gautesdatter of Dovre, a wise woman skilled in magic and the healing arts whom Kristin befriends. She is Erlend's aunt; formerly married unhappily to his uncle Baard Munanson, she is suspected by some of Baard's murder by poison.
Ingeb?rg Olavsdotter, a novice in nonneseter with Kristin, becomes somewhat of a friend
Arne Gyrdson, Kristin's childhood friend and foster-brother
Sira Eirik, parish priest at Kristin's childhood home in J?rundgaard
Bentein Priestson, grandson of Sira Eirik, who murders Arne
Gunnulf Nikulausson, Erlend's brother, a priest
Lady Gunna, Kristin's neighbor and midwife
Sira Eiliv, parish priest at Husaby, Erlend's home
Eline Ormsdatter, Erlend's mistress in his youth
Orm, son of Erlend and Eline and stepson of Kristin
Margret, daughter of Erlend and Eline, and stepdaughter of Kristin
Sunniva Olavsdatter, wife of Thorolf; her brief affair with Erlend has tragic consequences
Brynhild Fluga (also called Brynhild Jonsdatter), owner of a brothel in Oslo and mother of two of Munan Baardson's children
Naakve, Bj?rgulf, Gaute, Ivar, Skule, Lavrans, Munan, and Erlend, sons of Kristin and Erlend (Ivar and Skule are twins).
Undset also wrote a few historical figures into the novel:
King Magnus VII (also called Magnus Eiriksson), King of Norway and Sweden 1319–1343
Lady Ingeb?rg Haakonsdatter, mother of King Magnus
Knud Porse, Lady Ingeb?rg's second husband
Erling Vidkunsson, "Drotsete" (Regent or High Steward) of Norway 1322–1330 under King Magnus. In the story, he is related to Erlend and Lady Halfrid, and is a lifelong friend of Erlend.
Munan Baardson, friend of Lady Ingeb?rg and Knut Porse. In the story he is the son of ?shild and cousin to Erlend.
Jon and Sigurd Haftorsson, King Magnus's cousins who plotted to overthrow him
Paal Baardson, Chancellor of Norway 1330, an old antagonist of Erling Vidkunss?n.
Literary significance and criticism
Kristin Lavransdatter was notable and to some extent controversial in its time, for its explicit characterization of sex in general and female sexuality in particular; and its treatment of morally ambiguous situations.
It was the main basis for Undset being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Kristin Lavransdatter was originally translated into English by Charles Archer and J.S. Scott in the 1920s. The choice of archaic and stilted English phrasing ("thee", "I trow", "methinks" etc.), intended to reflect the 14th-century setting of the novel is considered by critics today to cloud Undset's clear prose, rendering it unnecessarily formal and clumsy. In some instances, Archer's choices are deliberate reflections on the original language (for example 'I trow' adopted from the Norwegian 'tror' meaning "to believe"). With this in mind, some may find the translation genuine, rather than needlessly archaic. It was also criticized for bowdlerizations, as some scenes, particularly sexually explicit ones, had been omitted or edited. The quality and difficulty of the translation therefore impeded the adoption of Kristin Lavransdatter into standard literature of the English-speaking world.
A new and complete translation by Tiina Nunnally was released by Penguin Classics in 2005, and is considered by many critics to be the superior of the two, particularly for its clarity, reflective of Undset's "straightforward, almost plain style." For her translation of the third book, Korset (The Cross), Nunnally was awarded the PEN/Book-of-the-Month Club Translation Prize in 2001.
Portrayal of 14th century Norway
Undset's characterizations of the ethnology, geography history of 14th century Norway have held up as archeological and literary evidence has emerged since its writing. Much of the meticulous accuracy of the portrayals of medieval life derives from Undset's own familiarity with Norse medieval literature and culture (her father, Ingvald Martin Undset, was an archaeologist) and her personal devout Catholicism. The staunch realism of Kristin Lavransdatter stands in contrast to the romanticized presentations of the Middle Ages popularized by Pre-Raphaelites and Arthurian myth.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tommy Hays (born Thomas Avery Hays in Hartshorne, Oklahoma, in 1929) is a guitarist, band leader and vocalist; and is one of the last living members of the great musicians who created The Bakersfield Sound.
He started playing the guitar in church when he was 10 years old. He performed on the Billy Mize TV Show, Cousin Herb Show, was a member of the house band for the Lucky Spot and the Blackboard and had his own radio show on KMPC. Tommy played on stage with many of the old timers who were part of creating the Bakersfield Sound. Tommy was in the band that gave Buck Owens his first gig, with Dusty Rhodes, at a bar called the Roundup.
Tommy has been playing in the honky-tonks in and around Bakersfield for over fifty years. Recognized as one of the original “Bakersfield Sound” pioneers, he has helped forge this unique and definitive sound. Driven by the piano, steel and Telecaster guitar, the Bakersfield Sound was a reaction to the early ‘50s and ‘60s sweetening of country music epitomized by the Nashville Sound.
Along with the Western Swingsters, he released the CD 60 Years of Western Swing in 2006.
Tommy was inducted into the Western Swing Society Hall of Fame in 2010.
He currently resides in Bakersfield, California, and still plays locally.
60 Years of Western Swing (2006)
Jump up ^ Bakersfield Observed Remembering the old Blackboard bar
Jump up ^ Legacy.com Johnny Barnett Obituary
Jump up ^ Book excerpt page 209 Workin' Man Blues: Country Music in California By Gerald W. Haslam
Jump up ^ VisitBakersfield.com History of the Bakersfield Sound
Jump up ^ Western Swing Society Listing of Western Swing Society Hall of Fame Inductees
Jump up ^ That Bakersfield Sound Bakersfield Sound article
Bruce C. Heezen
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Bruce Charles Heezen
Tharp & Heezen.jpg
Marie Tharp and Bruce Heezen
Born\tApril 11, 1924
Died\tJune 21, 1977 (aged 53)
Institutions\tLamont-Doherty Earth Observatory
Alma mater\tUniversity of Iowa
Known for\tSeafloor topography
Notable awards\tCullum Geographical Medal (1973)
Bruce Charles Heezen (HAY-zen) (April 11, 1924 – June 21, 1977) was an American geologist. He worked with oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp at Columbia University to map the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the 1950s.
Heezen was born in Vinton, Iowa. An only child, he moved at age six with his parents to Muscatine, Iowa, where he graduated from high school in 1942. He received his B.A. from the University of Iowa in 1947. He received his M.A. in 1952 and a Ph.D in 1957 from Columbia University.
Heezen collaborated extensively with cartographer Marie Tharp. He interpreted their joint work on the Mid-Atlantic ridge as supporting S. Warren Carey's Expanding Earth Theory, developed in the 1950s, but under Marie Tharp's influence "eventually gave up the idea of an expanding earth for a form of continental drift in the mid-1960s."
Heezen died in 1977 during a research cruise to study the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near Iceland aboard the NR-1 submarine.
The Oceanographic Survey Ship USNS Bruce C. Heezen was christened in honor of him in 1999.
Jump up ^ "Bruce C. Heezen". Physics Today 30 (11): 77. November 1977. doi:10.1063/1.3037805.
Jump up ^ Oreskes, Naomi, 2003, Plate Tectonics: An Insider's History Of The Modern Theory Of The Earth, Westview Press, p. 23, ISBN 0813341329
Jump up ^ Frankel, Henry, The Continental Drift Debate, Ch. 7 in Scientific controversies, p. 226, 1987, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-27560-6
Jump up ^ "Marie Tharp Bio". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
Jump up ^ "Navy's Newest Ocean Survey Ship Will Offer Public Tours August 3 for Lamont Community August 4 & 5 at Intrepid Pier". The Earth Institute. 2000-07-14. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lymphadenectomy or lymph node dissection is the surgical removal of one or more groups of lymph nodes. It is almost always performed as part of the surgical management of cancer. In a regional lymph node dissection, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed; in a radical lymph node dissection, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed.
1.1 With sentinel node biopsy
4 External links
It is usually done because many types of cancer have a marked tendency to produce lymph node metastasis early in their natural history. This is particularly true of melanoma, head and neck cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Famed British surgeon Berkeley Moynihan once remarked that "the surgery of cancer is not the surgery of organs; it is the surgery of the lymphatic system".
The better-known examples of lymphadenectomy are axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer; radical neck dissection for head and neck cancer and thyroid cancer; D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer; and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.
With sentinel node biopsy
For clinical stages I and II breast cancer, axillary lymph node dissection should only be performed after first attempting sentinel node biopsy. Sentinel node biopsy can establish cancer staging of the axilla if there are positive lymph nodes present. It also is less risky than performing lymphadenectomy, having fewer side effects and a much lower chance of causing lymphedema. If cancer is not present in sentinel lymph nodes then the axillary lymph node dissection should not be performed.
If one or two sentinel nodes have cancer which is not extensive, then no axillary dissection should be performed but the person with cancer should have breast-conserving surgery and chemotherapy appropriate for their stage of cancer.
More recently, the concept of sentinel lymph node mapping has been popularized by Donald Morton and others. Cancer with various primary sites (breast, melanoma, colorectal, etc.) often metastasize early to the first drainage lymphatic basin. This process is predictable anatomically according to the primary site in the organ and the lymphatic channels. The first nodes (sentinel nodes) can be identified by particulate markers such as lymphazurin, methylene blue, India ink and radio-labelled colloid protein particles injected near the tumor site. The draining sentinel node can then be found by the surgeon and excised for verification by the pathologist if tumor cells are present, and often these tumor cells are few and only easily recognized by careful examination or by using techniques such as special stains, i.e. immunohistochemical. When the sentinel node is free of tumor cells, this is highly predictive of freedom from metastasis in the entire lymphatic basin, thus leading to futility of a full node dissection.
The practice of sentinel lymph node mapping has changed the surgical approach in many cancer systems, sparing a formal lymph node dissection for patients with sentinel lymph node negative for tumor and directing a full node dissection for patients with sentinel lymph node positive for tumor metastases. For example in stage II breast carcinoma, using the sentinel lymph node technique, 65% of patients could be spared from a formal node dissection.
Lymphedema may result from lymphadenectomy. Extensive resection of lymphatic tissue can lead to the formation of a lymphocele.
Jump up ^ Wagman LD. "Principles of Surgical Oncology" in Pazdur R, Wagman LD, Camphausen KA, Hoskins WJ (Eds) Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 11 ed. 2008.
Jump up ^ "Lymph node dissection". NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
Jump up ^ "Lymphadenectomy". NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
Jump up ^ "Radical lymph node dissection". NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
^ Jump up to: a b c d e American College of Surgeons (September 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (American College of Surgeons), retrieved 2 January 2013, which cites various primary research studies.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Born\t21 June 1988 (age 26)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Height\t180 cm (5 ft 11 in)
Weight\t89 kg (14 st 0 lb)
As of 29 June 2011
Source: RLP RLP
Sam Latu (previously Sam Huihahau) (born 21 June 1988 in Sydney, New South Wales) is a Tongan professional rugby league player for the Wests Tigers in the National Rugby League competition. His position of choice is at wing.
Latu played junior football with the Mascot Jets. His first-grade debut was for the South Sydney Rabbitohs against the Cronulla Sharks at ANZ Stadium in round 5 of the 2008 NRL season. He spent 2009 with the Canberra Raiders without making an appearance.
In 2010, Latu joined the Wests Tigers. He made his club debut near the end of the season, but injured his knee in the match, and failed to make another appearance that year. His next appearance was in round 6 of 2011, covering for injuries to Beau Ryan and Lote Tuqiri.
Midway through the 2011 season, Latu was released by the Wests Tigers to join Sydney Roosters feeder club, Newtown
Latu was named in the Tonga training squad for the 2008 Rugby League World Cup.
Jump up ^ "Player Profiles - Sam Latu". NSWRL. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
Jump up ^ Josh Massoud and James Phelps (11 August 2010). "Bad break for tough Thurston". Daily Telegraph (Sydney). Retrieved 20 October 2010.
Jump up ^ "Live and kicking: Gold Coast Titans vs Wests Tigers". Brisbane Times. 15 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
Jump up ^ "Tug-of-war over Mason". Sky Sports. 2008-08-05. Retrieved 2008-08-06.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Part of Armenian Resistance
Date\tJune 2–30, 1915
Location\tCastle at ?ebinkarahisar
Result\tSuppression of the Resistance and massacre of the rest of the Armenians.
Casualties and losses
2 officers and 82 soldiers, 30 civilians
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire Armenian Question Hamidian masscres (1894–96) Ottoman Bank (1896) Y?ld?z (1905) Adana (1909) Young Turk Revolution (1908)
Congress at Erzurum Red Sunday Tehcir Law Labour Battalions
Centres: All the settlements
at Western Armenia Camps: Deir ez-Zor Ra's al-'Ayn Foreign aid and relief: ACRNE NARC
Zeitun Van Musa Dagh Urfa Shabin-Karahisar
Young Turks: Committee of Union and Progress Talaat Enver Djemal Behaeddin Shakir Special Organization Reshid Djevdet Topal Osman Kurdish Irregulars
Courts-Martial Malta Tribunals Soghomon Tehlirian
Armenian militia Operation Nemesis Recognition Denial Cultural portrayal Reparations Timeline Press coverage Witnesses and testimonies 100th anniversary
v t e
Shabin-Karahisar uprising (June 2–30, 1915) was a resistance effort by the Armenian militia of the Hunchaks of the Giresun Province against Ottoman troops during the Armenian Genocide. They had resisted the Ottoman onslaught for a duration of a month. The Armenians had positioned themselves in a fort right outside the town where about 250 men fought off Turkish soldiers.
News of the massacres in other regions of Western Armenia made the people of Shabin-Karahisar think that their "turn" was coming soon. In April, 1915, hundreds of young men were suddenly imprisoned. In June, 1915, the region's Armenian religious leader was executed. Then, 200 Armenian merchants were killed as a part of a systematic campaign of genocide by the Ottoman authorities.
The able-bodied Armenians of Shabin-Karahisar thus decided to confront the Ottomans. They started by burning their own homes and fortified themselves in a nearby castle. Many Ottoman soldiers fell those days. After weeks of confrontation, the Armenian militia had no ammunition left. They decided to come out from the castle and fight with their own bare hands. Now, there were only women, children, and elderly in the city, who were all massacred following the resistance's suppression.
Shabin Karahisar`(?ebinkarahisar) was the birthplace of Andranik Ozanian a well-known Armenian fedayee.
The resistance at Shabin Karahisar was chronicled by Aram Haigaz, who survived the siege and subsequent deportation, in his book The Fall of the Airie. The book is an oft cited eyewitness account of the events.
Jump up ^ Richard G. Hovannisian, The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics, Palgrave Macmillan, 1992, ISBN 978-0-312-04847-1, p. 289.
^ Jump up to: a b Simon Payaslian, "The Armenian Resistance at Shabin-Karahisar in 1915" 5th International conferences on Historic Armenian Cities and Provinces
Jump up ^ Richard G. Hovannisian, Armenian Sebastia/Sivas and Lesser Armenia, Mazda Publishers, 2004, ISBN 978-1-56859-152-0, p. 399.
Jump up ^ Balakian, Peter. The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. p. 210.
Jump up ^ Translated from the Armenian: Mihran Kurdoghlian, Badmoutioun Hayots, C. hador [Armenian History, volume III], Athens, Greece, 1996, pg. 93.
Logan Township, New Jersey
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Logan Township, New Jersey
Township of Logan
Logan Township highlighted in Gloucester County. Inset map: Gloucester County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Logan Township highlighted in Gloucester County. Inset map: Gloucester County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Logan Township, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Logan Township, New Jersey
Coordinates: 39.792079°N 75.355179°WCoordinates: 39.792079°N 75.355179°W
Country\t United States of America
State\t New Jersey
Incorporated\tMarch 7, 1877 as West Woolwich Township
Renamed\tMarch 6, 1878 as Logan Township
Named for\tJohn Alexander "Black Jack" Logan
• Type\tFaulkner Act (Small Municipality)
• Mayor\tFrank W. Minor (term ends December 31, 2015)
• Administrator\tLyman Barnes
• Clerk\tLinda Oswald
• Total\t26.929 sq mi (69.747 km2)
• Land\t21.925 sq mi (56.786 km2)
• Water\t5.004 sq mi (12.961 km2) 18.58%
Area rank\t99th of 566 in state
3rd of 24 in county
Elevation\t3 ft (0.9 m)
Population (2010 Census)
• Estimate (2013)\t6,013
• Rank\t344th of 566 in state
15th of 24 in county
• Density\t275.6/sq mi (106.4/km2)
• Density rank\t485th of 566 in state
22nd of 24 in county
Time zone\tEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
• Summer (DST)\tEastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP code\t08085 - Swedesboro
Area code(s)\t856 exchanges: 241, 467
GNIS feature ID\t0882143
Logan Township is a township in Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 6,042, reflecting an increase of 10 (+0.2%) from the 6,032 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 885 (+17.2%) from the 5,147 counted in the 1990 Census.
Beckett (with a 2010 Census population of 4,847) is a census-designated place (CDP) and unincorporated community located within Logan Township. Other communities within the township are Bridgeport, Center Square, Nortonville, and Repaupo. It is also home to Pureland Industrial Complex, a 3,000-acre (12 km2) industrial park that is one of the largest in the nation.
Logan Township was originally formed as West Woolwich Township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 7, 1877, from portions of Woolwich Township. That name lasted just less than a year, as the name was changed to Logan Township as of March 6, 1878.
The community's name comes from John Alexander "Black Jack" Logan, a Union Army General and founder of Memorial Day.
2.1 Census 2010
2.2 Census 2000
3.1 Local government
3.2 Federal, state and county representation
6.1 Roads and highways
6.2 Public transportation
9 External links
Logan Township is located at 39°47?31?N 75°21?19?W (39.792079,-75.355179). According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 26.929 square miles (69.747 km2), of which, 21.925 square miles (56.786 km2) of it was land and 5.004 square miles (12.961 km2) of it (18.58%) was water.
The township borders Greenwich Township and Woolwich Township. Logan Township also borders the Delaware River, and Oldmans Creek serves as its border with Oldmans Township in Salem County. Raccoon Creek branches off from the Delaware River in Logan Township.
Population sources: 1880-2000
1930-1990 2000 2010
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,042 people, 2,087 households, and 1,634 families residing in the township. The population density was 275.6 per square mile (106.4/km2). There were 2,172 housing units at an average density of 99.1 per square mile (38.3/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 81.53% (4,926) White, 12.50% (755) Black or African American, 0.15% (9) Native American, 2.55% (154) Asian, 0.02% (1) Pacific Islander, 1.13% (68) from other races, and 2.14% (129) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 3.97% (240) of the population.
There were 2,087 households, of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.6% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.7% were non-families. 17.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 4.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.29.
In the township, 27.1% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 30.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.8 years. For every 100 females there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $87,209 (with a margin of error of +/- $6,583) and the median family income was $100,688 (+/- $14,321). Males had a median income of $67,192 (+/- $7,690) versus $49,914 (+/- $4,283) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $35,587 (+/- $2,882). About 1.6% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 0.0% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 6,032 people, 2,001 households, and 1,610 families residing in the township. The population density was 266.7 people per square mile (103.0/km?). There were 2,077 housing units at an average density of 91.8 per square mile (35.5/km?). The racial makeup of the township was 82.00% White, 13.51% African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.77% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.21% from other races, and 1.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.74% of the population.
There were 2,001 households out of which 48.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.3% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.5% were non-families. 15.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.38.
In the township the population was spread out with 32.1% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 35.4% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 6.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $67,148, and the median income for a family was $70,771. Males had a median income of $48,415 versus $34,864 for females. The per capita income for the township was $26,853. About 3.0% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 1.0% of those age 65 or over.
Logan Township is governed within the Faulkner Act under the Small Municipality (Plan 3) form of New Jersey municipal government, enacted by direct petition as of January 1, 1984. The government consists of a Mayor and a Township Council comprising four council members, with all positions elected at large in partisan elections. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Township Council members are elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with either one or two seats up for election each year.
This five-member governing body is empowered to enact local ordinances, to levy municipal taxes and conduct the affairs of our community. In almost all cases, it can review and approve the actions of other Township of Logan, committees and agencies. The Mayor and Borough Council conducts all of its business during monthly meetings open to the public. All Legislative powers of the Township are exercised by the Mayor and Council. These powers can take the form of a resolution, ordinance or proclamation.
As of 2013, members of the Logan Township Committee are Mayor Frank Minor (term ends December 31, 2015), Deputy Mayor Doris Hall (2013), Stephen Dougherty (2013), Bernadine Jackson (2015) and Chris Morris (2014).
Mayor Minor is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Coalition is co-chaired by Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg.
Federal, state and county representation
Logan Township is located in the 1st Congressional District and is part of New Jersey's 3rd state legislative district.
The seat for New Jersey's First Congressional District is currently vacant, having formerly been represented by Rob Andrews (D, Haddon Heights), who resigned on February 18, 2014. New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).
The 3rd Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Stephen M. Sweeney (D, West Deptford Township) and in the General Assembly by John J. Burzichelli (D, Paulsboro) and Celeste Riley (D, Bridgeton). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Gloucester County is governed by a Board of Chosen Freeholders, whose seven members are elected at-large to three-year terms of office on a staggered basis in partisan elections, with two or three seats coming up for election each year. At a reorganization meeting held each January, the Board selects a Freeholder Director and a Deputy Freeholder Director from among its members. As of 2014, Gloucester County's Freeholders are Freeholder Director Robert M. Damminger (D, West Deptford Township; term ends December 31, 2015), Deputy Freeholder Director Giuseppe "Joe" Chila (D, Woolwich Township; 2015), Lyman J. Barnes (D, Logan Township; 2014), Daniel Christy (D, Washington Township; 2016), Frank J. DiMarco (D, Deptford Township; 2016), Heather Simmons (D, Glassboro; 2014) and Adam Taliaferro (D, Woolwich Township; 2014). Constitutional officers elected countywide are County Clerk James N. Hogan, Surrogate Helene M. Reed (Monroe Township) and Sheriff Carmel Morina (Greenwich Township).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 4,029 registered voters in Logan Township, of which 1,652 (41.0%) were registered as Democrats, 695 (17.2%) were registered as Republicans and 1,678 (41.6%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were four voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 59.3% of the vote here (1,868 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 38.7% (1,219 votes) and other candidates with 1.4% (43 votes), among the 3,151 ballots cast by the township's 4,142 registered voters, for a turnout of 76.1%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 54.2% of the vote here (1,600 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 44.4% (1,311 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (28 votes), among the 2,952 ballots cast by the township's 3,820 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 77.3.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 49.8% of the vote here (939 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 39.5% (745 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 8.6% (162 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (13 votes), among the 1,886 ballots cast by the township's 4,103 registered voters, yielding a 46.0% turnout.
The Logan Township School District serves public school students in Kindergarten through twelfth grade. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Center Square School on Peachwood Drive (grades PreK - 1; 2121 students) and Logan Township Elementary School located on School Lane (grades 2-8; 647 students).
For seventh through twelfth grades, public school students are educated by the Kingsway Regional School District. The district serves students from East Greenwich Township, South Harrison Township, Swedesboro and Woolwich Township, with the addition of students from Logan Township who attend as part of a sending/receiving relationship in which tuition is paid on a per-pupil basis for students by the Logan Township School District. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Kingsway Regional Middle School (739 students in grades 7 and 8) and Kingsway Regional High School (1,491; 9-12). Under a 2011 proposal, Kingsway would merge with its member districts to become a full K-12 district, with various options for including Logan Township as part of the consolidated district.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Square and Saint Martin church
The Square and Saint Martin church
Coat of arms of Amfreville
Coat of arms
Amfreville is located in France AmfrevilleAmfreville
Location within Lower Normandy region [show]
Coordinates: 49°14?54?N 0°14?06?WCoordinates: 49°14?54?N 0°14?06?W
• Mayor (2008–2020)\tXavier Madelaine
Area1\t6.06 km2 (2.34 sq mi)
• Density\t200/km2 (510/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code\t14009 / 14860
Elevation\t0–57 m (0–187 ft)
(avg. 50 m or 160 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km? (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Amfreville is a French commune in the Calvados department in the Basse-Normandie region of north-western France.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Amfrevillais or Amfrevillaises
1.1 Neighbouring communes and villages
5 Sites and monuments
6 See also
6.2 External links
7 Notes and references
Amfreville is located some 25 km north-west of Caen and 1 km south-east of Ouistreham mostly on the right bank of the Orne with a small portion on the left bank. It can be accessed by the D514 from Sallenelles in the north passing through the west of the commune then continuing south then west to B?nouville. Access to the village is by the D37B from Breville-les-Monts in the south-east and continuing though the village north to Sallenelles. There is also the D236 going east from the village to Bavent. There are several hamlets apart from the village: Hameau Oger and Hameau La Rue form a continuous urban area with the main village and the hamlets of La Basse Ecarde and La Haute Ecarde are to the west. The rest of the commune and the entire left bank of the Orne portion are farmland.
The Orne river separates the two parts of the commune with no direct access across the river - the nearest crossing is on the D514 to the south of the commune. A stream forms the northern border of the commune flowing into the Orne.
Neighbouring communes and villages
\t Amfreville \t
Commandos and 9th Battalion in Amfreville, June 1944
Because of its geographical position close to the coast of the Normandy landings, Amfreville was liberated on 6 June 1944.
Arms of Amfreville
Party per pale, first Azure a soldier of Or suspended from a parachute argent all surmounted by a dove the same, in chief gules charged with two lions passant guardant one over the other; second of Vert with a garb of Or, in chief Azure with two fesse wavy in argent debruised by a barque contourned of Gules sailed the same.
The Town Hall
List of Successive Mayors
1989\t2020\tXavier Madelaine\tPS\tSNCF Officer
(Not all data is known)
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
Amfreville has twinning associations with:
Germany Hillerse (Germany) since 1999.
Belgium Brunehaut (Belgium) since 2005.
United Kingdom Dolton (United Kingdom) since 1981.
In 2009 the commune had 1,188 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.[Note 1]
Evolution of the Population (See database)
Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 (population without double counting and municipal population from 2006)
Population of Amfreville
Sites and monuments
The right bank of the Orne
Le Plain is a place with a tree plantation, a church, and horses. It is registered as a site of ecological interest for flora and fauna
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dr Gary Hartstein, M.D. (born 1955 in Staten Island, United States), is Clinical Professor of Anesthesia and Emergency Medicine at University of Li?ge Hospital, Li?ge, Belgium and former FIA Medical Delegate for the Formula One World Championship.
After finishing his undergraduate study at the University of Rochester, Hartstein trained as a doctor in Belgium during the 1970s. In 1983 he returned to his native New York, spending six years at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, in the Bronx, specialising in anaesthesiology.
In 1989 Hartstein returned to Belgium and began working at Spa-Francorchamps as part of the local medical team attending races. In 1990 Hartstein was assigned to the medical car containing Professor Sid Watkins and the two doctors immediately formed a firm friendship.
Hartstein’s work at the Belgian Grand Prix continued until 1997 when the FIA, realising the need for an anaesthetist to assist Watkins, recruited him. For the next seven years Hartstein and Watkins rode together in the medical car at the start of most races.
In January 2005 Sid Watkins announced that he was to retire as Formula One Medical Delegate and Hartstein was selected as his successor.
Since that time, Hartstein has been key in developing some of the FIA's new approaches and policies in terms of medical safety. Dr Hartstein is chair of the FIA Institute's Medical Training Working Group, which aims to standardize training and practices of motorsport doctors, based on the most up-to-date trauma training techniques. He was also, with Prof Gerard Saillant, behind the creation of the "FIA Institute Faculty" (FIMF), which will seek to consolidate the expertise of motor sport doctors and medical staff around the world, on the model of professional associations.
In December 2012 Hartstein did not have his contract renewed as Formula One Medical Delegate. His successor was Chief Medical Officer of the British Grand Prix, Doctor Ian Roberts.
Hartstein lives in Liege year-round.
Jump up ^ "Eff One". GrandPrix.com. August 3, 2005. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
Jump up ^ FIA Institute - Working Groups - Safety Training Working Group
Jump up ^ http://www.f1sa.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=35829:f1--former-formula-1-chief-medic-gary-hartstein-vents-fury-at-fia-over-dismissal&catid=1:f1&Itemid=157
Jump up ^ http://www.fia.com/news/dr-roberts-new-fia-f1-medical-rescue-coordinator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a good article. Click here for more information.Page move-protected
Rahm Emanuel, official photo portrait color.jpg
55th Mayor of Chicago
May 16, 2011
Preceded by\tRichard M. Daley
23rd White House Chief of Staff
January 20, 2009 – October 1, 2010
Preceded by\tJoshua Bolten
Succeeded by\tPete Rouse
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Illinois's 5th district
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2009
Preceded by\tRod Blagojevich
Succeeded by\tMike Quigley
Chairman of the House Democratic Caucus
January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2009
Preceded by\tJim Clyburn
Succeeded by\tJohn Larson
Chairman of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by\tBob Matsui
Succeeded by\tChris Van Hollen
Senior Advisor to the President
January 20, 1993 – November 7, 1998
Preceded by\tHenson Moore
Succeeded by\tJoel Johnson
Born\tRahm Israel Emanuel
November 29, 1959 (age 55)
Spouse(s)\tAmy Merritt Rule (m. 1994)
Children\tZachariah (b. 1997)
Ilana (b. 1998)
Leah (b. 2000)
Alma mater\tSarah Lawrence College (B.A.)
Northwestern University (M.A.)
Religion\tModern Orthodox Judaism
Rahm Israel Emanuel (/'r?:m/; born November 29, 1959) is an American politician who serves as the 55th Mayor of Chicago. A member of the Democratic Party, Emanuel was elected in 2011, becoming Chicago's first Jewish mayor.
Born in Chicago, Emanuel is a graduate of Sarah Lawrence College and Northwestern University. Working early in his career in Democratic politics, Emanuel was appointed as director of the finance committee for Bill Clinton's 1992 presidential campaign. In 1993, he joined the Clinton administration, where he served as the Assistant to the President for Political Affairs and as the Senior Advisor to the President for Policy and Strategy before resigning in 1998. Beginning a career in finance, Emanuel worked at the investment bank Wasserstein Perella & Co. from 1998 to 2002 and served on the board of directors of Freddie Mac.
In 2002, Emanuel ran for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives vacated by Rod Blagojevich, who had resigned to run for Governor of Illinois. Emanuel won the first of three terms representing Illinois's 5th congressional district, a seat he held from 2003 to 2009. During his tenure in the House, Emanuel held two Democratic leadership positions, serving as the Chair of the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee from 2005 to 2007 and as the Chair of the House Democratic Caucus from 2007 to 2009. After the 2008 presidential election, President Barack Obama appointed Emanuel to serve as White House Chief of Staff.
In October 2010, Emanuel resigned as chief of staff to run as a candidate in Chicago's 2011 mayoral election. Because of questions over his eligibility to run for mayor, Emanuel's candidacy was initially rejected by the Illinois First District Appellate Court, though he was later found eligible to run in a unanimous decision by the Supreme Court of Illinois. Emanuel won with 55% of the vote over five other candidates in the nonpartisan mayoral election, succeeding 22-year incumbent Richard M. Daley.
1 Early life and family
2 Education and upbringing
3 Political staffer career
4 Career in finance
5 Congressional career
5.3 House leadership
5.4 Positions on political issues
6 Democratic Party leadership
6.1 Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee chairman
6.2 2008 Presidential election
7 White House Chief of Staff
8 Mayor of Chicago
8.3 Chicago Public Schools
9 Electoral history
10 Personal life
12 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Early life and family
Emanuel's grandfather was a Romanian Jew from Moldova. The surname Emanuel (??????), which means "God with us", was adopted by their family in honor of his father's brother Emanuel Auerbach, who was killed in 1933 in an altercation with Arabs in Jerusalem.
Emanuel's father, Benjamin M. Emanuel, is a Jerusalem-born pediatrician at Michael Reese Hospital who was once a member of the Irgun, a Jewish paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine. His mother, Marsha (n?e Smulevitz), is the daughter of a West Side Chicago union organizer who worked in the civil rights movement, and briefly owned a local rock and roll club and later became an adherent of Benjamin Spock's writings. Emanuel's parents met during the 1950s in Chicago. Emanuel was born on November 29, 1959 in Chicago, Illinois. His first name, Rahm (??) means high or lofty in Hebrew. He has been described by his older brother Ezekiel, an oncologist and bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania, as "quiet and observant" as a child. Ari, the youngest, is the CEO of William Morris Endeavor, a talent agency with headquarters in Beverly Hills, California; he also has a younger adopted sister, Shoshana.
Education and upbringing
While they lived in Chicago, Emanuel attended the Bernard Zell Anshe Emet Day School. After his family moved to Wilmette, north of the city, Emanuel attended public schools: Romona School, Locust Junior High School, and New Trier West High School. He and his brothers attended summer camp in Israel, including the summer following the June 1967 Six-Day War. Ezekiel has written that their father "did not believe in falsely building his sons' self-esteem by purposefully letting us win, or tolerating sloppy play." About Rahm, he also wrote,
Though fiercely intelligent ... he was not naturally inclined to sit at a desk and put in extra effort to turn a B into an A. As my father often said, without noting that the phrase applied to himself at that same age, "Rahm always tries to get the maximum for the minimum."
He further wrote that while their pacifist mother banned plastic squirt guns in the house, the brothers were "willing to throw punches". There were times when they "bullied one another, not to mention outsiders". The boys didn't feel any contradiction: "We were not pacifists. When we were at the beach or walking the streets, we were city kids, not anti-war activists." Ezekiel's college friend Andy Oram was taken aback by the behavior at the Emanuel home. He describes,
n the first five minutes at breakfast Rahm must have said "fuck" five times. Ari and [Ezekiel] punched the shit out of each other's shoulders, and their dad told this wild story—a long dirty joke, really—about two kids growing up in Israel who wanted another brother. I've never laughed so hard in my life....t was a really gross story, sexual and crazy, told in this very matter-of-fact way at the breakfast table with Zeke's mother and me, this guy they don't even know.
Rahm was encouraged by his mother to take ballet lessons and is a graduate of the Evanston School of Ballet, as well as a student of The Joel Hall Dance Center, where his children later took lessons. He won a scholarship to the Joffrey Ballet, but turned it down to attend Sarah Lawrence College, a liberal arts school with a strong dance program. While an undergraduate, Emanuel was elected to the Sarah Lawrence Student Senate. He graduated from Sarah Lawrence in 1981 with a Bachelor of Arts in Liberal Arts, and went on to receive an Master of Arts in Speech and Communication from Northwestern University in 1985.
Emanuel was a civilian volunteer assisting the Israel Defense Forces for a short time during the 1991 Gulf War, repairing truck brakes in one of Israel's northern bases with Sar-El.
While a high school student working part-time at an Arby's restaurant, Emanuel severely cut his right middle finger on a meat slicer, which was later infected from swimming in Lake Michigan. His finger was partially amputated due to the severity of the infection.
Political staffer career
Emanuel began his political career with the public interest and consumer rights organization Illinois Public Action. He went on to serve in a number of capacities in local and national politics, initially specializing in fundraising for Illinois campaigns, and then nationally.
Emanuel worked for Democrat Paul Simon's 1984 election to the U.S. Senate. He also worked as the national campaign director for the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee in 1988, and was senior advisor and chief fundraiser for Richard M. Daley's successful initial campaign for Mayor of Chicago in 1989.
At the start of then-Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton's presidential primary campaign, Emanuel was appointed to direct the campaign's finance committee. Emanuel insisted that Clinton schedule much time for fundraising and greatly delay campaigning in New Hampshire. Clinton embarked on an aggressive national fundraising campaign that allowed the campaign to keep buying television time as attacks on Clinton's character threatened to swamp the campaign during the New Hampshire primary. Clinton's primary rival, Paul Tsongas (the New Hampshire Democratic primary winner), later withdrew, citing a lack of campaign funds. Richard Mintz, a Washington public relations consultant who worked with Emanuel on the campaign, spoke about the soundness of the idea: "It was that [extra] million dollars that really allowed the campaign to withstand the storm we had to ride out in New Hampshire [over Clinton's relationship with Gennifer Flowers and the controversy over his draft status during the Vietnam War]." Emanuel's knowledge of the top donors in the country, and his rapport with "heavily Jewish" donors helped Clinton amass a then-unheard-of sum of $72 million. While working on the Clinton campaign Emanuel was a paid retainer of the investment bank Goldman Sachs.
Following the campaign, Emanuel became a senior advisor to Clinton at the White House from 1993 to 1998. In the White House, Emanuel was initially Assistant to the President for Political Affairs and then Senior Advisor to the President for Policy and Strategy. He was a leading strategist in White House efforts to institute NAFTA and universal health care, among other Clinton initiatives.
Emanuel is known for his "take-no-prisoners style" that has earned him the nickname "Rahmbo." Emanuel sent a dead fish in a box to a pollster who was late delivering polling results. On the night after the 1996 election, angry at Democrats and Republicans who "betrayed" them in the 1992 election, Emanuel stood up at a celebratory dinner with colleagues from the campaign and began plunging a stake into the table and began rattling off names while shouting "Dead! Dead! Dead!". Before Tony Blair gave a pro-Clinton speech during the impeachment crisis, Emanuel reportedly screamed at Blair "Don't fuck this up!" while Clinton was present. Blair and Clinton both burst into laughter. However, by 2007 friends of Emanuel were saying that he has "mellowed out". Stories of his personal style have entered the popular culture, inspiring articles and websites that chronicle these and other quotes and incidents. The character Josh Lyman in The West Wing was said to be based on Emanuel, though executive producer Lawrence O'Donnell denied this.
Career in finance
After serving as an advisor to Bill Clinton, in 1998 Emanuel resigned from his position in the Clinton administration and joined the investment banking firm Wasserstein Perella, where he worked until 2002. Although he did not have an MBA degree or prior banking experience, he became a managing director at the firm’s Chicago office in 1999, and according to Congressional disclosures, made $16.2 million in his two-and-a-half-years as a banker. At Wasserstein Perella, he worked on eight deals, including the acquisition by Commonwealth Edison of Peco Energy and the purchase by GTCR Golder Rauner of the SecurityLink home security unit from SBC Communications.
Emanuel was named to the Board of Directors of Freddie Mac by President Clinton in 2000. He earned at least $320,000 during his time there, including later stock sales. During Emanuel's time on the board, Freddie Mac was plagued with scandals involving campaign contributions and accounting irregularities. The Obama Administration rejected a request under the Freedom of Information Act to review Freddie Mac board minutes and correspondence during Emanuel's time as a director. The Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight later accused the board of having "failed in its duty to follow up on matters brought to its attention." Emanuel resigned from the board in 2001 before his first bid for Congress.
Rep. John Dingell and Rep. Emanuel celebrate Paczki Day, February 28, 2006.
In 2002 Emanuel pursued the U.S. House seat in the 5th District of Illinois previously held by Rod Blagojevich, who successfully ran for Governor of Illinois. His strongest opponent in the crowded primary of eight was former Illinois State Representative Nancy Kaszak. During the primary, Edward Moskal, president of the Polish American Congress, a political action committee endorsing Kaszak, called Emanuel a "millionaire carpetbagger." Emanuel won the primary and defeated Republican candidate Mark Augusti in the general election. Emanuel's inaugural election to the House was the closest he ever had, as he won over 70% of the vote in all of his re-election bids.
Mayor of Chicago
\tWikinews has related news: White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel steps down to run for Mayor of Chicago
See also: Chicago mayoral election, 2011
On September 30, 2010, it was announced that Emanuel would leave his post as White House Chief of Staff to run for Mayor of Chicago. He was replaced by Pete Rouse on October 2, 2010.
Emanuel's eligibility for office was challenged on the basis of his lack of residency in Chicago for one year prior to the election. The Board of Elections and the Cook County Circuit Court affirmed his eligibility. A divided Court of Appeals reversed the Circuit Court, holding on January 24, 2011, that residency for purposes of a candidate is different from residency for purposes of being a voter. A further appeal to the Illinois Supreme Court resulted in a unanimous decision reversing the Court of Appeals and affirming Emanuel's eligibility.
Emanuel's mayoral campaign was the inspiration for a satirical Twitter account, @MayorEmanuel, which received over 43,000 followers, more popular than Emanuel's actual Twitter account. Emanuel announced on February 28 that if the author would reveal himself, he would donate $5,000 to the charity of the author's choice. When Chicago journalist Dan Sinker revealed himself, Emanuel donated the money to Young Chicago Authors, a community organization which helps young people with writing and publishing skills.
Emanuel (left) at the 2012 Hyde Park Obama campaign office
Emanuel was elected on February 22, 2011 with 55% of the vote and was sworn in as the 55th Mayor of Chicago on May 16, 2011 at the Pritzker Pavilion. At his inauguration were outgoing Mayor Richard M. Daley, Vice President Joe Biden, Labor Secretary Hilda Solis, Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, and William M. Daley, brother of the outgoing mayor and who would later serve as White House Chief of Staff. Emanuel is Chicago's first Jewish mayor.
Emanuel assembled a transition team from varied backgrounds. On August 16, 2011, Emanuel unveiled "Healthy Chicago," the city’s first-ever public health blueprint with the Chicago Department of Public Health's Commissioner Bechara Choucair. Emanuel initiated the consolidation of City Council committees from 19 to 16 in a cost control effort. On November 16, the city council voted unanimously to adopt the mayor's first budget, which decreased the budget by $34 million and increased spending by $46.2 million, supported by increasing fees and fines. Despite most Aldermen opposing cuts to library workers and the closure of mental health clinics, they ultimately supported it, calling it "honest".
Emanuel (left) at the 2014 Chicago Public High School League quadruple overtime championship basketball game between Jahlil Okafor's Whitney Young and Cliff Alexander's Curie.
In November, Emanuel rejected Freedom of Information Act requests by The Chicago Tribune for various communication and information logs for himself and his staff, labelling it "unduly burdensome." After a second request by the Tribune, they were informed that 90 percent of the emails had been deleted by Emanuel and his top aides. As a result, Emanuel came under fire for going against his campaign promise to create "the most open, accountable, and transparent government that the City of Chicago has ever seen."
Controversy arose in 2011 over the tax-exempt status of Lollapalooza, an annual summer music festival in Grant Park. With Emanuel's brother Ari being the CEO of William Morris Endeavor, which co-owns the event, the Mayor asked the City Council to appoint an independent third party negotiator, to avoid having the negotiation seen as biased. Although the deal was reached before Emanuel took office, tax breaks must be negotiated every year. It was later revealed that the festival received its tax exemption for 2011 in the final days of the Daley administration. In 2012, Lollapalooza paid taxes for the first time in seven years and extended its contract to host in Grant Park through 2021.
In August 2012, a federal lawsuit was filed by eleven Chicago police officers alleging they were removed from the mayoral security detail and replaced with officers who worked on Emanuel's mayoral campaign, in violation of the 1983 Shakman Decree, which bars city officials from making political considerations in the hiring process.
On October 30, Emanuel voiced his support for the demolition of the abandoned Prentice Women's Hospital Building, in order for Northwestern University, which owns the property, to build a new facility. Preservationists supported historical landmark status. Days later, the Commission on Chicago Landmarks voted that the building met landmark status criteria then reversed their decision later in the same meeting. On November 15, a judge granted a temporary stay of the decision in order for a lawsuit filed by preservation coalitions against the landmark commission to be heard.
At a news conference in November 2012, Emanuel listed his top three priorities for the state legislature as security and pension reform, adding a casino to Chicago, and marriage equality. At a press conference with Illinois Governor Pat Quinn, who previously vetoed legislation to put a casino in Chicago, the two were "very close" to reaching a deal.
Chicago Public Schools
See also: Chicago Teachers Union § 2012 strike
\tWikimedia Commons has media related to 2012 Chicago teachers strike.
During the contract negotiations between the city the Chicago Teachers Union (CTU), compromise could not be reached over issues like health insurance increases, teacher evaluations, and seniority pay increases. On August 8, 2012, the CTU voted 90% to authorize a strike. On September 10, the CTU began a strike after CTU President Lewis declared that negotiations with the city were not succeeding. On September 14, the CTU reached a tentative agreement with the city which included preferences for teachers who have been laid off due to a school closing to be hired in another school and student test scores having less of a role in teacher evaluations than the city had originally planned. This tentative agreement did not hold, and the strike continued, after which Emanuel announced his intention to seek a legal injunction, forcing teachers back to work. On September 17, Emanuel's efforts to end the strike stalled as the walkout went into the second week. Delegates from the CTU voted to end the strike on September 18, 2012, and students began their return to the schools the following day.
On September 17, 2013, Emanuel's appointed Chicago Board of Education announced the closing of 50 Chicago public schools, 49 elementary schools and a high school – the largest school closure in Chicago history.
US House of Representatives
U.S. House, 5th District of Illinois (General Election)
2002\tRahm Emanuel\tDemocratic\t67%\tMark Augusti\tRepublican\t29%\tFrank Gonzalez\tLibertarian\t4%
2004\tRahm Emanuel (inc.)\tDemocratic\t76%\tBruce Best\tRepublican\t24%\t\t
2006\tRahm Emanuel (inc.)\tDemocratic\t78%\tKevin White\tRepublican\t22%\t\t\t
2008\tRahm Emanuel (inc.)\tDemocratic\t74%\tTom Hanson\tRepublican\t22%\tAlan Augustson\tGreen\t4%
Mayor of Chicago
Chicago Mayoral Election, 2011 (General Election)
Nonpartisan\tMiguel del Valle\t54,342\t9.28%
Nonpartisan\tCarol Moseley Braun\t52,483\t8.96%
Nonpartisan\tPatricia Van Pelt Watkins\t9,604\t1.64%
Nonpartisan\tWilliam "Dock" Walls III\t5,291\t0.90%
Emanuel and his wife, Amy Merritt Rule, have a son and two daughters and the family lives in the Ravenswood neighborhood on Chicago's north side. Rule converted to Judaism shortly before their wedding. Emanuel is a close friend of fellow Chicagoan David Axelrod, chief strategist for Obama's 2008 and 2012 presidential campaign, and Axelrod signed the ketuba, the Jewish marriage contract, at Emanuel's wedding. The Emanuels are members of the Chicago synagogue Anshe Sholom B'nai Israel. Rabbi Asher Lopatin of the congregation described Emanuel's family as "a very involved Jewish family," adding that "Amy was one of the teachers for a class for children during the High Holidays two years ago." Emanuel has said of his Judaism: "I am proud of my heritage and treasure the values it has taught me." Emanuel's children attend the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in the Hyde Park neighborhood on Chicago's south side.
Emanuel trains for and participates in triathlons. In 2011, he scored 9th out of 80 competitors in his age group. A passionate cyclist, he rides a custom-built, state-of-the-art Parlee road bike.
Emanuel, Rahm; Reed, Bruce (August 2006). The Plan: Big Ideas for America. New York: PublicAffairs Books of Perseus Books Group. ISBN 1-58648-412-5.
Emanuel, Rahm (May 10, 2011). "CHICAGO 2011 TRANSITION PLAN". Chicago 2011.
History of the Jews in Chicago
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